Distinguished Service Cross (United States)
The Distinguished Service Cross is the second highest military award that can be given to a member of the United States Army, for extreme gallantry and risk of life in actual combat with an armed enemy force. Actions that merit the Distinguished Service Cross must be of such a high degree that they are above those required for all other U. S. combat do not meet the criteria for the Medal of Honor. The Distinguished Service Cross is equivalent to the Navy Cross, the Air Force Cross, the Coast Guard Cross; the Distinguished Service Cross was first awarded during World War I. In addition, a number of awards were made for actions before World War I. In many cases, these were to soldiers who had received a Certificate of Merit for gallantry which, at the time, was the only other honor for gallantry the Army could award, or recommend a Medal of Honor. Others were belated recognition of actions in the Philippines, during the Boxer Rebellion and on the Mexican Border; the Distinguished Service Cross is distinct from the Distinguished Service Medal, awarded to persons in recognition of exceptionally meritorious service to the government of the United States in a duty of great responsibility.
The Distinguished Service Cross is only awarded for actions in combat, while the Distinguished Service Medal has no such restriction. A cross of bronze, 2 inches high and 1 13⁄16 inches wide with an eagle on the center and a scroll below the eagle bearing the inscription "FOR VALOR". On the reverse side, the center of the cross is circled by a wreath with a space for engraving the name of the recipient; the service ribbon is 1 3⁄8 inches wide and consists of the following stripes: 1⁄8 inch Old Glory Red 67156. The Distinguished Service Cross is awarded to a person who, while serving in any capacity with the Army, distinguishes himself or herself by extraordinary heroism not justifying the award of a Medal of Honor; the act or acts of heroism must have been so notable and have involved risk of life so extraordinary as to set the individual apart from his or her comrades. The following are authorized components of the Distinguished Service Cross: Decoration: MIL-D-3943/4. NSN 8455-00-269-5745 for decoration set.
NSN 8455-00-246-3827 for individual replacement medal. Decoration: MIL-D-3943/4. NSN 8455-00-996-50007. Ribbon: MIL-R-11589/50. NSN 8455-00-252-9919. Lapel Button: MIL-L-11484/1. NSN 8455-00-253-0808. Additional awards of the Army's Distinguished Service Cross are denoted with oak leaf clusters; the Distinguished Service Cross was established by President Woodrow Wilson on January 2, 1918. General Pershing, Commander-in-Chief of the Expeditionary Forces in France, had recommended that recognition other than the Medal of Honor be authorized for the Armed Forces of the United States for valorous service rendered in like manner to that awarded by the European Armies; the request for establishment of the medal was forwarded from the Secretary of War to the President in a letter dated December 28, 1917. The Act of Congress establishing this award, dated July 9, 1918, is contained in 10 U. S. C. § 3742. The establishment of the Distinguished Service Cross was promulgated in War Department General Order No.
6, dated January 12, 1918. The Distinguished Service Cross was designed by J. Andre Smith, an artist employed by the United States Army during World War I; the Distinguished Service Cross was first cast and manufactured by the United States Mint at Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. The die was cast from the approved design prepared by Captain Aymar E. Embury II, Engineers Officer Reserve Corps. Upon examination of the first medals struck at the Mint, it was considered advisable to make certain minor changes to add to the beauty and the attractiveness of the medal. Due to the importance of the time element involved in furnishing the decorations to General Pershing, one hundred of the medals were struck from the original design; these medals were furnished with the provision that these crosses be replaced when the supply of the second design was accomplished. 10 U. S. C. § 3991 provides for a 10% increase in retired pay for enlisted personnel who have retired with more than 20 years of service if they have been awarded the Distinguished Service Cross.
Order of precedence and wear of decorations is contained in Army Regulation 670-1. Policy for awards, approving authority and issue of decorations is contained in AR 600-8-22. During World War I, 6,309 awards of the Distinguished Service Cross were made to 6,185 recipients. Several dozen Army soldiers, as well as eight marines and two French Army officers, received two Distinguished Service Crosses. A handful Air Service aviators, were decorated three or more times. Eddie Rickenbacker, the top U. S. ace of the war, was awarded a record eight Distinguished Service Crosses, one of, upgraded to the Medal of Honor, while flying with the 94th Aero Squadron. Fellow aviators Douglas Campbell of the 94th, Frank O'Driscoll "Monk" Hunter of the 103rd Aero Squadron each received five. Another 94th aviator, Reed McKinley Chambers, was awarded four Distinguished Service Crosses. Three aviators received three Di
Army National Guard
The Army National Guard, in conjunction with the Air National Guard, is a militia force and a federal military reserve force of the United States. They are part of two different organizations, the Army National Guard of the several states and the District of Columbia, the Army National Guard of the United States, part of the United States National Guard; the Army National Guard is divided into subordinate units stationed in each of the 50 states, three territories, the District of Columbia, operates under their respective governors. The foundation for what became the Army National Guard occurred in the city of Salem, Massachusetts in 1692, the first time that a regiment of militia drilled for the common defense of a multi-community area; the Army National Guard as authorized and organized operates under Title 10 of the United States Code when under federal control, Title 32 of the United States Code and applicable state laws when under state control. The Army National Guard may be called up for active duty by the state or territorial governors to help respond to domestic emergencies and disasters, such as those caused by hurricanes and earthquakes, as well as civil disorder.
The District of Columbia Army National Guard is a federal militia, controlled by the President of the United States with authority delegated to the Secretary of Defense, through him to the Secretary of the Army. Members or units of the Army National Guard may be ordered, temporarily or indefinitely, into the service of the United States. If mobilized for federal service, the member or unit becomes part of the Army National Guard of the United States, a reserve component of the United States Army. Individuals volunteering for active federal service may do so subject to the consent of their governors. Governors cannot veto involuntary activations of individuals or units for federal service, either for training or national emergency; the President may call up members and units of the Army National Guard, in its status as the militia of the several states, to repel invasion, suppress rebellion, or enforce federal laws. The Army National Guard of the United States is one of two organizations administered by the National Guard Bureau, the other being the Air National Guard of the United States.
The Director of the Army National Guard is the head of the organization, reports to the Chief of the National Guard Bureau. Because the Army National Guard is both the militia of the several states and a federal reserve component of the Army, neither the Chief of the National Guard Bureau nor the Director of the Army National Guard "commands" it; this function is performed in each state or territory by the State Adjutant General, in the District of Columbia by the Commanding General of the District of Columbia National Guard when a unit is in its militia status. The Chief of the National Guard Bureau and the Director of the Army National Guard serve as the channel of communications between the Department of the Army and the Army National Guard in each state and territory, administer federal programs and resources for the National Guard; the Army National Guard's portion of the president's proposed federal budget for Fiscal Year 2018 is $16.2 billion to support an end strength of 343,000, including appropriations for personnel pay and allowance, facilities maintenance, equipment maintenance and other activities.
Of the 45 individuals to serve as President of the United States as of 2017, 33 had military experience. Of those 33, 21 served in Army National Guard. George Washington, commissioned a Major in the Virginia Militia in 1753, he attained the rank of colonel before resigning his commission at the end of the French and Indian War. Thomas Jefferson and commander of the Albemarle County Militia at the start of the American Revolution James Madison, colonel in the Orange County Militia at the start of the American Revolution and aide to his father, James Madison, Sr., the commander. James Monroe, served in the militia while attending the College of William and Mary. After being wounded at the Battle of Trenton while serving in the Continental Army, he returned to Virginia to recruit and lead a regiment as a militia lieutenant colonel, but the regiment was never raised. In 1780 the British invaded Richmond and Jefferson commissioned Monroe as a colonel to command the militia raised in response and act as liaison to the Continental Army in North Carolina.
Andrew Jackson, commander of the Tennessee Militia as a Major General prior to the War of 1812. William Henry Harrison, commander of Indiana Territory's militia and Major General of the Kentucky Militia at the start of the War of 1812. John Tyler, commanded a company called the Charles City Rifles, part of Virginia's 52nd Regiment, in the War of 1812. James Polk, joined the Tennessee Militia as a captain in a cavalry regiment in 1821, he was subsequently appointed a colonel on the staff of Governor William Carroll. Millard Fillmore, served as inspector of New York's 47th Brigade with the rank of major. Commanded the Union Continentals, a militia unit raised to perform local service in Buffalo, New York, during the American Civil War. Franklin Pierce, appointed aide de camp to Governor Samuel Dinsmoor in 1831, he remained in the militia until 1847 and attained the rank of colonel before becoming a brigadier general in the Army during the Mexican–American War. James Buchanan, a member of the Pennsylvania Militia.
His dragoon unit took part in the defense of Baltimore, during the War of 1812. Abraham Lincoln, served in the Illinois Militia during the Black Hawk War, he commanded a company i
Reserve Good Conduct Medal
A Reserve Good Conduct Medal refers to any one of the five military conduct awards, four of which are issued and one of, issued, by the United States Armed Forces to enlisted members of the Reserve and National Guard. The primary difference between the regular Good Conduct Medal and the Reserve Good Conduct Medal is that the regular Good Conduct Medal is only issued for active duty service while the reserve equivalent is bestowed for reserve duties such as drills, annual training, additional active duty for either training or operational support to the active duty force or, in the case of the Army National Guard and Air National Guard, in support of Title 32 U. S. C. state active duty such as disaster relief. To receive a Reserve Good Conduct Medal, a service member, must be an active member of the Reserve or National Guard and must have performed three to four years of satisfactory duty with such service being free of disciplinary action. Periods of active duty in the Active Component prior to joining the Reserve Component, full time active duty in an Active Guard and Reserve and Administration of the Reserve, Full Time Support, or active duty recall or mobilization in excess of three years are not creditable towards a Reserve Good Conduct Medal, although such periods are creditable for the active duty equivalent Good Conduct Medal.
Each service has specific varying requirements. The last of the Reserve Good Conduct Medals to be authorized, the U. S. Army Reserve Components Achievement Medal, was established by the Secretary of the Army on 3 March 1971 and amended by DA General Orders 4, in 1974; the Army Reserve Components Achievement Medal is awarded for exemplary behavior and fidelity while serving as a member of an Army National Guard or Army Reserve Troop Program Unit for each three-year period since 3 March 1972. Effective 28 March 1995, the period of qualifying service for the award was reduced from four years to three years. Service must have been consecutive and service performed in the Reserve Component of the U. S. Air Force, Marine Corps, or Coast Guard may not be credited for award of this medal; the member must have exhibited honest and faithful service in accordance with the standards of conduct and duty required by law and customs of the service of a member of the same grade as the individual to whom the standard is being applied.
A member must be recommended for the award by his or her unit commander whose recommendation is based on personal knowledge of the individual and the individual’s official records of periods of service under prior commanders during the period for which the award is made. Furthermore, a Commander may not extend the qualifying period for misconduct. A determination that service is not honorable as prescribed negates the entire period of the award. Soldiers who are ordered to active duty in the AGR program will be awarded the ARCAM if they have completed 2 of the 3 years required. Soldiers with less than 2 years will not receive an award. Service lost may be recovered if the Soldier is separated honorably from the AGR program and reverts to troop program unit service, for example, a Soldier serves 1 year and 6 months of qualifying service and is ordered to an AGR tour; this service is not sufficient for award of the ARCAM. When the Soldier leaves the AGR program that 1 year and 6 months is granted towards the next award of the ARCAM.
Only the State Adjutant General may determine that the AGR service was not sufficiently honorable enough to revoke the earned time, regardless of the type of separation given. The ARCAM is awarded to both officer and enlisted members of the Army Reserve and has the same criteria as the other Reserve Services for award of a Reserve Good Conduct Medal; the Armed Forces Reserve Medal is a similar award, given for ten years of honorable reserve service and is presented to both officers and enlisted personnel. First created in 1962 with retroactive presentation to 1958, it remained an active decoration in the U. S. Navy until its discontinuation in 2014; the Naval Reserve Meritorious Service Medal was considered the enlisted successor award to the previous Naval Reserve Medal. From 1958 until 1996, the medal was awarded for four years of satisfactory enlisted reserve service as a drilling reservist in the Selected Reserve or Individual Ready Reserve, to include Volunteer Training Units. Full-time active duty enlisted personnel in the Naval Reserve's Training and Administration of the Reserve Program, while eligible for the Naval Reserve Medal, were not eligible for the Naval Reserve Meritorious Service Medal and were awarded the Navy Good Conduct Medal on par with active duty Regular Navy enlisted personnel.
The years of service requirement for the Naval Reserve Meritorious Service Medal dropped from four years of service to three years of service from 1997 until its discontinuation, synchronizing it with the reduction in the required service for the active duty Navy Good Conduct Medal, which replaced it pursuant to a SECNAV directive in 2014. As a result of this SECNAV directive, all enlisted sailors in both the Active Component and the Reserve Component now receive the same good conduct medal for the same period of service. Additional awards of the Naval Reserve Meritorious Service Medal are denoted by service stars; this was strictly
Military Sealift Command
The United States Navy's Military Sealift Command is an organization that controls the replenishment and military transport ships of the Navy. Military Sealift Command has the responsibility for providing sealift and ocean transportation for all US military services as well as for other government agencies, it first came into existence on 9 July 1949 when the Military Sea Transportation Service became responsible for the Department of Defense's ocean transport needs. The MSTS was renamed the Military Sealift Command in 1970. Military Sealift Command ships are made up of a core fleet of ships owned by the United States Navy and others under long-term-charter augmented by short-term or voyage-chartered ships; the Navy-owned ships carry blue and gold stack colors, are in service with the prefix USNS, rather than in commission, have hull numbers as an equivalent commissioned ship would have with the prefix T- and are civilian manned by either civil service mariners or contract crews as is the case of the special mission ships.
Some ships may have Navy or Marine Corps personnel on board to carry out communication and special mission functions, or for force protection. Ships on charter or equivalent, retain commercial colors and bear the standard merchant prefix MV, SS, or GTS, without hull numbers. Eight programs compose Military Sealift Command: Fleet Oiler, Special Mission, Strategic Sealift, Salvage and Hospital Ship, Combat Logistics Force, Expeditionary Mobile Base, Amphibious Command Ship, Cable Layer and Expeditionary Fast Transport. MSC reports to the Department of Defense's Transportation Command for defense transportation matters, to the Navy Fleet Forces Command for Navy-unique matters, to the Assistant Secretary of the Navy for procurement policy and oversight matters. Military Sealift Command is organized around eight programs: Fleet Oiler Program N031 Special Mission Program N032 Strategic Sealift Program N033 Tow, Salvage and Hospital Ship Program N034 Sealift Program N035 Combat Logistics Force Program N036 Expeditionary Mobile Base, Amphibious Command Ship, Cable Layer Program N037 Expeditionary Fast Transport Program N038 On 9 January 2012, the MSC command organization was reorganized via a realignment of its structure to increase its efficiency while maintaining effectiveness.
To better manage this new program structure, MSC repositioned three of its key Senior Executive Service personnel, with one SES acting as the program executive over MSC's government-operated ships, a second SES serving as the program executive over contract-operated ships, a third SES overseeing total force manpower management for MSC worldwide operations. MSC realigned two of its four mission-driven programs and adding a fifth program; the Prepositioning and Sealift programs are unchanged by the 2012 reorganization. As of June 2013, Military Sealift Command operated around 110 ships, employed 9,800 people. In 2015, the Military Sealift Command underwent further restructuring with the relocation from the former headquarters at Washington Navy Yard to Naval Station Norfolk; the Combat Logistics Force was the part of the MSC most associated with directly supporting the Navy. In 1972, a study concluded that it would be cheaper for civilians to man USN support vessels such as tankers and stores ships.
The CLF is the American equivalent of the British Royal Fleet Auxiliary. These MSC ships are painted haze gray and can be identified by the blue and gold horizontal bands around the top of their central smokestack; the Combat Logistics Force was called the Naval Fleet Auxiliary Force. After a 2012 reorganization, this program now maintains the 32 government-operated fleet underway replenishment ships from the former Naval Fleet Auxiliary Force. Fleet replenishment oilers form the Oilers Program N031, while the dry cargo/ammunition ships and fast combat support ships were separated to Explosive Program N036. Fleet Oiler Program ship types. Oceanographic and hydrographic surveys, underwater surveillance, missile flight data collection and tracking, acoustic research and submarine support are among the specialized services this program supports. Special mission ships work for several different US Navy customers, including the Naval Sea Systems Command and the Oceanographer of the Navy; these ships like those of the NFAF are painted haze gray with gold stack bands.
After a 2012 reorganization, this program now maintains all of its 24 contract-operated ships involved in missile range instrumentation, ocean surveillance and special warfare support, oceanographic survey, navigation test support. Some of its ships were transferred to the new Service Support program. Special Mission ship types.
Distinguished Service Medal (U.S. Army)
The Distinguished Service Medal is a military award of the United States Army, presented to any person who, while serving in any capacity with the United States military, has distinguished himself or herself by exceptionally meritorious service to the Government in a duty of great responsibility. The performance must be such as to merit recognition for service, exceptional. Exceptional performance of normal duty will not alone justify an award of this decoration. Separate Distinguished Service Medals exist for the different branches of the military as well as a fifth version of the medal, a senior award of the United States Department of Defense; the Army version of the Distinguished Service Medal is referred to as the "Distinguished Service Medal" while the other branches of service use the service name as a prefix. For service not related to actual war, the term "duty of a great responsibility" applies to a narrower range of positions than in time of war, requires evidence of conspicuously significant achievement.
However, justification of the award may accrue by virtue of exceptionally meritorious service in a succession of high positions of great importance. Awards may be made to persons other than members of the United States Armed Forces for wartime services only, only under exceptional circumstances, with the express approval of the President in each case; the Coat of Arms of the United States in Gold surrounded by a circle of Dark Blue enamel, 1 ½ inches in diameter, bearing the inscription "FOR DISTINGUISHED SERVICE MCMXVIII". On the reverse is a scroll for the name of the recipient upon a trophy of flags and weapons; the medal is suspended by a bar attached to the ribbon. The ribbon is 1 3⁄8 inches wide and consists of the following stripes:5⁄16 inch Scarlet 67111. Additional awards of the Distinguished Service Medal are denoted by oak leaf clusters; the Distinguished Service Medal is awarded to any person who, while serving in any capacity with the United States Army, has distinguished himself or herself by exceptionally meritorious service to the Government in a duty of great responsibility.
The performance must be such as to merit recognition for service, exceptional. Exceptional performance of normal duty will not alone justify an award of this decoration. For service not related to actual war, the term "duty of a great responsibility" applies to a narrower range of positions than in time of war and requires evidence of a conspicuously significant achievement. However, justification of the award may accrue by virtue of exceptionally meritorious service in a succession of high positions of great importance. Awards may be made to persons other than members of the Armed Forces of the United States for wartime services only, only under exceptional circumstances with the express approval of the President in each case; the following are authorized components of the Distinguished Service Medal and applicable specifications:Decoration: MIL-D-3943/7. NSN for decoration set: 8455-00-444-0007. NSN for replacement medal is 8455-00-246-3830. Decoration: MIL-D-3943/7. NSN 8455-00-996-5008. Ribbon: MIL-R-11589/52.
NSN 8455-00-252-9922. Lapel Button: MIL-L-11484/4. NSN 8455-00-253-0809; the Distinguished Service Medal was authorized by Presidential Order dated 01-02-1918, confirmed by Congress on 07-09-1918. It was announced by War Department General Order No. 6, 1918-01-12, with the following information concerning the medal: "A bronze medal of appropriate design and a ribbon to be worn in lieu thereof, to be awarded by the President to any person who, while serving in any capacity with the Army shall hereafter distinguish himself or herself, or who, since 04-06-1917, has distinguished himself or herself by exceptionally meritorious service to the Government in a duty of great responsibility in time of war or in connection with military operations against an armed enemy of the United States." The Act of Congress on 07-09-1918, recognized the need for different types and degrees of heroism and meritorious service and included such provisions for award criteria. The current statutory authorization for the Distinguished Service Medal is Title 10, United States Code, Section 3743.
Among the first awards of the Distinguished Service Medal for service in World War I, were those to the Commanding Officers of the Allied Armies:Marshal Ferdinand Foch Marshal Joseph Joffre, General Philippe Petain of France, General Louis Franchet d'Espèrey of France, General Sir Arthur Currie of Canada, General Sir John Monash of Australia, Field Marshal Douglas Haig, 1st Earl Haig of Britain, General Armando Diaz of Italy, General Cyriaque Gillain of Belgium, General John Joseph Pershing - United States Field Marshal Živojin Mišić of SerbiaMore than 2,000 awards were made during World War I, by the time the United States entered World War II 2,800 awards had been made. From July 1, 1941 to June 6, 1969, when the Army stopped publishing awards of the DSM in Department of the Army General Orders, over 2,800 further awards were made. Prior to World War II the DSM was the only decoration for non-combat service in the U. S. Army; as a result, before World War II the DSM was awarded to a wider range of recipients than during and after World War II.
During World War I awards of the DSM to officers below the rank of brigadier general were common but became rare once the Legion of Merit was established in 1942. Until the first award of the Air Force Distinguished Service Medal in 1965, United States Air Force personnel received this award as well, as was the case
United States Navy Reserve
The United States Navy Reserve, known as the United States Naval Reserve from 1915 to 2005, is the Reserve Component of the United States Navy. Members of the Navy Reserve, called reservists, are enrolled in the Selected Reserve, the Individual Ready Reserve, the Full Time Support, or the Retired Reserve program; the mission of the Navy Reserve is to provide strategic depth and deliver operational capabilities to the Navy and Marine Corps team, Joint forces, in the full range of military operations from peace to war. The Reserve consists of 108,718 officers and enlisted personnel who serve in every state and territory as well as overseas as of September 2012; the largest cohort, the SELRES, have traditionally drilled one weekend a month and two weeks of annual training during the year, receiving base pay and certain special pays when performing Inactive Duty Training, full pay and allowances while on active duty for Annual Training, Active Duty for Training, Active Duty for Operational Support, Active Duty for Special Work, or under Mobilization orders or otherwise recalled to full active duty.
Every state, as well as Guam and Puerto Rico, has at least one Navy Operational Support Center, staffed by Full Time Support personnel, where the SELRES sailors come to do their weekend drills. The size of these centers varies depending on the number of assigned reservists, they are intended to handle administrative functions and classroom style training. However, some NOSCs have more extensive training facilities, including damage control trainers and small boat units; some NOSCs are co-located on existing military facilities, but most are "outside-the-wire", stand alone facilities that are the only U. S. Navy representation in their communities or the entire state; because of this, NOSCs outside the fleet concentration areas are heavily tasked to provide personnel, both FTS staff and SELRES, for participation in Funeral Honors Details. This service provided to the local community is one of the NOSC's top two priority missions; those SELRES assigned to front-line operational units, such as Naval Aviators, Naval Flight Officers, Naval Flight Surgeons and enlisted personnel assigned to Navy Reserve or Active-Reserve Integrated aviation squadrons and wings, or personnel assigned to major combatant command and other major staff positions, are funded for far more duty than the weekend per month/two weeks per year construct well in excess of 100 man-days per year.
SELRES have performed additional duty in times of war or national crisis being recalled to full-time active duty for one, two or three or more years and deploying to overseas locations or aboard warships, as has been seen during Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom. FTS known as TAR, serve in uniform all year round and provide administrative support to SELRES and operational support for the Navy, they are full-time career active duty personnel, but reside in the Reserve Component, perform a role similar to Active Guard and Reserve, Air Reserve Technician and Army Reserve Technician in the Air Force Reserve Command, the Air National Guard, the U. S. Army Reserve, the Army National Guard; the Individual Ready Reserve do not drill or train but can be recalled to service in a full mobilization. Some IRR personnel who are not assigned to SELRES billets senior commissioned officers in the ranks of commander or captain for whom SELRES billets are limited, will serve in Volunteer Training Units or will be support assigned to established active duty or reserve commands while in a VTU status.
These personnel are not eligible for Annual Training with pay. However, they remain eligible for other forms of active duty with mobilization; the largest source of IRR Officers in the Navy Reserve are commissioned from the United States Merchant Marine Academy and comprise more than 75% of the Navy's Strategic Sealift Officer Community, focused on strategic sealift and sea-based logistics. Reservists are called to active duty, or mobilized, as needed and are required to sign paperwork acknowledging this possibility upon enrollment in the reserve program. After the September 11 attacks of 2001, Reservists were mobilized to support combat operations; the War on Terrorism has seen the activation of a Reserve squadron, the VFA-201 Hunters, flying F/A-18 Hornet aircraft, which deployed on board the USS Theodore Roosevelt. Additionally, more than 52,000 Navy Reservists have been mobilized and deployed to serve in Iraq and Afghanistan, including more than 8,000 who have done a second combat tour, they have served alongside Army, Air Force, Coast Guard and service personnel from other countries, performing such missions as countering deadly improvised explosive devices, constructing military bases, escorting ground convoys, operating hospitals, performing intelligence analysis, guarding prisoners, doing customs inspections for units returning from deployments.
Reflecting the importance of Reservists in the naval history of the United States, the first citizen sailors put to sea before the Continental Congress created the Continental Navy, forerunner of today’s U. S. Navy. On 12 June 1775, inspired to act after hearing the news of Minutemen and British regulars battling on the fields of Lexington and Concord, citizens of the seaside town of Machias, commandeered the schooner
NOAA ships and aircraft
The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Office of Marine and Aviation Operations operates a wide variety of specialized aircraft and ships to complete NOAA's environmental and scientific missions. OMAO manages the NOAA Small Boat Program and the NOAA Diving Program, the latter having as part of its mission the job of ensuring a level of diving skill conducive to safe and efficient operations in NOAA-sponsored underwater activities; the Director of OMAO and the NOAA Corps is Rear Admiral Michael J. Silah. Rear Admiral Nancy Hann, NOAA, is the Director of the Aviation Operations Centers. NOAA's Aircraft Operations Center, has been located at Lakeland Linder International Airport in Lakeland, since June 2017; the AOC is home to NOAA's fleet of aircraft. The aircraft operate over open ocean, coastal wetlands, Arctic pack ice, in and around hurricanes and other severe weather. Specialized noncommercial aircraft support NOAA's atmospheric and hurricane surveillance/research programs, NOAA Hurricane Hunters.
The aircraft collect the environmental and geographic data essential to NOAA hurricane and other weather and atmospheric research. Before its move to Lakeland, the AOC resided at MacDill Air Force Base in Tampa, from January 1993 to June 2017. NOAA's ship fleet was created when various United States Government scientific agencies merged to form NOAA on 3 October 1970. At that time, the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey and the United States Fish and Wildlife Service's Bureau of Commercial Fisheries were abolished, the ships that had constituted their fleets – the hydrographic survey ships of the Coast and Geodetic Survey and the fisheries research ships of the Bureau of Commercial Fisheries – combined to form the new NOAA fleet. At first, the major ships that were to constitute the new fleet reported to separate entities, with former Coast and Geodetic Survey ships subordinate to the National Ocean Survey, while former Bureau of Commercial Fisheries ships reported to the Bureau′s successor within NOAA, the National Marine Fisheries Service.
Via a phased process during 1972 and 1973, the ships of the National Ocean Survey and National Marine Fisheries Service, as well as those of the Environmental Research Laboratories, integrated to form a consolidated and unified NOAA fleet, operated by the National Ocean Survey′s Office of Fleet Operations. The NOAA fleet provides hydrographic survey and atmospheric research, fisheries research vessels to support the elements of NOAA's strategic plan and mission. NOAA′s Fleet Allocation Council manages and allocates the time each ship spends on various missions and projects based on user requests; some ships of the fleet are vessels retired from other maritime services. The vessels are located in various locations around the United States; the ships are managed by the Marine Operations Center, which has offices in Norfolk and Newport, Oregon. Logistic support for these vessels is provided by the Marine Operations Center offices or, for vessels with home ports at Woods Hole, Massachusetts. NOAA's aircraft and ship fleet is operated and managed by a combination of NOAA Corps Officers, wage marine and civilian employees.
Officers and OMAO civilians serve as chief scientists on program missions. The wage marine and civilian personnel include licensed engineers, navigators and members of the engine and deck departments. Administrative duties and navigation of the vessels are performed by the commissioned officers; the aircraft and ship's officers and crew provide mission support and assistance to embarked scientists from various NOAA laboratories as well as the academic community. To complement NOAA's research fleet, OMAO is fulfilling NOAA's ship and aircraft support needs with contracts for ship and aircraft time with other sources, such as the private sector and the university fleet. Aero Commander 1000 Beechcraft Super King Air de Havilland Canada DHC-6 Twin Otter Gulfstream IV Lockheed WP-3D Orion Douglas DC-6B Martin RB-57A Aero Commander 500 Lake Renegade Cessna Citation II Upon its creation on 3 October 1970, NOAA took control of all research ships operated by the United States Fish and Wildlife Service's Bureau of Commercial Fisheries and all survey ships operated by the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey.
NOAA has since decommissioned many of these ships and replaced them with ships acquired from the United States Navy or new ships built for NOAA. The names of NOAA ships are preceded by the prefix "NOAAS" and followed by a unique hull classification symbol, or "hull number," made up of a letter indicating whether the vessel is a research ship or survey ship, followed by a three-digit number; each hull classification symbol is unique among NOAA ships in commission, although in some cases NOAA uses a hull classification symbol identical to one it used for a ship that it has since decommissioned. NOAAS Bell M. Shimada NOAAS Gordon Gunter NOAAS Henry B. Bigelow RV Gloria Michelle NOAAS