South Africa the Republic of South Africa, is the southernmost country in Africa. It is bounded to the south by 2,798 kilometres of coastline of Southern Africa stretching along the South Atlantic and Indian Oceans. South Africa is the largest country in Southern Africa and the 25th-largest country in the world by land area and, with over 57 million people, is the world's 24th-most populous nation, it is the southernmost country on the mainland of the Eastern Hemisphere. About 80 percent of South Africans are of Sub-Saharan African ancestry, divided among a variety of ethnic groups speaking different African languages, nine of which have official status; the remaining population consists of Africa's largest communities of European and multiracial ancestry. South Africa is a multiethnic society encompassing a wide variety of cultures and religions, its pluralistic makeup is reflected in the constitution's recognition of 11 official languages, the fourth highest number in the world. Two of these languages are of European origin: Afrikaans developed from Dutch and serves as the first language of most coloured and white South Africans.
The country is one of the few in Africa never to have had a coup d'état, regular elections have been held for a century. However, the vast majority of black South Africans were not enfranchised until 1994. During the 20th century, the black majority sought to recover its rights from the dominant white minority, with this struggle playing a large role in the country's recent history and politics; the National Party imposed apartheid in 1948. After a long and sometimes violent struggle by the African National Congress and other anti-apartheid activists both inside and outside the country, the repeal of discriminatory laws began in 1990. Since 1994, all ethnic and linguistic groups have held political representation in the country's liberal democracy, which comprises a parliamentary republic and nine provinces. South Africa is referred to as the "rainbow nation" to describe the country's multicultural diversity in the wake of apartheid; the World Bank classifies South Africa as an upper-middle-income economy, a newly industrialised country.
Its economy is the second-largest in Africa, the 34th-largest in the world. In terms of purchasing power parity, South Africa has the seventh-highest per capita income in Africa; however and inequality remain widespread, with about a quarter of the population unemployed and living on less than US$1.25 a day. South Africa has been identified as a middle power in international affairs, maintains significant regional influence; the name "South Africa" is derived from the country's geographic location at the southern tip of Africa. Upon formation, the country was named the Union of South Africa in English, reflecting its origin from the unification of four separate British colonies. Since 1961, the long form name in English has been the "Republic of South Africa". In Dutch, the country was named Republiek van Zuid-Afrika, replaced in 1983 by the Afrikaans Republiek van Suid-Afrika. Since 1994, the Republic has had an official name in each of its 11 official languages. Mzansi, derived from the Xhosa noun umzantsi meaning "south", is a colloquial name for South Africa, while some Pan-Africanist political parties prefer the term "Azania".
South Africa contains human-fossil sites in the world. Archaeologists have recovered extensive fossil remains from a series of caves in Gauteng Province; the area, a UNESCO World Heritage site, has been branded "the Cradle of Humankind". The sites include one of the richest sites for hominin fossils in the world. Other sites include Gondolin Cave Kromdraai, Coopers Cave and Malapa. Raymond Dart identified the first hominin fossil discovered in Africa, the Taung Child in 1924. Further hominin remains have come from the sites of Makapansgat in Limpopo Province and Florisbad in the Free State Province, Border Cave in KwaZulu-Natal Province, Klasies River Mouth in Eastern Cape Province and Pinnacle Point and Die Kelders Cave in Western Cape Province; these finds suggest that various hominid species existed in South Africa from about three million years ago, starting with Australopithecus africanus. There followed species including Australopithecus sediba, Homo ergaster, Homo erectus, Homo rhodesiensis, Homo helmei, Homo naledi and modern humans.
Modern humans have inhabited Southern Africa for at least 170,000 years. Various researchers have located pebble tools within the Vaal River valley. Settlements of Bantu-speaking peoples, who were iron-using agriculturists and herdsmen, were present south of the Limpopo River by the 4th or 5th century CE, they displaced and absorbed the original Khoisan speakers, the Khoikhoi and San peoples. The Bantu moved south; the earliest ironworks in modern-day KwaZulu-Natal Province are believed to date from around 1050. The southernmost group was the Xhosa people, whose language incorporates certain linguistic traits from the earlier Khoisan people; the Xhosa reached the Great Fish River, in today's Eastern Cape Province. As they migrated, these larger Iron Age populations
Aston Bay, South Africa
Aston Bay is a coastal resort town in Sarah Baartman District Municipality in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa. It is situated about 90 kilometres west of Port Elizabeth and 5 kilometres from Jeffreys Bay
St Francis Bay
St Francis Bay is a holiday village in Sarah Baartman District Municipality in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa one hour’s drive from Port Elizabeth. On 11 November 2012 a fire destroyed 76 homes in the thatched roofed town; the building style of the village includes white painted houses with black roofs on the canals or around the golf course, or a Mediterranean building style in Santareme and Port St Francis. The Kromme River is navigable for 10 km upstream, is linked to the St Francis canals system. Whales can be spotted in the Bay from May to late October and dolphins can be seen daily on their way back and forth between the bays of Cape St Francis and Jeffrey’s Bay; the Cape clawless otter is ever present, frolicking in the waves and rock pools around Port St Francis and at Otters Landing. Bird life is abundant with over 200 species recorded in the area including the rare African oystercatcher and fish eagle. Port St Francis includes a commercial and recreational harbour, built to host the squid industry freezing vessels, as well as a small harbour resort village.
It lies in a sheltered nook of the bay and provides a safe anchorage for the boats, pleasure craft, oceangoing yachts. St Francis Field is an airpark close to the Port. Cape St Francis, a rustic fishing village, sits adjacent to St Francis Bay. Popular for surfing at Seal Point, its beautiful stretch of beach and the historic lighthouse, built in 1878. Walking trails wind along the rocky coast, through the Irma Booysen Floral Reserve, along the Cape St Francis point links it to the village of St Francis Bay. Cape St Francis is 8 km from Thyspunt, the preferred site for South Africa's next nuclear power station. St Francis travel guide from Wikivoyage Residents Association St Francis Bay St Francis Bay Webcam
Cape St. Francis
Cape St. Francis is a village in South Africa, situated on a headland in the Eastern Cape Province, it is popular as a surfing location. The village is home to a SANCCOB Penguin Rescue and Rehabilitation Center as well as the Seal Point Lighthouse; the Irma Booysen Floral Reserve is the home to many species of plants. The adjacent village, St Francis Bay, was the site of "ten-million-to-one" surfing waves seen in the 1966 surf/travel documentary, The Endless Summer. Cape St. Francis is now known as one of the best surfing locations. Given its geological location, it is susceptible to swell year round from large low pressure systems that form between Antarctica and the southern tip of Africa; when large south west swells wrap around Seal Point and the prevailing offshore winds come up, the surfing is world class. It is featured in the 2014 film The Perfect Wave, starring Scott Eastwood. Port St. Francis St. Francis Bay Venpet-Venoil collision Proposed E Cape nuclear plant met with resistance
Cookhouse is a small village located in Eastern Cape province, South Africa, some 170 kilometres north of Port Elizabeth and 24 kilometres east of Somerset East, on the west bank of the Great Fish River. Cookhouse is situated in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. Cookhouse was an early colonial settlement; the Scottish abolitionist and poet, Thomas Pringle mentions Cookhouse in his journal. The town was visited by early explorers and writers such as Dutch military commander Robert Jacob Gordon and French traveller François le Vaillant. Gordon’s stay in South Africa produced scientific writings and maps about the region; the town is home to the Cookhouse Wind Farm. The farm became operational in November 2014 and supplies clean energy to Cookhouse, Somerset East and Bedford; the Great Fish River formed the eastern boundary of the Cape Colony until 1819. The current village is said to take its name from a small stone house used for shelter and cooking by troops camping on the bank of this river. Another explanation links the name to the hot climate as experienced by the troops stationed there.
The Cookhouse is located on. Johannes was born on the 12th September 1777 in Somerset East and died in 1856. Johannes was married twice, she died in 1825 aged 27. This small town got its name is in the late 1790s because Tregardt supplied provisions from her “cookhouse” to riders and soldiers waiting to cross the Great Fish River. After her death, Johannes married Maria Johanna Mentz in 1826. In the 1870s, the government of Prime Minister John Molteno oversaw a massive expansion of the Cape Colony's railway system, a route northwards to De Aar from Port Elizabeth and Port Alfred was chosen by the Cape Government Railways to pass through what is now Cookhouse. A station was built here, which became an important railway junction, a small settlement formed around this connection; this railway station in Cookhouse is an attraction was written about in Cookhouse Station, a poem by Chris Mann that describes how he imagines the railway station was at its peak. Cookhouse is home to the Slachter’s Nek monument, commemorating the hanging of the five rebels of the Slachter's Nek Rebellion who were sentenced by the British to be hanged in public.
The monument was erected in 100 years after the execution. Cookhouse is home to Thomas Pringle’s Cairn, a memorial built to commemorate his passage through the town; the Fallen Heroes Memorial was unveiled in 2007 to commemorate Cookhouse residents who lost their lives in the struggle against apartheid in South Africa. The Fairworld Fine Wool Museum is located in Cookhouse and it shows the history of farming and wool production in the town. Willen van Aardt established the museum to tell the story of Fine Wool breeding on the farm as well as the history of the van Aardt family who have produced wool on the farm since 1797; the Fairwold Merino holds the current South African record price of for a Merino ram
Afrikaans is a West Germanic language spoken in South Africa, Namibia and, to a lesser extent and Zimbabwe. It evolved from the Dutch vernacular of South Holland spoken by the Dutch settlers of what is now South Africa, where it began to develop distinguishing characteristics in the course of the 18th century. Hence, it is a daughter language of Dutch, was referred to as "Cape Dutch" or "kitchen Dutch". However, it is variously described as a creole or as a creolised language; the term is derived from Dutch Afrikaans-Hollands meaning "African Dutch". Although Afrikaans has adopted words from other languages, including German and the Khoisan languages, an estimated 90 to 95% of the vocabulary of Afrikaans is of Dutch origin. Therefore, differences with Dutch lie in the more analytic-type morphology and grammar of Afrikaans, a spelling that expresses Afrikaans pronunciation rather than standard Dutch. There is a large degree of mutual intelligibility between the two languages—especially in written form.
With about 7 million native speakers in South Africa, or 13.5% of the population, it is the third-most-spoken language in the country. It has the widest geographical and racial distribution of all the 11 official languages of South Africa, is spoken and understood as a second or third language, it is the majority language of the western half of South Africa—the provinces of the Northern Cape and Western Cape—and the first language of 75.8% of Coloured South Africans, 60.8% of White South Africans. In addition, many native speakers of Bantu languages and English speak Afrikaans as a second language, it is taught with about 10.3 million second-language students. One reason for the expansion of Afrikaans is its development in the public realm: it is used in newspapers, radio programs, TV, several translations of the Bible have been published since the first one was completed in 1933. In neighbouring Namibia, Afrikaans is spoken as a second language and used as a lingua franca, while as a native language it is spoken in 10.4% of households concentrated in the capital Windhoek, Walvis Bay and the southern regions of Hardap and ǁKaras.
It, along with German, was among the official languages of Namibia until the country became independent in 1990, 25% of the population of Windhoek spoke Afrikaans at home. Both Afrikaans and German are recognised regional languages in Namibia, although only English has official status within the government. Estimates of the total number of Afrikaans speakers range between 23 million; the term is derived from the Dutch term Afrikaans-Hollands meaning "African Dutch". An estimated 90 to 95% of the Afrikaans lexicon is of Dutch origin, there are few lexical differences between the two languages. Afrikaans has a more regular morphology and spelling. There is a degree of mutual intelligibility between the two languages in written form. Afrikaans acquired some lexical and syntactical borrowings from other languages such as Malay, Khoisan languages and Bantu languages, Afrikaans has been influenced by South African English. Dutch speakers are confronted with fewer non-cognates when listening to Afrikaans than the other way round.
Mutual intelligibility thus tends to be asymmetrical, as it is easier for Dutch speakers to understand Afrikaans than for Afrikaans speakers to understand Dutch. In general, mutual intelligibility between Dutch and Afrikaans is better than between Dutch and Frisian or between Danish and Swedish; the South African poet writer Breyten Breytenbach, attempting to visualize the language distance for anglophones once remarked that the differences between Dutch and Afrikaans are comparable to those between the Received Pronunciation and Southern American English. The Afrikaans language arose in the Dutch Cape Colony, through a gradual divergence from European Dutch dialects, during the course of the 18th century; as early as the mid-18th century and as as the mid-20th century, Afrikaans was known in standard Dutch as a "kitchen language", lacking the prestige accorded, for example by the educational system in Africa, to languages spoken outside Africa. Other early epithets setting apart Kaaps Hollands as putatively beneath official Dutch standards included geradbraakt and onbeschaafd Hollands, as well as verkeerd Nederlands.
Den Besten theorizes that modern Standard Afrikaans derives from two sources: Cape Dutch, a direct transplantation of European Dutch to southern Africa, and'Hottentot Dutch', a pidgin that descended from'Foreigner Talk' and from the Dutch pidgin spoken by slaves, via a hypothetical Dutch creole. Thus in his view Afrikaans is neither a creole nor a direct descendant of Dutch, but a fusion of two transmission pathways. A relative majority of the first settlers whose descendants today are the Afrikaners were from the United Provinces, though up to one-sixth of the community was of French Huguenot origin, a seventh from Germany. African and Asian workers and slaves contributed to the development of Afrikaans; the slave population was made up of people from East Africa, West Africa, India and the Dutch East Indies. A number were indigenous Khoisan people, who were valued as i
Kareedouw is a town in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa. It is the administrative centre for the Kou-Kamma Municipality in the Sarah Baartman District of the Eastern Cape; the town's name derives from the Khoe phrase meaning "path by the karee trees". The town was established by white settlers around the year 1750. Kareedouw is the gateway to the Langkloof Mountains, it nestles between the Suuranys Mountains. A popular activity is 4x4 trips through the Suurveld and Baviaanskloof Wilderness areas, canoe trips on the Kouga River, camping and hiking trails. One important person connected to the town is John Vorster, prime minister of South Africa from 1966 to 1978, who had a house on the coast and is buried in the cemetery next to the Dutch Reformed Church. Balthazar Johannes Vorster lies buried under a large black marble slab in "heroes' acre" in the remote Eastern Cape town of Kareedouw, at the foot of the Langkloof.... As late as 2002, the Kareedouw hospital still treated black and white patients at separate entrances...
There is a Kareedouw Pass. The Tsitsikamma mountains are a mountain range located in the Garden Route region of the southern South African coast in the Western Cape and Eastern Cape provinces, they stretch just over 80 km from the Keurbooms River in the west just north of Plettenberg Bay, to Kareedouw Pass in the east. The Formosa Conservation Area is adjacent to the Jagersbos farm, about 15 km west of Kareedouw. There are medical and pharmaceutical facilities, the provincial B. J. Vorster Hospital, a public library, a Lutheran Missionary Monument at or near Kareedouw