Railway electrification system
A railway electrification system supplies electric power to railway trains and trams without an on-board prime mover or local fuel supply. Electric railways use electric locomotives to haul passengers or freight in separate cars or electric multiple units, passenger cars with their own motors. Electricity is generated in large and efficient generating stations, transmitted to the railway network and distributed to the trains; some electric railways have their own dedicated generating stations and transmission lines but most purchase power from an electric utility. The railway provides its own distribution lines and transformers. Power is supplied to moving trains with a continuous conductor running along the track that takes one of two forms: overhead line, suspended from poles or towers along the track or from structure or tunnel ceilings. Both overhead wire and third-rail systems use the running rails as the return conductor but some systems use a separate fourth rail for this purpose. In comparison to the principal alternative, the diesel engine, electric railways offer better energy efficiency, lower emissions and lower operating costs.
Electric locomotives are usually quieter, more powerful, more responsive and reliable than diesels. They have an important advantage in tunnels and urban areas; some electric traction systems provide regenerative braking that turns the train's kinetic energy back into electricity and returns it to the supply system to be used by other trains or the general utility grid. While diesel locomotives burn petroleum, electricity can be generated from diverse sources including renewable energy. Disadvantages of electric traction include high capital costs that may be uneconomic on trafficked routes. Different regions may use different supply voltages and frequencies, complicating through service and requiring greater complexity of locomotive power; the limited clearances available under overhead lines may preclude efficient double-stack container service. Railway electrification has increased in the past decades, as of 2012, electrified tracks account for nearly one third of total tracks globally. Electrification systems are classified by three main parameters: Voltage Current Direct current Alternating current Frequency Contact system Third rail Fourth rail Overhead lines Overhead lines plus linear motor Four rail system Five rail systemSelection of an electrification system is based on economics of energy supply and capital cost compared to the revenue obtained for freight and passenger traffic.
Different systems are used for intercity areas. Six of the most used voltages have been selected for European and international standardisation; some of these are independent of the contact system used, so that, for example, 750 V DC may be used with either third rail or overhead lines. There are many other voltage systems used for railway electrification systems around the world, the list of railway electrification systems covers both standard voltage and non-standard voltage systems; the permissible range of voltages allowed for the standardised voltages is as stated in standards BS EN 50163 and IEC 60850. These take into account the number of trains drawing their distance from the substation. Increasing availability of high-voltage semiconductors may allow the use of higher and more efficient DC voltages that heretofore have only been practical with AC. 1,500 V DC is used in Japan, Hong Kong, Republic of Ireland, France, New Zealand, the United States. In Slovakia, there are two narrow-gauge lines in the High Tatras.
In the Netherlands it is used on the main system, alongside 25 kV on the HSL-Zuid and Betuwelijn, 3000 V south of Maastricht. In Portugal, it is used in Denmark on the suburban S-train system. In the United Kingdom, 1,500 V DC was used in 1954 for the Woodhead trans-Pennine route; the system was used for suburban electrification in East London and Manchester, now converted to 25 kV AC. It is now only used for the Wear Metro. In India, 1,500 V DC was the first electrification system launched in 1925 in Mumbai area. Between 2012-2016, the electrification was converted to 25 kV 50 Hz AC, the countrywide system. 3 kV DC is used in Belgium, Spain, the northern Czech Republic, Slovenia, South Africa, former Soviet Union countries and the Netherlands. It was used by the Milwaukee Road from Harlowton, Montana to Seattle-Tacoma, across the Continental Divide and including extensive branch and loop lines in Montana, by the Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad in the United States, the Kolkata suburban railway in India, before it was converted to 25 kV 50 Hz AC. DC volt
In rail transport, track gauge or track gage is the spacing of the rails on a railway track and is measured between the inner faces of the load-bearing rails. All vehicles on a rail network must have running gear, compatible with the track gauge, in the earliest days of railways the selection of a proposed railway's gauge was a key issue; as the dominant parameter determining interoperability, it is still used as a descriptor of a route or network. In some places there is a distinction between the nominal gauge and the actual gauge, due to divergence of track components from the nominal. Railway engineers use a device, like a caliper, to measure the actual gauge, this device is referred to as a track gauge; the terms structure gauge and loading gauge, both used, have little connection with track gauge. Both refer to two-dimensional cross-section profiles, surrounding the track and vehicles running on it; the structure gauge specifies the outline into which altered structures must not encroach.
The loading gauge is the corresponding envelope within which rail vehicles and their loads must be contained. If an exceptional load or a new type of vehicle is being assessed to run, it is required to conform to the route's loading gauge. Conformance ensures. In the earliest days of railways, single wagons were manhandled on timber rails always in connection with mineral extraction, within a mine or quarry leading from it. Guidance was not at first provided except by human muscle power, but a number of methods of guiding the wagons were employed; the spacing between the rails had to be compatible with that of the wagon wheels. The timber rails wore rapidly. In some localities, the plates were made L-shaped, with the vertical part of the L guiding the wheels; as the guidance of the wagons was improved, short strings of wagons could be connected and pulled by horses, the track could be extended from the immediate vicinity of the mine or quarry to a navigable waterway. The wagons were built to a consistent pattern and the track would be made to suit the wagons: the gauge was more critical.
The Penydarren Tramroad of 1802 in South Wales, a plateway, spaced these at 4 ft 4 in over the outside of the upstands. The Penydarren Tramroad carried the first journey by a locomotive, in 1804, it was successful for the locomotive, but unsuccessful for the track: the plates were not strong enough to carry its weight. A considerable progressive step was made. Edge rails required a close match between rail spacing and the configuration of the wheelsets, the importance of the gauge was reinforced. Railways were still seen as local concerns: there was no appreciation of a future connection to other lines, selection of the track gauge was still a pragmatic decision based on local requirements and prejudices, determined by existing local designs of vehicles. Thus, the Monkland and Kirkintilloch Railway in the West of Scotland used 4 ft 6 in; the Arbroath and Forfar Railway opened in 1838 with a gauge of 5 ft 6 in, the Ulster Railway of 1839 used 6 ft 2 in Locomotives were being developed in the first decades of the 19th century.
His designs were so successful that they became the standard, when the Stockton and Darlington Railway was opened in 1825, it used his locomotives, with the same gauge as the Killingworth line, 4 ft 8 in. The Stockton and Darlington line was immensely successful, when the Liverpool and Manchester Railway, the first intercity line, was built, it used the same gauge, it was hugely successful, the gauge, became the automatic choice: "standard gauge". The Liverpool and Manchester was followed by other trunk railways, with the Grand Junction Railway and the London and Birmingham Railway forming a huge critical mass of standard gauge; when Bristol promoters planned a line from London, they employed the innovative engineer Isambard Kingdom Brunel. He decided on a wider gauge, to give greater stability, the Great Western Railway adopted a gauge of 7 ft eased to 7 ft 1⁄4 in; this became known as broad gauge. The Great Western Railway was successful and was expanded and through friendly associated companies, widening the scope of broad gauge.
At the same time, other parts of Britain built railways to standard gauge, British technology was exported to European countries and parts of North America using standard gauge. Britain polarised into two areas: those that used standard gauge. In this context, standard gauge was referred to as "narrow gauge" to indicate the contrast; some smaller concerns selected other non-standard gauges: the Eastern Counties Railway adopted 5 ft. Most of them converted to standard gauge at an early date, but the GWR's broad gauge continued to grow; the larger railway companies wished to expand geographically, large areas were considered to be under their control. When a new
Port Road, Adelaide
Port Road is a major road in Adelaide, South Australia connecting the Adelaide city centre with Port Adelaide. It is 12 km long, has a wide median strip, giving a total width of 70 m; the original design, conceived soon after the establishment of Adelaide, was to accommodate a standard road and a canal, with the canal replaced in the plans by a railway line. The canal and railway line were never created in the road allotment: the railway line when built in 1853 was built 1 km to the east. Since the extension of the Glenelg tram in 2009, 200 metres of median strip at the city end is occupied by tram lines. In the 1968 Metropolitan Adelaide Transport Study the road was destined to be upgraded to become the Port Freeway; the plan fell through, yet in 2005 the Government of South Australia announced a 600 m tunnel for South Road below Port Road and the railway line. The Torrens Road to River Torrens project to upgrade South Road to include a free-flowing road in a trench under Port Road and several other intersections started construction in 2015 and is expected to be completed by the end of 2018.
Some routes in Adelaide were renumbered in 2017. Port Road had been designated route A21 between Park Terrace. After the change, the West Terrace end is not numbered, it bears route R1 between James Congdon Drive and Park Terrace. Australian Roads portal South Australian History: Port Adelaide 34°54′30″S 138°34′37″E
Commuter rail called suburban rail, is a passenger rail transport service that operates between a city centre and middle to outer suburbs beyond 15 km and commuter towns or other locations that draw large numbers of commuters—people who travel on a daily basis. Trains operate following a schedule at speeds varying from 50 to 225 km/h. Distance charges or zone pricing may be used. Non-English names include Treno suburbano in Italian, Cercanías in Spanish, Rodalies in Catalan, Proastiakos in Greek, S-Bahn in German, Train de banlieue in French, Příměstský vlak or Esko in Czech, Elektrichka in Russian, Pociąg podmiejski in Polish and Pendeltåg in Swedish; the development of commuter rail services has become popular, with the increased public awareness of congestion, dependence on fossil fuels, other environmental issues, as well as the rising costs of owning and parking automobiles. Most commuter trains are built to main line rail standards, differing from light rail or rapid transit systems by: being larger providing more seating and less standing room, owing to the longer distances involved having a lower frequency of service having scheduled services serving lower-density suburban areas connecting suburbs to the city center sharing track or right-of-way with intercity or freight trains not grade separated being able to skip certain stations as an express service due to being driver controlled Compared to rapid transit, commuter/suburban rail has lower frequency, following a schedule rather than fixed intervals, fewer stations spaced further apart.
They serve lower density suburban areas, share right-of-way with intercity or freight trains. Some services operate only during peak hours and others uses fewer departures during off peak hours and weekends. Average speeds are high 50 km/h or higher; these higher speeds better serve the longer distances involved. Some services include express services which skip some stations in order to run faster and separate longer distance riders from short-distance ones; the general range of commuter trains' distance varies between 200 km. Sometimes long distances can be explained by. Distances between stations may vary, but are much longer than those of urban rail systems. In city centers the train either has a terminal station or passes through the city centre with notably fewer station stops than those of urban rail systems. Toilets are available on-board trains and in stations, their ability to coexist with freight or intercity services in the same right-of-way can drastically reduce system construction costs.
However they are built with dedicated tracks within that right-of-way to prevent delays where service densities have converged in the inner parts of the network. Most such trains run on the local standard gauge track; some systems may run on a broader gauge. Examples of narrow gauge systems are found in Japan, Malaysia, Switzerland, in the Brisbane and Perth systems in Australia, in some systems in Sweden, on the Genoa-Casella line in Italy; some countries and regions, including Finland, Pakistan, Russia and Sri Lanka, as well as San Francisco in the US and Melbourne and Adelaide in Australia, use broad gauge track. Metro rail or rapid transit covers a smaller inner-urban area ranging outwards to between 12 km to 20 km, has a higher train frequency and runs on separate tracks, whereas commuter rail shares tracks and the legal framework within mainline railway systems. However, the classification as a metro or rapid rail can be difficult as both may cover a metropolitan area run on separate tracks in the centre, feature purpose-built rolling stock.
The fact that the terminology is not standardised across countries further complicates matters. This distinction is most made when there are two systems such as New York's subway and the LIRR and Metro-North Railroad, Paris' Métro and RER along with Transilien, London's tube lines of the Underground and the Overground, Thameslink along with other commuter rail operators, Madrid's Metro and Cercanías, Barcelona's Metro and Rodalies, Tokyo's subway and the JR lines along with various owned and operated commuter rail systems. In Germany the S-Bahn is regarded as a train category of its own, exists in many large cities and in some other areas, but there are differing service and technical standards from city to city. Most S-Bahns behave like commuter rail with most trackage not separated from other trains, long lines with trains running between cities and suburbs rather than within a city; the distances between stations however, are short. In larger systems there is a high frequency metro-like central corridor in the city center where all the lines converge into.
Typical examples of large city S-Bahns include Frankfurt. S-Bahns do exist in some mid-size cities like Rostock and Magdeburg but behave more like typical commuter rail with lower frequencies and little exclusive trackage. In Berlin, the S-Bahn systems arguably fulfill all considerations of a true metro system (despite the existence of U-Ba
A concrete sleeper or concrete tie is a type of railway sleeper or railroad tie made out of steel reinforced concrete. Concrete sleepers are less elastic, noisier than wooden sleepers as trains pass over them. In 1877, Joseph Monier, a French gardener, suggested that concrete reinforced with steel could be used for making sleepers for railway track. Monier designed a sleeper and obtained a patent for it. Concrete sleepers were first used on the Alford and Sutton Tramway in 1884, their first use on a main line railway was by the Reading Company in America in 1896, as recorded by AREA Proceedings at the time. Designs were further developed and the railways of Austria and Italy used the first concrete sleepers around the turn of the 20th century; this was followed by other European railways. Major progress was not achieved until World War II, when the timbers used for sleepers were scarce due to competition from other uses, such as mines. Following research carried out on French and other European railways, the modern pre-stressed concrete sleeper was developed.
Heavier rail sections and long welded rails were being installed, requiring higher-quality sleepers. These conditions spurred the development of concrete sleepers in France and Britain, where the technology was perfected; the 1 ft 11 1⁄2 in gauge Lynton and Barnstaple Railway in North Devon, experimented with concrete sleepers at a number of locations along the line. As the sleepers were cast to gauge, they were of little use outside the station areas on this curvaceous line where gauge slackening was required, they were noisy and lacked the elasticity of wooden sleepers creating a rigid road. Some of those concrete sleepers can now be seen on display at Woody Bay Station. Interest in concrete railway sleepers increased after World War II following advances in the design and production of pre-stressed concrete. Chaired bullhead; this design was used by the government-run railways during World War II and in particular prior to D-Day when timber was scarce and track extension or replacement was urgently required.
Gravesend West Street station was thus relaid in 1944 to enable the huge increase in freight to be handled. Concrete sleepers can be one piece of variable dimensions, they can consist of two separate blocks connected by a steel tie rod. Again, the Great Western Railway during World War Two produced chaired "pot" type sleepers — two concrete pods connected by steel bars — for use on sidings and some loops but these monoblock pot sleepers did not carry a gauge-tie at every position, such being placed every 3 or 4 pots or successively at rail joints; such an example was recorded in a siding at Talyllyn East Junction and at Rock Siding, Talybont-on Usk, on the former Brecon & Merthyr Railway in September 1963. Until quite examples were to be seen at Dovey Junction on the Cambrian Coast and others may still exist elsewhere. Exceptionally, the concrete can be poured as two separate longitudinal slabs, as has been used in Namibia. Slab track consists of a continuous concrete roadbed without division into separate sleepers, these are most used in tunnels.
British Rail experimented with slabs during the late 1960s and laid several miles alongside the main running lines north of Derby. Concrete sleepers lack the elasticity of wooden sleepers and, ballast tracks with concrete sleepers have a much quicker degradation of the ballast when loaded; this is true in curves and switches. To reduce the wear on the ballast, in some cases offer vibration isolation, pads are fitted to the base of the sleeper; the pads are manufactured of polyurethane foams with a stiffness tailored to meet the elasticity requirements of the track. To reduce the wear of the ballast, the best material to use is a stiff semi-plastic polyurethane foam that mimics the plastic behaviour of wooden sleepers; these pads are 7–10 mm thick. In order to achieve vibration isolation as well, the elastic layer needs to be softer, in many cases thicker. A vibration isolation of 5-12 dB can be achieved, but the results will depend on many factors, such as axle load, subsoil stiffness, ballast thickness, ballast quality and more.
Therefore, it is difficult to predict the results exactly. Advantages include: They do not rot like timber sleepers, extra weight makes track more stable, they can withstand fire hazards better than wooden sleepers, they give more retentivity to the track, they have a longer life than wooden sleepers, they need less maintenance, resulting in lower ongoing costs and fewer track closures. Additionally, concrete sleepers are not soaked in creosote like most wooden sleepers, therefore they are environmentally friendlier. Disadvantages include: When trains derail and the wheels hit the sleepers, timber sleepers tend to absorb the blow and remain intact, while concrete sleepers tend to shatter and have to be replaced. Initial costs are greater, they are unsuitable for change of gauge, unless this is taken into account. Concrete sleepers are up to 300 lbs heavier than their wooden counterparts; as a result, larger sized ballast is required to both support and hold in place the sleepers on the roadbed.
Additionally, they do not absorb as much vibration from passing trains. This can cause degradation of the sl
South Road, Adelaide
South Road known as Main South Road, is a major north–south conduit in Adelaide and Fleurieu Peninsula in South Australia. It is one of Adelaide's most important bypass roads; the northern part of South Road contributes the central component of the North–South Corridor, a series of road projects under construction or planning that will provide a continuous expressway between Old Noarlunga and Gawler. South Road of today was until the 1970s known by a string of names: Shillabeer Avenue, Government Road, John Street, Taylors Road. Fisher Terrace, South Road from Anzac Highway southwards. South Road carries much of the road traffic from the southern suburbs towards the Adelaide city centre; this traffic completes its journey to the city centre via the Anzac Highway. From the Anzac Highway, South Road continues north as a western bypass of the city across many arterials, the major ones being Sir Donald Bradman Drive, Port Road, Torrens Road, Regency Road and Grand Junction Road, to the junction with the Port River Expressway and the Salisbury Highway.
Until the Port River Expressway opened in 2005, the sections of South Road and Salisbury Highway between Grand Junction Road and Port Wakefield Road were known as the South Road Extension, built in the early 1990s. To the south of Anzac Highway, the name changes to Main South Road at the intersection of Ayliffes and Shepherds Hill Roads at Clovelly Park, continues through Seaford and runs parallel to the coastline of Gulf St Vincent until Normanville where it is known as Willis Drive for 2 km continues to Cape Jervis at its southern tip; the town of Old Noarlunga, South Australia was bypassed in 1972, Old Reynella in 1964. The Southern Expressway runs parallel to Main South Road for 18 km between Darlington and Noarlunga and serves to reduce traffic congestion. Main South Road and the Southern Expressway have 3 different intersections along the length of the roads. South Road suffers from traffic congestion due to its importance as one of Adelaide's main arterial roads and bypasses. Traffic has increased in line with the growth and development of Adelaide's southern suburbs.
An overpass was built over Cross Road and the Noarlunga railway line between 1982 and 1984 to reduce a major bottleneck. The State government completed the "Gallipoli Underpass" under Anzac Highway, an overpass of the Adelaide-Glenelg tramway, in 2009 and 2010; the underpass model used is a diamond interchange. In November 2005, the Royal Automobile Association released its recommendations to the South Australian government in regards to the road network. South Road was found to be the poorest road in the state; the recommendations given included $6 billion of funds to upgrade the roads of South Australia – with $1.5–2 billion to be spent on South Road alone. The RAA's plan for the road included a 6 km tunnel from Port Road all the way to the Anzac Highway underpass and over/underpasses at six other major intersections and two rail crossings. On 18 August 2007, Prime Minister John Howard announced that South Road was to be included in the AusLink National Road Network, pledged $1 billion in funding for the project between 2007 and 2020.
In October 2009, both the Premier of South Australia and the Prime Minister released plans for the South Road Superway — a 3–4 km section of elevated freeway running from the Port River Expressway to the intersection of Regency Road at a cost of $800 million. The project started in 2010 and was completed in early 2014; the elevated part provides separation at Grand Junction Road, Cormack Road, the Dry Creek-Port Adelaide railway line. Two further sections were identified and funded for upgrade following the 2013 Australian federal election; the first of these was the Darlington Upgrade addressing the section from the northern end of the Southern Expressway to provide a free-flowing route under the intersections with Flinders Drive and Sturt Road to the Ayliffes Road intersection. The Torrens Road to River Torrens lowered motorway addressed the major intersections with Grange and Port Roads, the Outer Harbor railway line crossing, several minor road intersections. Both of these upgrades involved land acquisition to widen the road corridor, surface grade carriage ways on the edges, a lowered central roadway carrying the free-flow traffic below the crossing routes.
The Torrens to Torrens project was started in 2015, opened to traffic in 2018. The scope of both sections was extended northwards; the initial plan for Torrens to Torrens did not include grade separation at Torrens Road, added. The initial plan for Darlington did not include grade separation at Ayliffes Road or Tonsley Boulevard; the Darlington upgrade is scheduled for completion in 2019. In January 2017, the Outer Harbor railway line level crossing was replaced in a grade separation project as part of the Torrens to Torrens project. In April 2017, reports emerged involving a confirmation by the State Government stating that South Road's upgrades used contaminated cement; the Torrens River to Torrens Road lowered motorway opened to traffic in late September 2018. An upgrade of Regency Road to Pym Street, the gap between the elevated South Road Superway and the almost-completed Torrens to Torrens project, was announced on 1 May 2018, to be jointly funded by the state and federal governments; the section includes three sets of traffic lights and several uncontrolled intersections with minor streets.
A timeframe for completion was not announced at the
Grange railway line
The Grange railway line is a suburban branch line in Adelaide, South Australia. In September 1882, a line was opened from Woodville to Grange, built by the Grange Railway and Investment Company. Unlike the Adelaide to Port Adelaide route, built and operated by the South Australian Government, the Grange line was a private venture, constructed to tap into potential development in the area between Woodville and the coast; the new line ran into a bay platform at Woodville. Although there was a connection to the main line, it was not possible for Grange line trains to conveniently continue to Adelaide; the Grange railway company, with its rolling stock of two locomotives and four carriages, was not a financial success and was forced to operate on a shoestring budget right from the start. Following its collapse, the South Australian Railways took over operation in 1891, using a steam tram in place of the more conventional locomotive and carriages; the Grange line was bought out by the State Government in 1893, in 1894 it was extended as the Henley Beach railway line from Grange southwards to Henley Beach along Military Road.
Following modifications to the track layout at Woodville station in 1909, it became possible for trains from the Henley Beach and Grange branch lines to travel beyond Woodville to Adelaide. In November 1940, a station at Hendon was opened. After the end of World War II, the Hendon trains operated only at shift-change times. In spite of low passenger numbers, the service continued operation until 1 February 1980, after which the station was closed and the rail corridor repurposed as the eastern end of West Lakes Boulevard; the Grange line serviced the former Cheltenham Racecourse station for Saturday horse racing events up until the 1960s. The terminus at Grange was relocated in the late 1980s on the eastern side of Military Road to eliminate a level crossing; the old station was a stop on the Henley Beach line, an extension of the Grange line which closed in 1957. A station named Holdens, located between Woodville and Albert Park stations adjacent to what is now the SA Manufacturing Park, was closed in 1992 and subsequently demolished.
Until 1996, Grange line services operated as a shuttle from Woodville station at night and on weekends, connecting with Outer Harbor line services. The South Australian Government is considering electrifying the Outer Harbor line or converting it to light rail. A light rail conversion would require the conversion or closure of the Grange line. A 2016 report into potential light rail projects in Adelaide considered four options for the future of the Grange line; the first option would electrify the heavy rail line but make no other changes, the second would convert the line to light rail and add a new on-street branch from Albert Park station to West Lakes, the third would retain the West Lakes route but replace the remaining section of the railway line with light rail along Grange Road and the final option would see the West Lakes line branch from the Grange Road light rail - replacing the railway line. During 2–23 January 2017, the line was closed with the Outer Harbor line for the building of an overpass over South Road.
During this time, tracks between Woodville station and Port Road were replaced, Albert Park station was rebuilt. Both lines were closed again along with a portion of the Gawler line in April, June and August of the same year to work on the Torrens Rail Junction Project; the line runs from the Adelaide to the seaside suburb of Grange. The route follows the same alignment as the Outer Harbor line as far as Woodville station, where it diverges south west and across Port Road; the route travels through Albert Park and bisects the Royal Adelaide Golf Club between Seaton Park and East Grange stations. The line is single track from Woodville to Grange with no passing loops over its entire length. All stations on the line are unattended and have only basic passenger waiting facilities; the line is 5.5 kilometres long and broad gauge. Parking / Park ‘n’ Ride / Hi Frequency Services operate in tandem with Outer Harbor line trains. Weekday off-peak services run every 30 minutes, Weekday peak services run every 20–30 minutes with hourly services on weekends.
Once every two years services were temporarily cut back to Seaton Park for two weeks for the running of the Jacob's Creek Open golf tournament. Rail replacement buses were used to transport passengers for the remainder of the route; the tournaments were cancelled in 2007. The vast majority of services are operated by 3000 class railcars. 2000 class railcars have not operated on the line since 2006. Grange to City - Adelaide Metro website Route map SA Track & Signal