Seal of Wisconsin
The Great Seal of the State of Wisconsin is a seal used by the secretary of state to authenticate all of the governor’s official acts, except laws. It consists of the state coat of arms, with the words "Great Seal of the State of Wisconsin" above it and 13 stars, representing the original states, below it. Top: Forward, the state motto A badger, the state animal Center, the state shield: Top left: A plow, representing agriculture Top right: A pick and shovel, representing mining Bottom left: An arm-and-hammer, representing manufacturing Bottom right: An anchor, representing navigation Center: The U. S. coat of arms, including the motto E Pluribus Unum The shield is supported by a sailor and a yeoman, representing labor on water and land Bottom: A cornucopia, representing prosperity and abundance 13 lead ingots, representing mineral wealth and the 13 original United StatesThe state seal emphasizes mining and shipping because at the time of Wisconsin's founding in 1848 the mining of lead and iron and shipping were major industries.
The Secretary of State is the keeper of Wisconsin's great seal. The seal is displayed in all courtrooms in the state alongside the county seal. State of Wisconsin Symbols of the State of Wisconsin Flag of Wisconsin
Delaware is one of the 50 states of the United States, in the South-Atlantic or Southern region. It is bordered to the south and west by Maryland, north by Pennsylvania, east by New Jersey and the Atlantic Ocean; the state takes its name from Thomas West, 3rd Baron De La Warr, an English nobleman and Virginia's first colonial governor. Delaware occupies the northeastern portion of the Delmarva Peninsula. It's the sixth most densely populated. Delaware's largest city is Wilmington; the state is divided into the lowest number of any state. From north to south, they are New Castle County, Kent County, Sussex County. While the southern two counties have been predominantly agricultural, New Castle County is more industrialized. Before its coastline was explored by Europeans in the 16th century, Delaware was inhabited by several groups of Native Americans, including the Lenape in the north and Nanticoke in the south, it was colonized by Dutch traders at Zwaanendael, near the present town of Lewes, in 1631.
Delaware was one of the 13 colonies participating in the American Revolution. On December 7, 1787, Delaware became the first state to ratify the Constitution of the United States, has since been known as "The First State"; the state was named after the Delaware River, which in turn derived its name from Thomas West, 3rd Baron De La Warr, the ruling governor of the Colony of Virginia at the time Europeans first explored the river. The Delaware Indians, a name used by Europeans for Lenape people indigenous to the Delaware Valley derive their name from the same source; the surname de La Warr is of Anglo-Norman origin. It came from a Norman lieu-dit La Guerre; this toponymic could derive from the Latin word ager, from the Breton gwern or from the Late Latin varectum. The toponyms Gara, Gaire appear in old texts cited by Lucien Musset, where the word gara means gore, it could be linked with a patronymic from the Old Norse verr. Delaware is 96 miles long and ranges from 9 miles to 35 miles across, totaling 1,954 square miles, making it the second-smallest state in the United States after Rhode Island.
Delaware is bounded to the north by Pennsylvania. Small portions of Delaware are situated on the eastern side of the Delaware River sharing land boundaries with New Jersey; the state of Delaware, together with the Eastern Shore counties of Maryland and two counties of Virginia, form the Delmarva Peninsula, which stretches down the Mid-Atlantic Coast. The definition of the northern boundary of the state is unusual. Most of the boundary between Delaware and Pennsylvania was defined by an arc extending 12 miles from the cupola of the courthouse in the city of New Castle; this boundary is referred to as the Twelve-Mile Circle. Although the Twelve-Mile Circle is claimed to be the only territorial boundary in the United States, a true arc, the Mexican boundary with Texas includes several arcs, many cities in the South have circular boundaries; this border extends all the way east to the low-tide mark on the New Jersey shore continues south along the shoreline until it again reaches the 12-mile arc in the south.
To the west, a portion of the arc extends past the easternmost edge of Maryland. The remaining western border runs east of due south from its intersection with the arc; the Wedge of land between the northwest part of the arc and the Maryland border was claimed by both Delaware and Pennsylvania until 1921, when Delaware's claim was confirmed. Delaware is with the lowest mean elevation of any state in the nation, its highest elevation, located at Ebright Azimuth, near Concord High School, is less than 450 feet above sea level. The northernmost part of the state is part of the Piedmont Plateau with rolling surfaces; the Atlantic Seaboard fall line follows the Robert Kirkwood Highway between Newark and Wilmington. A ridge about 75 to 80 feet in elevation extends along the western boundary of the state and separates the watersheds that feed Delaware River and Bay to the east and the Chesapeake Bay to the west. Since all of Delaware is a part of the Atlantic coastal plain, the effects of the ocean moderate its climate.
The state lies in the humid subtropical climate zone. Despite its small size, there is significant variation in mean temperature and amount of snowfall between Sussex County and New Castle County. Moderated by the Atlantic Ocean and Delaware Bay, the southern portion of the state has a milder climate and a longer growing season than the northern portion of the state. Delaware's all-time record high of 110 °F was recorded at Millsboro on July 21, 1930; the all-time record low of −17 °F was recorded at Millsboro on January 17, 1893. The transitional climate of Delaware supports a wide variety of vegetation. In the northern third of the state are found Northeastern coastal forests and mixed oak forests typical of the northeastern United States. In the southern two-thirds of the state are found Middle Atlantic coastal forests. Trap Pond State Park, along with areas in other parts of Sussex County, for example, support
Coat of arms of Vermont
The coat of arms of Vermont is the official armorial bearings of the U. S. state of Vermont. Most of the elements found in the coat of arms originate in the Great Seal of Vermont designed by Ira Allen. Whereas the Great Seal of Vermont is reproduced in a single color and is reserved for embossing and authenticating state documents, the coat of arms is a more naturalistic and colorful representation of many of the same elements; the Coat of arms of Vermont was first used in 1807 on $5 bank notes of The Vermont State Bank. One of these notes is in the special collections of the Vermont History Center in Vermont. Prior to the discovery of the 1807 banknotes, the earliest representation of the coat of arms of Vermont was found on an engraved 1821 state military commissions; the exact designer is not known, but it is that Secretary of State Robert Temple worked with an engraver in developing the arms. Considerable liberties were taken in early depictions of the coat of arms; the location of the cow and the sheaves moved about the foreground, the height of the pine tree and size of the buck's head varied.
A state statute was approved in 1840, modified in 1862, both attempts to codify and create more consistent representation of the arms. The coat of arms was cast in brass to ornament uniforms of Vermont's military regiments before, through the U. S. Civil War, when individual states raised and trained their own regiments. Today the coat of arms appears on the current flag of Vermont, above the rostrum in the Hall of Representatives at the Vermont State House, on state court buildings, signage marking the Vermont border, at Vermont Welcome Centers; the blazon was formalized and described by state statute in 1840 in the following manner: "the coat of arms of the state shall be, is described as follows: Green, a landscape occupying half of the shield. From near the base, reaching nearly to the top of the shield, arises a pine-tree of the natural color, between three erect sheaves, placed bendwise on the dexter side, a red cow standing on the sinister side of the field; the Crest: A buck's head, of the natural color, cut off and placed on a scroll and yellow.
The Motto and Badge: On a scroll beneath the shield, the motto: Vermont: Freedom and Unity. The Vermonter's Badge: two pine branches of natural color, crossed between the shield and scroll." The crest and Vermonter's Badge, can be seen, in modified form, on the Vermont Military Crest. The "Vermonter's Badge" described in the statute was worn as an expression of Vermont identity by citizens during the period of the Vermont Republic, again during the American Civil War by Vermont's military regiments; the motto Freedom and Unity is central to the Vermont ideal of balancing personal freedom with the individual's responsibility to their community. Many government seals of Vermont use the state's coat of arms. Coats of arms of the U. S. states Seal of William. Webster's Coats of Arms. Crescent Books" 1985. ISBN 0-517-49951-7. Zieber, Heraldry in America: The Civic Armorial Bearings of American States. Greenwich House: 1969. Zieber, Heraldry in America: A Classic Surverry of Coats of Arms and Insignia. Greenwich House: 1974.
ISBN 0-8383-0322-6. A history of the Coat of Arms of Vermont
New Castle County, Delaware
New Castle County is the northernmost of the three counties of the U. S. state of Delaware. As of the 2010 census, the population was 538,479, making it the most populous county in Delaware, with just under 60% of the state's population of 897,936 in the same census; the county seat is Wilmington. New Castle County is included in the Philadelphia-Camden-Wilmington, PA-NJ-DE-MD Metropolitan Statistical Area; the county is named after the English city of Newcastle. New Castle County has the highest population and population density of any Delaware county, it is the smallest county in the state by area, it has more people than the other two counties and Sussex, combined. It is the most economically developed of the three. Matt Meyer was elected New Castle County Executive in 2016. New Castle County is home to two minor league sports teams: the Wilmington Blue Rocks and the Delaware Blue Coats which plays in Wilmington, it has a professional auto racing track in New Castle known as Airport Speedway, which races on Saturday nights throughout the summer.
The first permanent European settlement on Delaware soil was Fort Christina, resulting from Peter Minuit's 1638 expedition on the Swedish vessels Fogel Grip and Kalmar Nyckel. The Swedes laid out the town at the site of modern-day Wilmington, they contracted with the Lenape Native Americans for land of Old Cape Henlopen north to Sankikans, inland as far as they desired. However, a dispute ensued between the Dutch, who asserted a prior claim to that land. In 1640, New Sweden was founded a few miles south of Christina. In 1644, Queen Christina appointed Lt. Col. Johan Printz as Governor of New Sweden, she directed boundaries to be set and to reach Cape Henlopen north along the west side of Godyn's Bay, up the South River, past Minquas Kill, to Sankikans. Printz settled as the seat of government and capital of the New Sweden colony. Peter Stuyvesant, Governor of New Netherland, sailed up the South River in 1651, he purchased land from the Lenape. Stuyvesant began to build Fort Casimir. In 1654, Johan Risingh and councilor to the Governor Lt. Col. Printz assumed Printz's duties and began to expel all Dutch from New Sweden.
Fort Casimir surrendered and was renamed Fort Trinity in 1654. The Swedes had complete possession of the west side of the Delaware River. On June 21, 1654, the Lenape met with the Swedes to reaffirm the purchase. Having learned of the fall of Fort Casimir, the Dutch sent Stuyvesant to drive the Swedes from both sides of the river, they allowed only Dutch colonists to settle in the area and on August 31, 1655, the territory was converted back to Fort Casimir. Fort Christina fell on September 15 to the Dutch and New Netherland ruled once again. John Paul Jacquet was appointed governor, making New Amstel the capital of the Dutch-controlled colony; as payment for regaining the territory, the Dutch West India Company conveyed land from the south side of Christina Kill to Bombay Hook, as far west as Minquas land. This land was known as the Colony of The City. On December 22, 1663, the Dutch transferred property rights to the territory along the Delaware River to England. In 1664, the Duke of York, was granted this land by King Charles II.
One of the first acts by the Duke was to order removal of all Dutch from New Amsterdam. In 1672, the town of New Castle was incorporated and English law ordered. However, in 1673, the Dutch attacked the territory. On September 12, 1673, the Dutch established New Amstel in present-day Delaware coterminous with today's New Castle County; the establishment was not stable, it was transferred to the British under the Treaty of Westminster on February 9, 1674. On November 6, 1674, New Amstel was made dependent on New York Colony, was renamed New Castle on November 11, 1674. On September 22, 1676, New Castle County was formally placed under the Duke of York's laws, it gained land from Upland County on November 12, 1678. On June 21, 1680, St. Jones County was carved from New Castle County, it is known today as Delaware. On August 24, 1682, New Castle County, along with the rest of the surrounding land, was transferred from the Colony of New York to the possession of William Penn, who established the Colony of Delaware.
In September 1673, a Dutch council established a court at New Castle with the boundaries defined as north of Steen Kill and south to Bomties Hook. In 1681, a 12-mile arc was drawn to delineate the northern border of New Castle County as it exists. In 1685, the western border was established by King James II. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 494 square miles, of which 426 square miles is land and 68 square miles is water; the boundaries of New Castle County are described in § 102 of the Delaware Code. The county is drained by Brandywine Creek, Christina River, other channels, its eastern edge sits along the Delaware Delaware Bay. Two small exclaves of the county and the state lie across the Delaware River, on its east bank on the New Jersey side, Finns Point adjacent to Pennsville Township, New Jersey, the northern tip of Artificial Island, adjacent to Lower Alloways Creek Township, New Jers
Jack Alan Markell is an American former businessman and politician who served as the 73rd Governor of Delaware from 2009 to 2017. He is a member of the Democratic Party. Markell served three terms as the State Treasurer of Delaware from 1999 to 2009. After term-limited Governor Ruth Ann Minner was prevented from running for reelection, Markell announced his intention to run for the Democratic nomination for governor. Markell defeated Lieutenant Governor of Delaware John Carney with 51% of the vote in the Democratic primary, defeated the Republican nominee, former Delaware Superior Court Judge William Swain Lee, with 67% of the vote in the general election. Markell won reelection by a margin of over 40%, the largest margin in any race for governor in Delaware's history. Markell was born and raised in Newark, the son of Elaine "Leni", a social worker, William Markell, who taught accounting at the University of Delaware, he graduated from Newark High School. As a child, he attended a summer camp in the Labor Zionist youth movement, Habonim Dror.
He graduated from Brown University earning his Bachelor of Arts in economics and development studies, went on to the University of Chicago Booth School of Business, earning his Master of Business Administration. Markell began his business career in 1982, he became a consultant at McKinsey & Company in 1986. Markell joined Fleet Call – known as Nextel Communications – where he served as the Senior Vice President for Corporate Development from 1989 to 1995. Becoming the company's 13th employee, Markell joined Nextel. After leaving Nextel, Markell worked as a senior manager at Comcast Corporation from 1996 to 1998. Markell is married to Carla Smathers. On November 16, 2013, Markell and his wife performed A. R. Gurney's play Love Letters at a fundraiser for the Delaware Theater Company in Delaware. Markell was first elected State Treasurer of Delaware in 1998, unseating four-term Republican incumbent Janet C. Rzewnicki, was re-elected in 2002 and 2006; as treasurer, Markell led the development of several educational efforts in personal financial management, known collectively as "the Financial Literacy initiatives".
He created the "Delaware Money School", which offers free classes to Delaware residents on topics such as saving for college and retirement planning. He started the "Delaware Bank at School Program" which takes banks and financial education to schools, he partnered with the University of Delaware, Center for Economic Education and Entrepreneurship, as well as several Delaware banks, to teach young people the basics of money and savings. In 2001, Governor Ruth Ann Minner chose Markell to chair the Information Services Task Force, which developed and implemented recommendations to modify the state's management of information technology. In 2002, he led an effort to streamline and coordinate the procurement of goods and services while using state-of-the-art purchasing techniques, he led the "Health Rewards" initiative, which offers Delaware state government employees comprehensive physical assessments, detailed statistics about how their health compares with their peers across the country, recommendations about how they can improve their health.
On June 6, 2007, Markell launched his candidacy for Governor of Delaware, setting up a primary with Lieutenant Governor John Carney. Beginning in the summer of 2007, Markell released fourteen policy papers on issues ranging from energy to health care to education. Early, Markell was far behind in endorsements. Markell closed in the polls until election day when Carney still held a small lead. Markell won an upset victory with 51.2 % of the vote in the Democratic primary. Against former judge William Swain Lee, the Republican nominee for governor in 2004, Markell won the general election with 67% of the vote. Markell won a second term on November 6, 2012, defeating Republican challenger Jeff Cragg by nearly 40 points. InaugurationAccording to The News Journal, Markell's 2009 inauguration ceremony was held in the middle of the night to comply with the requirements of the state constitution that the Governor be inaugurated on the third Tuesday of January and to allow Delaware residents to enjoy the historic event that would occur that day: the inauguration of President Barack Obama, his vice president, Delaware's Joseph R. Biden Jr.
A traditional swearing-in ceremony was held the following day on Legislative Mall in Dover, Delaware. BudgetMarkell entered office with an unprecedented budget challenge, facing a deficit of $800,000,000. One of his first actions was to cut his own salary by 20%. Markell announced his plan to balance the budget in March 2009. Avoiding lay-offs, Markell's plan included an 8% pay cut for state employees and taxation of sports betting, over $200 million worth of cuts, revenue enhancements on such things as liquor and tobacco. After failing to obtain an initial majority in the House of Representatives, Markell's sports betting proposal was approved on a second vote in May 2009. Legislation legalizing sports betting was approved by the Senate, signed into law by the Governor. Initial estimates of revenue for the state from sports betting were between 50 and 60 million dollars. Current revenues estimat
An insular area of the United States is a U. S. territory, neither a part of one of the 50 states nor of a Federal district. Article IV, Section 3, Clause 2 of the United States Constitution grants to United States Congress the responsibility of overseeing these territories, of which there are 14—three in the Caribbean Sea and 11 in the Pacific Ocean; these territories are classified by whether they are incorporated and whether they have an organized territorial government established by the U. S. Congress through an Organic Act. All territories but one are unincorporated, all but four are considered to be unorganized. Five U. S. territories have a nonmilitary population. Each of them has a civilian government, a constitution, enjoys some degree of local political autonomy. Congress has extended citizenship rights by birth to all inhabited territories except American Samoa, these citizens may vote and run for office in any U. S. jurisdiction in which they are residents. The people of American Samoa are U.
S. nationals by place of birth, or they are U. S. citizens by naturalization after residing in a State for three months. Nationals are free to move around and seek employment within the United States without immigration restrictions, but cannot vote or hold office outside American Samoa. Residents of the five major populated insular areas do not pay U. S. federal income taxes but are required to pay other U. S. federal taxes such as import and export taxes, federal commodity taxes, social security taxes, etc. Individuals working for the federal government pay federal income taxes while all residents are required to pay federal payroll taxes. According to IRS Publication 570, income from other U. S. Pacific Ocean insular areas is taxable as income of United States residents; the U. S. State Department uses the term insular area to refer not only to territories under the sovereignty of the United States, but those independent nations that have signed a Compact of Free Association with the United States.
While these nations participate in many otherwise domestic programs, full responsibility for their military defense rests with the United States, they are distinct from the United States and their inhabitants are neither U. S. citizens nor nationals. The following islands, or island groups, are considered insular areas: None One Palmyra Atoll U. S. Territory of Palmyra Island Four Guam Northern Mariana Islands Puerto Rico United States Virgin Islands One American Samoa Ten Baker Island Howland Island Jarvis Island Johnston Atoll Kingman Reef Midway Atoll Navassa Island Wake Island Serranilla Bank Bajo Nuevo Bank Three Federated States of Micronesia Marshall Islands Palau Panama Canal Zone Philippines Dependent territory Guano Islands Act Guantanamo Bay Insular Cases Political divisions of the United States Territorial acquisitions of the United States Territories of the United States on stamps Office of Insular Affairs Department of the Interior Definitions of Insular Area Political Types Rubin, Richard, "The Lost Islands", The Atlantic Monthly, February 2001 Chapter 7: Puerto Rico and the Outlying Areas, U.
S. Census Bureau, Geographic Areas Reference Manual
Seal of Missouri
The Great Seal of the State of Missouri was adopted on January 11, 1822. Judge Robert William Wells designed the seal; the center of the seal contains the Great Seal of the United States on the right side, and, on the left, symbols representing the state. On both sides of the center circle, a bear represents bravery. Surrounding these symbols is the motto "United we stand, divided we fall"; the belt buckle signifies the State's ability to secede from the Union if deemed necessary, i.e. the belt can be unbuckled. Two mighty grizzly bears support this center shield. A scroll carries the state motto, Salus populi suprema lex esto, a Latin phrase meaning "Let the welfare of the people be the supreme law." The year 1820 is inscribed in Roman numerals below the scroll, although Missouri was not granted statehood until 1821. A star representing each of the other states of the Union graces the top portion of the seal; the outer circle of the seal bears the words "The Great Seal of the State of Missouri".
Above the shield is a helmet representing Missouri's state sovereignty. The large star above the helmet surrounded by 23 smaller stars represents Missouri's status as the 24th state; the cloud around the stars indicates the problems Missouri had in becoming a state. Salus populi suprema lex esto is found in Cicero's De Legibus, as Ollis salus populi suprema lex esto; the phrase is the state motto of Missouri, accepted in its state seal. It is the motto, appears on the coat of arms, of the City of Salford, the London Borough of Lewisham, the Duquesne University School of Law, is used as the motto of the Vlaams Belang political group in the Belgian Chamber of Representatives. John Locke uses it as the epigraph in his Second Treatise on Government and refers to it as a fundamental rule for government. Coat of Arms of the U. S. States Seals of the U. S. states List of Missouri state symbols Flag of Missouri Marie Elizabeth Watkins Oliver Office of the Secretary of State of Missouri