Interstate 20 in Georgia
In the U. S. state of Georgia, Interstate 20 travels from the Alabama state line to the Savannah River, the South Carolina state line. The highway enters the state near Tallapoosa, it travels through exits the state in Augusta. The highway travels through the cities of Bremen, Conyers and Madison. I-20 has the unsigned state highway designation of State Route 402. I-20 is four lanes wide in much of the state. In the Atlanta metropolitan area, the highway ranges from six lanes wide in the most outlying counties to 10 lanes wide in downtown Atlanta. I-20 enters Georgia from Alabama south-southwest of Tallapoosa; the state line is the Central–Eastern time zone boundary. It crosses over Williams Creek, it passes the Georgia Visitor Information Center. The highway crosses over Walton Creek just before entering the city limits of Tallapoosa. After it leaves the city limits, it has an interchange with SR 100. Within the interchange, I-20 enters the city limits of Tallapoosa twice more. After crossing over Blalock Creek, it curves to the east.
After it curves back to the east-northeast, it crosses over Walker Creek twice. It curves to the east-southeast and travels along the southern edge of Waco, where it has an interchange with Waco Road; the interstate enters Bremen. It enters Carroll County. I-20 curves to the east and has an interchange with US 27/SR 1, it travels southeast of the city. It crosses over Buck Creek. Right after the creek, the westbound lanes have a weigh station; the highway travels south of Spence Lake. It crosses over Allen Creek, it crosses over Bethel Creek. After a crossing of Webster Creek, the highway curves to the east-northeast and has an interchange with SR 113, it leaves Temple. It crosses the Little Tallapoosa River and curves back to the east-northeast, it enters Villa Rica. It travels just south of Villa Rica High School, it has an interchange with SR 61/SR 101. It passes the Glanton -- Hindsman Elementary School, it enters Douglas County. After I-20 starts curving to the east-southeast, it has an interchange with Liberty Road.
It curves to the east. It crosses over Keaton Creek, it has an interchange with Post Road southwest of Winston. It crosses over Mobley Creek, it enters Douglasville. It has an interchange with SR 5, it passes the Arbor Place Mall on its northern side. It crosses over Anneewakee Creek and has an interchange with Chapel Hill Road; the highway passes the WellStar Douglas Hospital on its eastern side. After crossing over Slater Mill Creek, it has an interchange with SR 92. Within the interchange, I-20 crosses over Little Anneewakee Creek, it travels along the Lithia Springs–Douglasville city line before re-entering Douglasville proper. It very travels along the Lithia Springs–Dawsonville city line. There, it crosses over Beaver Creek. After the interchange begins, the interstate enters Lithia Springs proper, it leaves the city limits of Lithia Springs and crosses over Sweetwater Creek on the Blair Bridge. Upon re-entering the city, it curves to the east-southeast and has an interchange with SR 6. Right after leaving the interchange, it enters Cobb County.
I-20 has an interchange with both the northern terminus of Riverside Parkway and the eastern terminus of Six Flags Drive. Is a partial interchange with Six Flags Parkway; this interchange is only accessible from the westbound lanes. At this interchange, the highway begins to travel along the southern edge of Mableton, it crosses over the Chattahoochee River on the Debra Mills Commemorative Bridge. This marks the eastern end of Mableton, as well as the Fulton County line. I-20 has an interchange with SR 70, it curves to the east-northeast and enters the western part of Atlanta, on the Adamsville–Old Gordon neighborhood line. At a bridge over SR 139, the highway begins traveling along the Adamsville–Fairburn Heights neighborhood line. After passing Collier Heights Park, it curves to the southeast and has an interchange with I-285; this interchange is just south of the Basoline E. Usher Elementary School and on the southwestern edge of Harwell Heights Park. Right after the I-285 interchange, the highway travels on the Westhaven–Collier Heights neighborhood line.
It crosses over Sandy Creek and has an interchange with SR 280. At this interchange, it begins to travel on the Westhaven–Dixie Hills neighborhood line. Just southeast of this interchange, it travels along the Florida Heights–Dixie Hills neighborhood line. At a crossing of Fairfield Place NW, I-20 begins to parallel SR 139. Just north of Westview Cemetery, it travels along the southern edge of the Penelope Neighbors neighborhood; the highway curves to the east-northeast and has an interchange with Martin Luther King Jr. Drive, it curves back to the southeast and begins to travel along the southern edge of the Mozley Park neighborhood. Upon traveling under a bridge that carries Westview Drive SW, it begins traveling along the Westview–Mozley Park neighborhood line. Upon reaching a partial interchange with Langhorn Street SW, only accessible from the westbound lanes, it enters the
Tobacco is a product prepared from the leaves of the tobacco plant by curing them. The plant is part of the genus Nicotiana and of the Solanaceae family. While more than 70 species of tobacco are known, the chief commercial crop is N. tabacum. The more potent variant N. rustica is used around the world. Tobacco contains the alkaloid nicotine, a stimulant, harmala alkaloids. Dried tobacco leaves are used for smoking in cigarettes, pipe tobacco, flavored shisha tobacco, they can be consumed as snuff, chewing tobacco, dipping tobacco and snus. Tobacco use is a risk factor for many diseases. In 2008, the World Health Organization named tobacco as the world's single greatest preventable cause of death; the English word "tobacco" originates from the Spanish and Portuguese word "tabaco". The precise origin of this word is disputed, but it is thought to have derived at least in part, from Taino, the Arawakan language of the Caribbean. In Taino, it was said to mean either a roll of tobacco leaves or to tabago, a kind of L-shaped pipe used for sniffing tobacco smoke.
However coincidentally, similar words in Spanish and Italian were used from 1410 to define medicinal herbs believed to have originated from the Arabic طُبّاق ṭubbāq, a word dating to the 9th century, as a name for various herbs. Tobacco has long been used in the Americas, with some cultivation sites in Mexico dating back to 1400–1000 BC. Many Native American tribes have traditionally used tobacco. Eastern North American tribes carried tobacco in pouches as a accepted trade item, as well as smoking it, both and ceremonially, such as to seal a peace treaty or trade agreement. In some populations, tobacco is seen as a gift from the Creator, with the ceremonial tobacco smoke carrying one's thoughts and prayers to the Creator. Following the arrival of the Europeans to the Americas, tobacco became popular as a trade item. Hernández de Boncalo, Spanish chronicler of the Indies, was the first European to bring tobacco seeds to the Old World in 1559 following orders of King Philip II of Spain; these seeds were planted in the outskirts of Toledo, more in an area known as "Los Cigarrales" named after the continuous plagues of cicadas.
Before the development of the lighter Virginia and white burley strains of tobacco, the smoke was too harsh to be inhaled. Small quantities were smoked at a time, using a pipe like the midwakh or kiseru or smoking newly invented waterpipes such as the bong or the hookah. Tobacco became so popular that the English colony of Jamestown used it as currency and began exporting it as a cash crop; the alleged benefits of tobacco account for its considerable success. The astronomer Thomas Harriot, who accompanied Sir Richard Grenville on his 1585 expedition to Roanoke Island, explains that the plant "openeth all the pores and passages of the body" so that the natives’ "bodies are notably preserved in health, know not many grievous diseases, wherewithal we in England are times afflicted." Tobacco smoking and snuffing became a major industry in Europe and its colonies by 1700. Tobacco has been a major cash crop in Cuba and in other parts of the Caribbean since the 18th century. Cuban cigars are world-famous.
In the late 19th century, cigarettes became popular. James Bonsack created a machine that automated cigarette production; this increase in production allowed tremendous growth in the tobacco industry until the health revelations of the late-20th century. Following the scientific revelations of the mid-20th century, tobacco became condemned as a health hazard, became encompassed as a cause for cancer, as well as other respiratory and circulatory diseases. In the United States, this led to the Tobacco Master Settlement Agreement, which settled the lawsuit in exchange for a combination of yearly payments to the states and voluntary restrictions on advertising and marketing of tobacco products. In the 1970s, Brown & Williamson cross-bred a strain of tobacco to produce Y1; this strain of tobacco contained an unusually high amount of nicotine, nearly doubling its content from 3.2-3.5% to 6.5%. In the 1990s, this prompted the Food and Drug Administration to use this strain as evidence that tobacco companies were intentionally manipulating the nicotine content of cigarettes.
In 2003, in response to growth of tobacco use in developing countries, the World Health Organization rallied 168 countries to sign the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. The convention is designed to push for effective legislation and its enforcement in all countries to reduce the harmful effects of tobacco; this led to the development of tobacco cessation products. Many species of tobacco are in the genus of herbs Nicotiana, it is part of the nightshade family indigenous to North and South America, south west Africa, the South Pacific. Most nightshades contain varying amounts of a powerful neurotoxin to insects. However, tobaccos tend to contain a much higher concentration of nicotine than the others. Unlike many other Solanaceae species, they do not contain tropane alkaloids, which are poisonous to humans and other animals. Despite containing enough nicotine and other compounds such as germacrene and anabasine and other piperidine alkaloids to deter most herbivores, a number of such animals have evolved
Georgia House of Representatives
The Georgia House of Representatives is the lower house of the Georgia General Assembly of the U. S. state of Georgia. There are 180 elected members; the Georgia House of Representatives was created in 1777 during the American Revolution, making it older than the U. S. Congress. During its existence, its meeting place has moved multiple times, from Savannah to Augusta, to Louisville, to Milledgeville and to Atlanta in 1868. In 1867, the military governor of Georgia called for an assembly in Atlanta to discuss a constitutional convention. Atlanta officials moved to make the city Georgia's new state capital, donating the location of Atlanta's first city hall; the constitutional convention agreed and the people voted to ratify the decision on April 20, 1868. The Georgia General Assembly first presided in Atlanta on July 4, 1868. On October 26, 1884, construction began on a new state capitol and was first occupied on June 15, 1889; the state constitution gives the state legislature the power to make state laws, restrict land to protect and preserve the environment and natural resources, form a state militia under the command of the Governor of Georgia, expend public money, condemn property, zone property, participate in tourism, control and regulate outdoor advertising.
The state legislature cannot grant incorporation to private persons but may establish laws governing the incorporation process. It is prohibited from authorizing contracts or agreements that may have the effect of or the intent of lessening competition or encouraging a monopoly. Members of the Georgia House of Representatives maintain two privileges during their time in office. First, no member can be arrested during session or during committee meetings except in cases of treason, felony, or "breach of the peace". Second, members are not liable for anything they might say in committee meetings. According to the state constitution of 1983, this body is to comprise no fewer than 180 members elected for two-year terms. Current state law provides for 180 members. Elections are held the first Tuesday after the first Monday in November in even-numbered years, it is the third-largest lower house of the 50 United States. As of 2011, attorneys account for about 16.1% of the membership of the Georgia House of Representatives, a low figure.
The House of Representatives elects its own Speaker as well as a Speaker Pro Tempore. The current speaker of the Georgia House of Representatives is David Ralston; the current Speaker Pro Tempore is Jan Jones. The Speaker Pro Tempore becomes Speaker in case of the death, resignation, or permanent disability of the Speaker; the Speaker Pro Tempore serves. In addition there is a clerk of the House, charged with overseeing the flow of legislation through the body; the current clerk is William L. Reilly. Agriculture and Consumer Affairs Judiciary Appropriations Judiciary – Non-Civil Banks and Banking Legislative and Congressional Reapportionment MARTOC Defense and Veterans Affairs Motor Vehicles Economic Development and Tourism Natural Resources and Environment Education Public Safety and Homeland Security Ethics Energy and Telecommunications Game and Parks Regulated Industries Governmental Affairs Retirement Health and Human Services Rules Higher Education Science and Technology Human Relations and Aging Special Rules Industry and Labor State Properties Information and Audits State Planning and Community Affairs Insurance Transportation Interstate Cooperation Ways and Means Intergovernmental Coordination Budget & Fiscal Affairs Oversight Code Revision Juvenile Justice Small Business Development 155th Georgia General Assembly 154th Georgia General Assembly 153rd Georgia General Assembly 152nd Georgia General Assembly 151st Georgia General Assembly 150th Georgia General Assembly 149th Georgia General Assembly 148th Georgia General Assembly 147th Georgia General Assembly 146th Georgia General Assembly 140th Georgia General Assembly 139th Georgia General Assembly 138th Georgia General Assembly 137th Georgia General Assembly 136th Georgia General Assembly 135th Georgia General Assembly 134th Georgia General Assembly Georgia Senate Official website
Seal of Indiana
The Seal of the State of Indiana is used by the Governor of Indiana to certify official documents. The seal has gone through several revisions, it is the original seal, similar to the current one, was created by William Henry Harrison during his administration of the Indiana Territory. The current design of the seal was standardized by the Indiana General Assembly in 1963; the state seal is maintained by the Governor of Indiana. It is used to certify the authenticity of official state documents; the seal is placed on departmental reports, bills the Governor signs into law, official communications from the Governor to other high-ranking office holders. The seal is used on all commissions granted by the state as proof of the commission's authority; the United States Congress passed legislation on May 8, 1792, that directed the U. S. Secretary of State to "provide proper seals for the several and respective public offices in the said Territories". Indiana was part of the Northwest Territory at that time and a seal was created by the United States Department of State to be used on official papers of the territory.
The original seal was maintained by Governor Arthur St. Clair and the first recorded use was in a proclamation made on July 26, 1788. On May 10, 1800, the Indiana Territory was created by an act of Congress, but no provision for an official seal was included in the measure; the earliest recorded use of Indiana Territory's seal was on court documents that were signed by Governor William Henry Harrison in January 1801. The seal he used was an adaptation of the original seal created for the Northwest Territory. Although its origin is uncertain, it is that it was Harrison who made the alterations; the constitution of 1816 contained a clause that stated the governor should maintain a state seal and use it in official communication. The design of the seal was first proposed during the first session of the Indiana General Assembly in 1816. On November 22, 1816, representative Davis Floyd of Harrison County proposed the adoption of a seal with a design he referred to as "A forest and a woodman felling a tree, a buffalo leaving the forest and fleeing through the plain to a distant forest, sun in the west with the word Indiana."
The bill was put through a joint conference of both houses of the General Assembly and funds where voted to purchase a printer to create the seal. In 1819, the state seal was part of a state crisis. Lieutenant Governor Christopher Harrison became acting-governor when Governor Jonathan Jennings was away conducting negotiations with northern Indiana's native tribes; when Jennings returned, Harrison refused to step down as governor, claiming that Jennings' actions had invalidated his governorship. Harrison set up his own governor's office. After several weeks of debate in the state legislature, Harrison was forced to return the seal to Jennings and vacate the office of the governor. During 1895, Robert S. Hatcher, the reading clerk of the Indiana Senate, was directed to ascertain the legal status of the design of the state seal. After a thorough review, Hatcher found that the laws that authorized the seal did not explicitly state what its design should be, he recommended. Senator McCord submitted legislation for that purpose.
On January 28, 1905, an article ran in the Indianapolis News containing information on the origin of the seal, some of it dubious. The article received much attention and started an informal inquiry into the history of the seal, namely to discover if the sun in the seal was rising or setting. Jacob Piatt Dunn, the preeminent Indiana historian of the time, consulted several history and arrived at the conclusion that the sun was rising. Dunn cited the fact the state was young, the mountains were to the east of the state, not the west—clearly indicating the sun was rising; the current design of the seal was standardized by the Indiana General Assembly in 1963. During the meeting of the General Assembly, Representative Taylor I. Morris introduced legislation to standardize the design of the state seal, his bill described a seal that depicts a woodsman chopping a sycamore tree, while an American Bison runs in the foreground and the sun rises in the background. The leaves of the state tree, the tulip, were to be the border design.
The bill became law. In 2004, the 1963 statute came under criticism because it states the sun in the state seal is setting rather than rising. A thorough investigation by the Indiana Historical Bureau into the history of the seal led to the discovery that original seal was created with the intention that the sun should, in fact, be depicted as rising. In both 2004 and 2005 legislation was introduced to change the wording of the statute, but as of 2008 no action had been taken to correct the error; the law created to standardize the state seal has been in effect since 1963. The stature states: Indiana State Code: IC 1-2-4-1 The official seal for the state of Indiana shall be described as follows: A perfect circle and five eighths inches in diameter, inclosed by a plain line. Another circle within the first and three eighths inches in diameter inclosed by a beaded line, leaving a margin of one quarter of an inch. In the top half of this margin are the words "Seal of the State of Indiana". At the bottom center, 1816, flanked on either side by a diamond, with two dots and a leaf of the tulip tree, at both ends of the diamond.
The inner circle has two trees in the left background, three hills in the center background with nearly a full sun setting behind and between the first and second hill from the left. There are fourteen rays fr
An arch is a vertical curved structure that spans an elevated space and may or may not support the weight above it, or in case of a horizontal arch like an arch dam, the hydrostatic pressure against it. Arches may be synonymous with vaults, but a vault may be distinguished as a continuous arch forming a roof. Arches appeared as early as the 2nd millennium BC in Mesopotamian brick architecture, their systematic use started with the ancient Romans, who were the first to apply the technique to a wide range of structures. An arch is a soft compression form, it can span a large area by resolving forces into compressive stresses and, in turn eliminating tensile stresses. This is sometimes referred to as arch action; as the forces in the arch are carried to the ground, the arch will push outward at the base, called thrust. As the rise, or height of the arch decreases, the outward thrust increases. In order to maintain arch action and prevent the arch from collapsing, the thrust needs to be restrained, either with internal ties or external bracing, such as abutments.
The most common true arch configurations are the fixed arch, the two-hinged arch, the three-hinged arch. The fixed arch is most used in reinforced concrete bridge and tunnel construction, where the spans are short; because it is subject to additional internal stress caused by thermal expansion and contraction, this type of arch is considered to be statically indeterminate. The two-hinged arch is most used to bridge long spans; this type of arch has pinned connections at the base. Unlike the fixed arch, the pinned base is able to rotate, allowing the structure to move and compensate for the thermal expansion and contraction caused by changes in outdoor temperature. However, this can result in additional stresses, so the two-hinged arch is statically indeterminate, although not to the degree of the fixed arch; the three-hinged arch is not only hinged at its base, like the two-hinged arch, but at the mid-span as well. The additional connection at the mid-span allows the three-hinged arch to move in two opposite directions and compensate for any expansion and contraction.
This type of arch is thus not subject to additional stress caused by thermal change. The three-hinged arch is therefore said to be statically determinate, it is most used for medium-span structures, such as large building roofs. Another advantage of the three-hinged arch is that the pinned bases are more developed than fixed ones, allowing for shallow, bearing-type foundations in medium-span structures. In the three-hinged arch, "thermal expansion and contraction of the arch will cause vertical movements at the peak pin joint but will have no appreciable effect on the bases," further simplifying the foundation design. Arches have many forms, but all fall into three basic categories: circular and parabolic. Arches can be configured to produce vaults and arcades. Arches with a circular form referred to as rounded arches, were employed by the builders of ancient, heavy masonry arches. Ancient Roman builders relied on the rounded arch to span large, open areas. Several rounded arches placed. Pointed arches were most used by builders of Gothic-style architecture.
The advantage to using a pointed arch, rather than a circular one, is that the arch action produces less thrust at the base. This innovation allowed for taller and more spaced openings, typical of Gothic architecture. Vaults are "adjacent arches are assembled side by side." If vaults intersect, complex forms are produced with the intersections. The forms, along with the "strongly expressed ribs at the vault intersections, were dominant architectural features of Gothic cathedrals."The parabolic arch employs the principle that when weight is uniformly applied to an arch, the internal compression resulting from that weight will follow a parabolic profile. Of all arch types, the parabolic arch produces the most thrust at the base, but can span the largest areas, it is used in bridge design, where long spans are needed. The catenary arch has a shape different from the parabolic curve; the shape of the curve traced by a loose span of chain or rope, the catenary is the structurally ideal shape for a freestanding arch of constant thickness.
Types of arches displayed chronologically in the order in which they were developed: True arches, as opposed to corbel arches, were known by a number of civilizations in the ancient Near East and the Levant, but their use was infrequent and confined to underground structures, such as drains where the problem of lateral thrust is diminished. An example of the latter would be the Nippur Arch. Rare exceptions are an arched mudbrick home doorway in circa 2000BC Tell Taya and the Bronze Age arched Canaanite city gate of Ashkelon in modern-day Israel, dating to c. 1850 B. C. An early example of a voussoir arch appears in the Greek Rhodes Footbridge. Corbel arches were found in other parts of ancient Asia, Africa and the Americas. In 2010, a robot discovered a long arch-roofed passageway underneath the Pyramid of Quetzalcoatl, which stands in the ancient city of Teotihuacan north of Mexico City, dated to around 200 AD. In ancient Persia, the Achaemenid Empire built small barrel vaults known as iwan, which became massive, monumental structures during the Parthian Empire.
This architectural tradition was continued by the Sasanian Empire, which built the Taq Kasra at Ctesiphon in the 6th century, the largest free-standing vault until modern times. The ancient Romans learned the arch from the Etruscans, refined it and were the first builders in Europe to tap its full potential for above ground buildings: The Romans were
The Reconstruction era was the period from 1863 to 1877 in American history. It was a significant chapter in the history of American civil rights; the term has two applications: the first applies to the complete history of the entire country from 1865 to 1877 following the American Civil War. Reconstruction ended the remnants of Confederate secession and ended slavery, making the newly-free slaves citizens with civil rights ostensibly guaranteed by three new Constitutional amendments. Three visions of Civil War memory appeared during Reconstruction: the reconciliationist vision, rooted in coping with the death and devastation the war had brought. Presidents Abraham Lincoln and Andrew Johnson both took moderate positions designed to bring the South back into the Union as as possible, while Radical Republicans in Congress sought stronger measures to upgrade the rights of African Americans, including the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, while curtailing the rights of former Confederates, such as through the provisions of the Wade–Davis Bill.
Johnson, a former Tennessee Senator, former slave owner, the most prominent Southerner to oppose the Confederacy, followed a lenient policy toward ex-Confederates. Lincoln's last speeches show that he was leaning toward supporting the enfranchisement of all freedmen, whereas Johnson was opposed to this. Johnson's interpretations of Lincoln's policies prevailed until the Congressional elections of 1866; those elections followed outbreaks of violence against blacks in the former rebel states, including the Memphis riots of 1866 and the New Orleans riot that same year. The subsequent 1866 election gave Republicans a majority in Congress, enabling them to pass the 14th Amendment, take control of Reconstruction policy, remove former Confederates from power, enfranchise the freedmen. A Republican coalition came to power in nearly all the southern states and set out to transform the society by setting up a free labor economy, using the U. S. Army and the Freedmen's Bureau; the Bureau protected the legal rights of freedmen, negotiated labor contracts, set up schools and churches for them.
Thousands of Northerners came south as missionaries, teachers and politicians. Hostile whites began referring to these politicians as "carpetbaggers". In early 1866, Congress passed the Freedmen's Bureau and Civil Rights Bills and sent them to Johnson for his signature; the first bill extended the life of the bureau established as a temporary organization charged with assisting refugees and freed slaves, while the second defined all persons born in the United States as national citizens with equality before the law. After Johnson vetoed the bills, Congress overrode his vetos, making the Civil Rights Act the first major bill in the history of the United States to become law through an override of a presidential veto; the Radicals in the House of Representatives, frustrated by Johnson's opposition to Congressional Reconstruction, filed impeachment charges. The action failed by one vote in the Senate; the new national Reconstruction laws – in particular laws requiring suffrage for freedmen – incensed white supremacists in the South, giving rise to the Ku Klux Klan.
During 1867-69 the Klan murdered Republicans and outspoken freedmen in the South, including Arkansas Congressman James M. Hinds. Elected in 1868, Republican President Ulysses S. Grant supported Congressional Reconstruction and enforced the protection of African Americans in the South through the use of the Enforcement Acts passed by Congress. Grant used the Enforcement Acts to combat the Ku Klux Klan, wiped out, although a new incarnation of the Klan would again come to national prominence in the 1920s. President Grant was unable to resolve the escalating tensions inside the Republican Party between the Northerners on the one hand, those Republicans hailing from the South on the other. Meanwhile, "redeemers", self-styled conservatives in close cooperation with a faction of the Democratic Party opposed Reconstruction, they alleged widespread corruption by the "carpetbaggers", excessive state spending, ruinous taxes. Meanwhile, public support for Reconstruction policies, requiring continued supervision of the South, faded in the North after the Democrats, who opposed Reconstruction, regained control of the House of Representatives in 1874.
In 1877, as part of a Congressional bargain to elect Republican Rutherford B. Hayes as president following the disputed 1876 presidential election, U. S. Army troops were withdrawn from the three states; this marked the end of Reconstruction. Historian Eric Foner argues: What remains certain is that Reconstruction failed, that for blacks its failure was a disaster whose magnitude cannot be obscured by the genuine accomplishments that did endure. In different states Reconstruction ended at different times. In recent decades most historians follow Foner in dating the Reconstruction of the South as starting in 1863 rather than 1865; the usual ending for Reconstruction has always been 1877. Reconstruction policies were debated in the North when the
Seal of Hawaii
The Great Seal of the State of Hawaii was designated by Act 272 of the 1959 Territorial Legislature and is based on the territorial seal. Modifications to the territorial seal included the use of the words "State of Hawaii" at the top and "1959" within the circle. Provisions for a seal for the state of Hawaii were enacted by the Territorial Legislature and approved by Governor William F. Quinn on June 8, 1959; the passage of the Admission Act in 1959, admitted Hawaii as the 50th State of the United States of America on August 21, 1959. The seal of the Territory of Hawaii was the same as the seal of the republic, except that it had "Territory of Hawaii" placed at the top and "1900" within the circle; the 1901 Territorial Legislature authorized the modified republic seal as the Seal of the Territory of Hawaii. The seal of the Republic of Hawaii had the words "Republic of Hawaii" at the top and "MDCCCXCIV" within the circle; the year 1894 signified the date. The republic seal was designed by Viggo Jacobsen, a Honolulu resident, itself was derived from the Kingdom of Hawaii coat of arms used during the reign of King Kamehameha III, King Kalākaua and Queen Liliʻuokalani, designed by the College of Arms in London in 1842 and adopted in 1845.
The Great Seal of the State of Hawaii is circular in shape and three-quarters inches in diameter, of the design being described, with the tinctures added as the basis for the coat of arms. The Hawaii state seal represents Hawaii's nation. In the center of the seal is a heraldic shield, quartered; the first and fourth quarters display the white and blue stripes of Ka Hae Hawaiʻi or the flag of Hawaiʻi. The second and third quarters are on a yellow field with a white Puloʻuloʻu, or kapu sticks with tapa-covered balls on the end. In the center of the heraldic shield is a green escutcheon with a five-pointed yellow star in the center. On the left side is Kamehameha I, standing in the attitude as represented by the bronze statue in front of Ali'iolani Hale, Honolulu, his cloak and helmet are in yellow. Kamehameha I's figure is in proper. Kamehameha I unified the Hawaiian Islands into a single united kingdom. On the right side is goddess Liberty wearing a Phrygian cap and laurel wreath, she is holding Ka Hae Hawaiʻi in her right hand, unfurled.
A rising sun irradiated in gold surrounded by the legend "State of Hawaii, 1959" on a scroll in black lettering. The state motto: Ua Mau ke Ea o ka ʻĀina i ka Pono is on the scroll on the seal's bottom in gold lettering. Ua Mau ke Ea o ka ʻĀina i ka Pono is translated into English as "The life of the land is perpetuated in righteousness." The motto was adopted by the Kingdom of Hawaiʻi in 1843 and was used in an address by King Kamehameha III at ceremonies following the return of his kingdom from the British. British captain Lord George Paulet of HMS Carysfort demanded that Hawaiʻi was ceded to Great Britain in response to claims of political abuses against British residents made by British Consul Richard Charlton. After Kamehameha III notified London of the captain's actions, Admiral Richard Darton Thomas returned sovereignty back to the King; the motto is featured in Israel Kamakawiwo'ole's song "Hawaii'78" and is used on the Hawaii state quarter. Below the heraldic shield, the bird phoenix has it wings outstretched arising from flames.
The phoenix's body is half dark red. Below the heraldic shield are eight taro leaves having on either side banana foliage and sprays of maidenhair fern trailed upwardly. 1959 represents the year of admission into the Union as a state. The rising sun replaced the royal crown from the original coat of arms; this represents the birth of a new state. King Kamehameha the Great and the Goddess of Liberty holding the Hawaiian flag replace the two warriors on the royal coat of arms; this may represent the new government leader. The quartered design of the heraldic shield is retained from the original coat of arms; the eight stripes in two of the quarters of the shield represent the eight main islands. The Puloʻuloʻu, or tabu ball and stick, in the second and third quarters was carried before the king and placed before the door of his home, signifying his authority and power. In the seal it is a symbol of the power of the government; the star in the middle of the shield signifies. The phoenix, symbol of death and resurrection, symbolizes the change from an absolute monarchy to a free, democratic form of government.
The eight taro leaves, flanked by banana foliage and maidenhair fern are typical Hawaiian flora and represent the eight main islands. Taro has great spiritual significance. Taro is still cultivated and is the ingredient of the popular dish called poi; the state motto, "Ua Mau ke Ea o ka ʻĀina i ka Pono", "The life of the land is perpetuated in righteousness," is retained from the royal coat of arms. List of Hawaii state symbols Flag of Hawaii Flower of Hawaii The Great Seal of the State of Hawai'i