A maritime pilot, marine pilot, harbor pilot, bar pilot, or pilot, is a sailor who maneuvers ships through dangerous or congested waters, such as harbors or river mouths. They are navigational experts possessing knowledge of the particular waterway such as its depth and hazards; the word pilot came from Middle French pilot, from Italian piloto, from Late Latin pillottus. The work functions of the pilot go back to Ancient Greece and Roman times, when locally experienced harbour captains local fishermen, were employed by incoming ships' captains to bring their trading vessels into port safely; because the act of pilotage needed to be regulated and to ensure that pilots had adequate insurance, the harbours licensed pilots. The California Board of Pilot Commissioners was the first government agency created by California's legislature, in 1850. Before harbour boards were established, pilots known as hobblers would compete with one another; the first to reach an incoming ship would receive payment.
In Dún Laoghaire, there is a monument to the hobblers who lost their lives. In Kent they were known as "hovellers" and worked alongside and in competition with the licensed pilots, but were sometimes blamed as wreckers. George Byng Gattie defends the hovellers or "hobilers" as lifesavers in his 1890 book about the Goodwin Sands. Pilots had to have quick transport to get from the port to the incoming ships, they used their own fishing boats to reach the incoming vessels, but these were heavy working boats, which led to the development of the specialised pilot boat. Joseph Henderson was an early American harbor pilot, a Sandy Hook pilot for the New York Harbor and along the East Coast of the United States during the American Civil War. In the inland brown water trade another type of pilots are known as trip pilots. Due to the shortage of qualified posted masters these independent contractors fill the holes in the manning schedule on inland push boats on various inland river routes. In English law, Section 742 of the Merchant Shipping Act 1894 defines a pilot as "any person not belonging to a ship who has the conduct thereof."
In other words, someone other than a member of the crew who has control over the speed and movement of the ship. The Pilotage Act 1987 governs the management of maritime pilots and pilotage in harbors in the United Kingdom. Pilots may be required to have prior maritime experience prior to becoming a pilot. For example, the California Board of Pilot Commissioners requires that pilot trainees must have a master's license, two years command experience on tugs or deep draft vessels, pass a written exam and simulator exercise, followed by a period of up to three years training gaining experience with different types of vessel and docking facilities. Following licensing, pilots are required to engage in continuing educational programs; the pilot joins an incoming ship prior to the ship's entry into the shallow water at the designated "pilot boarding area" via helicopter or pilot boat and climbs a pilot ladder sometimes up to 40 feet to the deck of the largest container and tanker ships. Climbing the pilot ladder can be dangerous more so in rough seas considering that both the ship to be piloted and the pilot's own vessel are both moving.
With outgoing vessels, a pilot boat returns the pilot to land after the ship has negotiated coastal waters. Pilots are required by law in most major sea ports of the world for large ships. Pilots use pilotage techniques relying on nearby visual reference points and local knowledge of tides, currents and shoals that might not be identifiable on nautical charts without first hand experience in the waters in question; the master has full responsibility for safe navigation of their vessel if a pilot is on board. If they have clear grounds that the pilot may jeopardize the safety of navigation, they can relieve the pilot from their duties and ask for another pilot or, if not compulsory to have a pilot on board, navigate the vessel without one. In every case, during the time passed aboard for operation, the pilot will remain under the master's authority, always out of "ship's command chain"; the pilot remains aboard as an indispensable consultant of the master. Only in transit of the Panama Canal and in Canada does the pilot have the full responsibility for the navigation of the vessel.
However, in some countries, deck officers of vessels who have strong local knowledge and experience of navigating in those ports, such as a ferry, may be issued with a pilotage exemption certificate, which relieves them of the need to take a pilot on board. The Florida Alliance of Maritime Organizations reported that Florida pilots salaries range from US$100,000 to US$400,000 annually; this was similar to other US states with large ports. Columbia Bar pilots earn about US$180,000 per year. A 2008 review of pilot salary in the United States showed that pay ranged from about US$250,000 to over US$500,000 per year. Pilot compensation has been controversial in many ports, including Los Angeles and Long Beach, California regarding pilots who are employed by public agencies instead of acting as independent contractors. Compensation varies in other nations. In New Zealand, according to the government career service, pilots earn NZ$90,000-120,000; the novel Shōgun by James Clavell features John Blackthorne, an English pilot serving on the Dutch warship Erasmus, shipwrecked on the coast of Japan.
In the Gilbert and Sullivan comic opera The Pirates of Penzance Frederic's father directs his nursemaid Ruth to apprentice him to be a pilot, but instead she
HMS Duke of York (17)
HMS Duke of York was a King George V-class battleship of the Royal Navy. Laid down in May 1937, the ship was constructed by John Brown and Company at Clydebank and commissioned into the Royal Navy on 4 November 1941, subsequently seeing combat service during the Second World War. In mid-December 1941, Duke of York transported Prime Minister Winston Churchill to the United States to meet President Franklin D. Roosevelt. Between March and September 1942 Duke of York was involved with convoy escort duties, but in October she was dispatched to Gibraltar where she became the flagship of Force H. In October 1942, Duke of York was involved in the Allied invasion of North Africa, but saw little action as her role only required her to protect the accompanying aircraft carriers. HMS Duke of York stopped the Portuguese vessel Gil Eannes on 1 November 1942 and a commando arrested Gastão de Freitas Ferraz; the British had picked up radio traffic indicating naval espionage compromising the secrecy of the upcoming Operation Torch.
After Operation Torch, Duke of York was involved in Operations Camera and Governor, which were diversionary operations designed to draw the Germans' attention away from Operation Husky, the invasion of Sicily. On 4 October, Duke of York operated with her sister ship Anson in covering a force of Allied cruisers and destroyers and the American carrier Ranger, during Operation Leader, which raided German shipping off Norway; the attack badly damaged a further seven. On 26 December 1943 Duke of York was part of a task force which encountered the German battleship Scharnhorst off the North Cape of Norway. During the engagement that followed, Scharnhorst hit Duke of York twice with little effect, but was herself hit by several of Duke of York's 14-inch shells, silencing one of her turrets and hitting a boiler room. After temporarily escaping from Duke of York's heavy fire, Scharnhorst was struck several times by torpedoes, allowing Duke of York to again open fire, contributing to the eventual sinking of Scharnhorst after a running action lasting ten-and-a-half hours.
In 1945 Duke of York was assigned to the British Pacific Fleet as its flagship, but suffered mechanical problems in Malta which prevented her arriving in time to see any action before Japan surrendered. After the war, Duke of York remained active until she was laid up in November 1951, she was scrapped in 1957. In the aftermath of the First World War, the Washington Naval Treaty was drawn up in 1922 in an effort to stop an arms race developing between Britain, France and the United States; this treaty limited the number of ships each nation was allowed to build and capped the tonnage of all capital ships at 35,000 tons. These restrictions were extended in 1930 through the Treaty of London, however, by the mid-1930s Japan and Italy had withdrawn from both of these treaties and the British became concerned about a lack of modern battleships within their navy; as a result, the Admiralty ordered the construction of a new battleship class: the King George V class. Due to the provisions of both the Washington Naval Treaty and the Treaty of London, both of which were still in effect when the King George Vs were being designed, the main armament of the class was limited to the 14-inch guns prescribed under these instruments.
They were the only battleships built at that time to adhere to the treaty and though it soon became apparent to the British that the other signatories to the treaty were ignoring its requirements, it was too late to change the design of the class before they were laid down in 1937. Duke of York was the third ship in the King George V class, was laid down at John Brown & Company's shipyard in Clydebank, Scotland, on 5 May 1937; the title of Duke of York was in abeyance at that time, having been that held by King George VI prior to his succession to the throne in December 1936. The battleship was launched on 28 February 1940, was completed on 4 November 1941. After this, the ship joined the Home Fleet at Scapa Flow. Duke of York displaced 36,727 long tons as built and 42,076 long tons loaded; the ship had a beam of 103 feet and a draught of 29 feet. Her designed metacentric height was 8 feet 1 inch at deep load, she was powered by Parsons geared steam turbines, driving four propeller shafts. Steam was provided by eight Admiralty 3-drum water-tube boilers which delivered 100,000 shaft horsepower, but could deliver 110,000 shp at emergency overload.
This gave Duke of York a top speed of 28 knots. The ship carried 3,700 long tons of fuel oil, increased to 4,030 long tons, she carried 183 long tons of diesel oil, 256 long tons of reserve feed water and 430 long tons of freshwater. At full speed Duke of York had a range of 3,100 nautical miles at 27 knots. Duke of York mounted 10 BL 14-inch Mk VII guns, which were mounted in one Mark II twin turret forward and two Mark III quadruple turrets, one forward and one aft; the guns could be elevated 40 degrees and depressed 3 degrees. Turret "A" was able to traverse 286 degrees, while turrets "B" and "Y" could both move through 270 degrees. Hydraulic drives were used in the training and elevating process, achieving rates of two and eight degrees per second, respectively. A full gun broadside weighed 15,950 pounds, a salvo could be fired every 40 seconds; the secondary armament consisted of 16 QF 5.25-inch Mk I dual purpose guns which were mounted in eight twin turrets. The maximum range of the Mk I guns was 24,070 yards (22
Kieler Förde is an 17 km long inlet of the Baltic Sea on the eastern side of Schleswig-Holstein, Germany. Formed by glacial movement during the last Ice Age, it divides Danish Wold peninsula from Wagria. Like the other inlets of förde-type, geologically it is not a fjord, it originates at the Hörn in centre-city Kiel and merges into the Bay of Kiel. The eastern terminus of the Kiel Canal is located along Kiel Fjord. At its narrowest point, the "Friedrichsorter Enge", the fjord is only one kilometre wide; the Schwentine enters Kieler Förde near Kiel-Dietrichsdorf. Locations along the Kieler Förde: From north to south: Bülk Strande Kiel-Schilksee Falckenstein Kiel-Friedrichsort Kiel-Holtenau Kiel-Wik Kiel-Düsternbrook Kiel-Zentrum From south to north: Kiel-Gaarden Kiel-Ellerbek Kiel-Wellingdorf Neumühlen-Dietrichsdorf Mönkeberg Kitzeberg Heikendorf Möltenort Laboe Stein in Probstei Wendtorf in Probstei Heidkate Webcam Kiel Data - Kieler Förde
John Brown & Company
John Brown and Company of Clydebank was a Scottish marine engineering and shipbuilding firm. It built many notable and world-famous ships including RMS Lusitania, HMS Hood, HMS Repulse, RMS Queen Mary, RMS Queen Elizabeth and the Queen Elizabeth 2. At its height, from 1900 to the 1950s, it was one of the most regarded, internationally famous, shipbuilding companies in the world; however thereafter, along with other UK shipbuilders, John Brown's found it difficult to compete with the emerging shipyards in Eastern Europe and the far East. In 1968 John Brown's merged with other Clydeside shipyards to form the Upper Clyde Shipbuilders consortium, but that collapsed in 1971; the company withdrew from shipbuilding but its engineering arm remained successful in the manufacture of industrial gas turbines. In 1986 it became a wholly owned subsidiary of Trafalgar House, which in 1996 was taken over by Kvaerner; the latter closed the Clydebank engineering works in 2000. Marathon Manufacturing Company bought the Clydebank shipyard from UCS and used it to build oil rig platforms for the North Sea oil industry.
Union Industrielle d'Entreprise bought the yard in 1980 and closed it in 2001. Two brothers — James and George Thomson, who had worked for the engineer Robert Napier — founded the engineering and shipbuilding company J&G Thomson; the brothers founded the Clyde Bank Foundry in Anderston in 1847. They opened the Clyde Bank Iron Shipyard at Cessnock, Govan, in 1851 and launched their first ship, SS Jackal, in 1852, they established a reputation in building prestigious passenger ships, building SS Jura for Cunard in 1854 and the record breaking SS Russia in 1867. Several of the ships they built were bought by the Confederacy for blockade running in the American Civil War, including the CSS Robert E. Lee and the Fingal, converted into the ironclad Atlanta; the brothers separated their business association in 1850 and, after an acrimonious split, George took over the shipbuilding end of the association. James Thomas started a new business. George Thomson died in 1866, followed in 1870 by his brother James.
They were succeeded by the sons of the younger brother George, called James Rodger Thomson and George Paul Thomson. Faced with the compulsory purchase of their shipyard by the Clyde Navigation Trust, they established a new Clyde Bank Iron Shipyard further downriver at the Barns o' Clyde, near the village of Dalmuir, in 1871; this site at the confluence of the tributary River Cart with the River Clyde, at Newshot Island, allowed large ships to be launched. The brothers soon moved their iron engineering works to the same site; the connection to the area was so complete that James Rodger Thomson became the first Provost of Clydebank. Despite intermittent financial difficulties the company developed a reputation based on engineering quality and innovation; the rapid growth of the shipyard and its ancillary works, the building of housing for the workers, resulted in the formation of a new town which took its name from that of the shipyard which gave birth to it — Clydebank. In 1899 the steelmaker John Brown and Company of Sheffield bought J&G Thomson's Clydebank yard for £923,255 3s 3d.
John Brown was born in Sheffield in the son of a slater. At the age of 14, unwilling to follow his father's plans for him to become a draper, he obtained a position as an apprentice with Earle Horton & Co; the company subsequently entered the steel business and at the age of 21, John Brown with the backing of his father and uncle obtained a bank loan for £500 to enable him to become the company's sales agent. He was so successful, he made enough money to set up the Atlas Steel Works. In 1848 Brown developed and patented the conical spring buffer for railway carriages, successful. With a growing reputation and fortune he moved to a larger site in 1856, he began to make his own iron from iron ore, rather than buying it, in 1858 adopted the Bessemer process for producing steel. These moves all proved successful and lucrative, in 1861 he started supplying steel rails to the expanding railway industry, his next move was to examine the iron cladding used on French warships. He decided that he could do better, built a steel rolling mill that, in 1863, was the first to roll 12-inch armour plate for warships.
By 1867 his iron cladding was being used on the majority of Royal Navy warships. By his workforce had grown to over 4,000 and his company's annual turnover was £1 million. Despite this success, Brown was finding it difficult working with the two partners and shareholders he took into the company in 1859. William Bragge was an engineer, John Devonshire Ellis came from a family of successful brass founders in Birmingham; as well contributing a patented design for creating compound iron plate faced with steel, Ellis brought with him his expertise and ability in running a large company. Together, the three partners created a limited company. Brown resigned from the company in 1871. In subsequent years he started several new business ventures. Brown died impoverished in 1896, aged 80; the company Brown had set up with his partners, John Brown & Company, continued under the management of Ellis and his two sons. In 1899 it bought the Clydebank shipyard from J & G Thomson, embarked on a new phase in its history, as a shipbuilder.
In the early 1900s the company innovated marine engineering technology through the development of the Brown-Curtis turbine, developed and patented by the U. S. company International Curtis Marine Turbine Co. T
Cunard Line is a British–American cruise line based at Carnival House at Southampton, operated by Carnival UK and owned by Carnival Corporation & plc. Since 2011, Cunard and its three ships have been registered in Bermuda. In 1839 Samuel Cunard, a Halifax, Nova Scotia, was awarded the first British transatlantic steamship mail contract, the next year formed the British and North American Royal Mail Steam-Packet Company together with Robert Napier, the famous Scottish steamship engine designer and builder, to operate the line's four pioneer paddle steamers on the Liverpool–Halifax–Boston route. For most of the next 30 years, Cunard held the Blue Riband for the fastest Atlantic voyage. However, in the 1870s Cunard fell behind the White Star Line and the Inman Line. To meet this competition, in 1879 the firm was reorganised as the Cunard Steamship Company, Ltd, to raise capital. In 1902 White Star joined the American-owned International Mercantile Marine Co. and the British Government provided Cunard with substantial loans and a subsidy to build two superliners needed to retain its competitive position.
Mauretania held the Blue Riband from 1909 to 1929. The sinking of her running mate Lusitania in 1915 was one of the causes of the United States' entering the First World War. In the late 1920s, Cunard faced new competition when the Germans and French built large prestige liners. Cunard was forced to suspend construction on its own new superliner because of the Great Depression. In 1934 the British Government offered Cunard loans to finish Queen Mary and to build a second ship, Queen Elizabeth, on the condition that Cunard merged with the ailing White Star line to form Cunard-White Star Ltd. Cunard owned two-thirds of the new company. Cunard purchased White Star's share in 1947. Upon the end of the Second World War, Cunard regained its position as the largest Atlantic passenger line. By the mid-1950s, it operated 12 ships to the United States and Canada. After 1958, transatlantic passenger ships became unprofitable because of the introduction of jet airliners. Cunard undertook a brief foray into air travel via the "Cunard Eagle" and "BOAC Cunard" airlines, but withdrew from the airliner market in 1966.
Cunard withdrew from its year-round service in 1968 to concentrate on cruising and summer transatlantic voyages for vacationers. The Queens were replaced by Queen Elizabeth 2, designed for the dual role. In 1998 Cunard was acquired by the Carnival Corporation, accounted for 8.7% of that company's revenue in 2012. In 2004, QE2 was replaced on the transatlantic runs by Queen Mary 2; the line operates Queen Victoria and Queen Elizabeth. As of 2019, Cunard is the only shipping company to operate a scheduled passenger service between Europe and North America; the British Government started operating monthly mail brigs from Falmouth, Cornwall, to New York in 1756. These ships carried no cargo. In 1818, the Black Ball Line opened a scheduled New York–Liverpool service with clipper ships, beginning an era when American sailing packets dominated the North Atlantic saloon-passenger trade that lasted until the introduction of steamships. A Committee of Parliament decided in 1836 that to become more competitive, the mail packets operated by the Post Office should be replaced by private shipping companies.
The Admiralty assumed responsibility for managing the contracts. The famed Arctic explorer Admiral Sir William Edward Parry was appointed as Comptroller of Steam Machinery and Packet Service in April 1837. Nova Scotians led by their young Assembly Speaker, Joseph Howe, lobbied for steam service to Halifax. On his arrival in London in May 1838, Howe discussed the enterprise with his fellow Nova Scotian Samuel Cunard, a shipowner, visiting London on business. Cunard and Howe were associates and Howe owed Cunard £300. Cunard returned to Halifax to raise capital, Howe continued to lobby the British government; the Rebellions of 1837 were ongoing and London realized that the proposed Halifax service was important for the military. That November, Parry released a tender for North Atlantic monthly mail service to Halifax beginning in April 1839 using steamships with 300 horsepower; the Great Western Steamship Company, which had opened its pioneer Bristol–New York service earlier that year, bid £45,000 for a monthly Bristol–Halifax–New York service using three ships of 450 horsepower.
While British American, the other pioneer transatlantic steamship company, did not submit a tender, the St. George Steam Packet Company, owner of Sirius, bid £45,000 for a monthly Cork–Halifax service and £65,000 for a monthly Cork–Halifax–New York service; the Admiralty rejected both tenders. Cunard, back in Halifax did not know of the tender until after the deadline, he returned to London and started negotiations with Admiral Parry, Cunard's good friend from when Parry was a young officer stationed in Halifax 20 years earlier. Cunard offered Parry a fortnightly service beginning in May 1840. While Cunard did not own a steamship, he had been an investor in an earlier steamship venture, Royal William, owned coal mines in Nova Scotia. Cunard's major backer was Robert Napier whose Robert Napier and Sons was the Royal Navy's supplier of steam engines, he had the strong backing of Nova Scotian political leaders at the time when London needed to rebuild support in British North America after the rebellion.
Over Great Western's protests, in May 1839 Parry accepted Cunard's tender of £55,000 for a three-ship Liverpool–Halifax service with an extension to Boston and
RMS Queen Elizabeth
The RMS Queen Elizabeth was an ocean liner operated by Cunard Line. With Queen Mary she provided weekly luxury liner service between Southampton in the United Kingdom and New York City in the United States, via Cherbourg in France. While being constructed in the mid-1930s by John Brown and Company at Clydebank, the build was known as Hull 552. Launched on 27 September 1938, she was named in honour of Queen Elizabeth Queen Consort to King George VI, who became the Queen Mother in 1952. With a design that improved upon that of Queen Mary, Queen Elizabeth was a larger ship, the largest passenger liner built at that time and for 56 years thereafter, she has the distinction of being the largest-ever riveted ship by gross tonnage. She first entered service in February 1940 as a troopship in World War II, it was not until October 1946 that she served in her intended role as an ocean liner. With the decline in the popularity of the transatlantic route, both ships were replaced by the smaller, more economical Queen Elizabeth 2 in 1969.
Queen Mary was retired from service on 9 December 1967, was sold to the city of Long Beach, California. Queen Elizabeth was sold to a succession of buyers. Queen Elizabeth was sold to Hong Kong businessman Tung Chao Yung, who intended to convert her into a floating university cruise ship called Seawise University. In 1972, while undergoing refurbishment in Hong Kong harbour, fire broke out aboard under unexplained circumstances and the ship was capsized by the water used to fight the fire. In 1973, the wreck was deemed an obstruction to shipping in the area, so was scrapped where she lay. On the day RMS Queen Mary sailed on her maiden voyage, Cunard's chairman, Sir Percy Bates, informed his ship designers that it was time to start designing the planned second ship; the official contract between Cunard and government financiers was signed on 6 October 1936. The new ship improved upon the design of Queen Mary with sufficient changes, including a reduction in the number of boilers to twelve instead of Queen Mary's twenty-four, that the designers could discard one funnel and increase deck and passenger space.
The two funnels were self-supporting and braced internally to give a cleaner looking appearance. With the forward well deck omitted, a more refined hull shape was achieved, a sharper, raked bow was added for a third bow-anchor point, she was to be eleven feet longer and of 4,000 tons greater displacement than her older sister ship, Queen Mary. Queen Elizabeth was built on slipway four at John Brown & Company in Clydebank, Great Britain. During her construction she was more known by her shipyard number, Hull 552; the interiors were designed by a team of artists headed by the architect George Grey Wornum. Cunard's plan was for the ship to be launched in September 1938, with fitting out intended to be complete for the ship to enter service in the spring of 1940; the Queen herself performed the launching ceremony on 27 September 1938. The liner started to slide into the water before Elizabeth could launch her, acting she managed to smash a bottle of Australian red over the liner's bow just before it slid out of reach.
The ship was sent for fitting out. It was announced that on 23 August 1939 the King and Queen were to visit the ship and tour the engine room and that 24 April 1940 was to be the proposed date of her maiden voyage. Due to the outbreak of World War II, these two events were postponed and Cunard's plans were shattered. Queen Elizabeth sat at the fitting-out dock at the shipyard in her Cunard colours until 2 November 1939, when the Ministry of Shipping issued special licences to declare her seaworthy. On 29 December her engines were tested for the first time, running from 0900 to 1600 with the propellers disconnected to monitor her oil and steam operating temperatures and pressures. Two months Cunard received a letter from Winston Churchill First Lord of the Admiralty, ordering the ship to leave Clydeside as soon as possible and "to keep away from the British Isles as long as the order was in force". At the start of World War II, it was decided that Queen Elizabeth was so vital to the war effort that she must not have her movements tracked by German spies operating in the Clydebank area.
Therefore, an elaborate ruse was fabricated involving her sailing to Southampton to complete her fitting out. Another factor prompting Queen Elizabeth's departure was the necessity to clear the fitting out berth at the shipyard for the battleship HMS Duke of York, in need of its final fitting-out. Only the berth at John Brown could accommodate the King George V-class battleship's needs. One major factor that limited the ship's secret departure date was that there were only two spring tides that year that would see the water level high enough for Queen Elizabeth to leave the Clydebank shipyard, German intelligence were aware of this fact. A minimal crew of four hundred were assigned for the trip. Parts were shipped to Southampton, preparations were made to move the ship into the King George V Graving Dock when she arrived; the names of Brown's shipyard employees were booked to local hotels in Southampton to give a false trail of information and Captain John Townley was appointed as her first master.
Townley had commanded Aquitania on one voyage, several of Cunard's smaller vessels before that. Townley and his hastily signed on crew of four hundred Cunard personnel were told by a company representative before they left to pack for a voyage where they could be away from home for up to six months. By the beginning of March 1940, Queen Elizabeth was ready for her secret voyage. Th