Seal of North Carolina
The Great Seal of the State of North Carolina was first authorized by the North Carolina Constitution of 1776, created in its first form in 1778, took on its modern form in 1835. According to a state law passed by the North Carolina General Assembly in the 19th century: The Governor shall procure of the State a Seal, which shall be called the great seal of the State of North Carolina, shall be two and one-quarter inches in diameter, its design shall be a representation of the figures of Liberty and Plenty, looking toward each other, but not more than half-fronting each other and other-wise disposed as follows: Liberty, the first figure, her pole with a cap on it in her left hand and a scroll with the word "Constitution" inscribed thereon in her right hand. Plenty, the second figure, sitting down, her right arm half extended toward Liberty, three heads of grain in her right hand, in her left, the small end of her horn, the mouth of, resting at her feet, the contents of the horn rolling out.
The background on the seal shall contain a depiction of mountains running from the left to the right to the middle of the seal. A side view of a three-masted ship shall be located to the right of Plenty; the date "May 20, 1775" shall appear within the seal and across the top of the seal and the words "esse quam videri" shall appear at the bottom around the perimeter. No other words, figures or other embellishments shall appear on the seal; the date of May 20, 1775, refers to the Mecklenburg Declaration of Independence the first declaration of independence adopted during the American Revolution. The motto "Esse quam videri" means "To Be Rather Than To Seem." The "pole with a cap" is a liberty pole. In 1971, the seal was standardized after the state's chief deputy attorney general discovered that there was more than one version in use. In 1983, state Senator Julian R. Allsbrook proposed a revision to the seal to add to the seal the date April 12, 1776, the date of the Halifax Resolves; these two dates are on the flag of North Carolina.
State of North Carolina Symbols of the State of North Carolina Flag of North Carolina History of the Great Seal of North Carolina
Seal of Massachusetts
The Great Seal of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts contains the coat of arms of Massachusetts. The coat of arms is encircled by the Latin text "Sigillum Reipublicæ Massachusettensis"; the Massachusetts Constitution designates the form of government a "commonwealth," for which Respublica is the correct Latin term. The Seal uses as its central element the Coat of Arms of Massachusetts. An official emblem of the State, the Coat of Arms was adopted by the Legislature in 1775, reaffirmed by Governor John Hancock and his Council on December 13, 1780; the present rendition of the seal was drawn by resident-artist Edmund H. Garrett, was adopted by the state in 1900. While the inscription around the seal is in Latin, a variant with "Commonwealth of Massachusetts" in English is sometimes used; the seal was adopted by the Provincial Congress on December 13, 1780. The shield depicts an Algonquian Native American with arrow. A white star with five points appears next to the figure's head. A blue ribbon surrounds the shield, bearing the state motto "Ense petit placidam sub libertate quietem" This comes from the Book of Mottoes in the Royal Danish Library in Copenhagen, Denmark.
It was adopted in 1775 by the Provincial Congress and the literal translation is, "With a sword, she seeks quiet peace under liberty." Although the looser English translation more used is, "By the sword we seek peace, but peace only under liberty." Above the shield is the state military crest: a bent arm holding a broadsword aloft. The sword has its blade up, to remind that it was through the American Revolution that independence was won. There have been a number of Seals of Massachusetts throughout history; the first seal of Massachusetts Bay Colony showed a nude American Indian with a bush covering his groin. Like the current seal, he held. A scroll came out over his mouth with the words "Come over and help us", emphasizing the missionary and commercial intentions of the original colonists; this legend coming from the Indian's mouth may originate with Acts 16:9: "And a vision appeared to Paul in the night. This seal was used until 1686, shortly after the charter was annulled, again from 1689-1692.
In 1775 the Revolutionary seal appeared, depicting a minuteman with a sword in his right hand and the magna carta in his left. The Revolutionary seal would mark the first time the Latin motto used by the state today appeared on a state seal, meant that the colony no longer recognized the authority of the Royal Governor General Thomas Gage; the source is attributed to the letter written by a father of an English soldier and politician Algernon Sidney: "It is said that the University of Copenhagen brought their album unto you, desiring you to write something therein. The last words were written in Sidney's "Book of Mottoes" favored by some in the American colonies. Metrically, the motto is dactylic hexameter. A stained glass window at the top of the Grand Staircase at the State House shows all the seals used in Massachusetts, including the royal seals of the Governors during colonial days. Coat of Arms of the U. S. States Seals of the U. S. states List of Massachusetts state symbols Flag of Massachusetts The History of the Arms and Great Seal of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts Arms of Massachusetts, American Heraldry Society
Seal of Maryland
The Great Seal of the State of Maryland is the official government emblem of the U. S. state of Maryland. Its official service is to authenticate acts by the General Assembly of Maryland, but it is used for display purposes at most state buildings. Although the state seal has been changed in design several times throughout history, the current model represents the reverse side of the original seal; the seal consists of a reverse and an obverse. In official contexts, only the reverse side is used; the first seal was stolen in 1645 by Richard Ingle during a rebellion, but a similar one was sent as a replacement by Cecil Calvert, 2nd Baron Baltimore. This seal was used except for a period from 1692–1715 until a new one was adopted in 1794; that seal used republican imagery, such as a woman holding scales of justice on the obverse and on the reverse the motto "Industry the Means, Plenty the Result". In 1817 and 1854, symbols of the eagle were used along with a version of the original reverse on the 1854 version.
The original Calvert seal was brought back into use in 1874, has had various corrections made to its image and meaning in 1959 and 1969. Maryland has the distinction of having a dual-sided seal, rare among U. S. states and the world. The obverse side of the state seal, described by statute in 1959, shows Lord Baltimore as a knight in full armor mounted on a charger with a drawn sword in hand; the caparisons of the horse on which Lord Baltimore is mounted bear his family coat of arms. The inscription on the rim of the seal shows the phrase, Cecilius Absolutus Dominus Terræ Mariæ et Avaloniæ Baro de Baltimore, which translates to "Cecil, Absolute Lord of Maryland and Avalon, Baron of Baltimore"; the reverse of the seal shows the Calvert arms, described as follows: Quarterly first and fourth, a paly of six Or and Sable, a bend counterchanged. Above the shield an earl's coronet surmounted by a barred helm affronté Argent; the supporters are the former holding a spade and the latter a fish. The crest is a crown with the dexter Or and the sinister Sable.
The state motto, Fatti maschii, parole femine, has its origin in the archaic Italian and translates as "Manly deeds, womanly words", or more "Strong deeds, gentle words,", the translation the Government of Maryland cites officially. Maryland is the only state with a motto in Italian; the saying is the motto of the Calvert family. George Calvert, 1st Baron Baltimore, made it his family's motto in 1622 and it appears that the saying was well known in 17th-century England; the Latin text encircling the seal, Scuto bonæ voluntatis tuæ coronasti nos, is from verse 12 of Psalm 5 from the Vulgate. Though the reverse side has been the only part of the seal to be cut and is the part of the seal, used on official government documents, the obverse side can be found displayed around the state on state government buildings, including the Maryland State House. List of Maryland state symbols Flag of Maryland Maryland Archives. Maryland State Symbols – State Seal. Maryland Secretary of State; the Great Seal of Maryland.
Maryland Army National Guard. Insignia
Seal of Michigan
The Great Seal of the State of Michigan depicts the coat of arms of the U. S. state of Michigan on a light blue field. On the dark blue shield the sun rises over a lake and peninsula, a man holding a long gun with a raised hand represents peace and the ability to defend his rights; the elk and moose are symbols of Michigan. The design features three Latin mottos. From top to bottom they are: On the red ribbon: E Pluribus Unum, "Out of many, one," a motto of the United States On the blue shield: Tuebor, "I will defend" On the white ribbon: Si Quæris Peninsulam Amœnam Circumspice, "If you seek a pleasant peninsula, look about you,", the official state motto, it was adopted in 1835 and said to have been suggested by the tribute to architect Christopher Wren at Saint Paul's Cathedral in London, which reads Si monumentum requiris, circumspice. The seal was adopted on June 22, 1835. Public Act 19 of 1963 states that "The great seal shall be comprised of the coat of arms of the state around which shall appear the words'great seal of the state of Michigan, A.
D. MDCCCXXXV.' " Legally distinct from, but adopted alongside the Great Seal in 1835, is the Coat of arms of Michigan. The current rendition of the Coat of Arms was adopted by the Legislature in 1911, it is identical to the Great Seal of Michigan with the legend or circle, "The Great Seal of the State of Michigan, A. D. MDCCCXXXV", omitted. Unlike the Great Seal, the Coat of Arms may be printed on documents, stationery, or ornaments with no design or words and disconnected with any advertisement. However, a person who improperly exhibits and displays the Coat of Arms is guilty of a misdemeanor. Coat of Arms of the U. S. States Flag of Michigan List of Michigan state symbols Seals of the U. S. states Blazon of the coat of arms Michigan Secretary of State: History of the Great Seal
Seal of Kentucky
The Seal of the Commonwealth of Kentucky was adopted in December 1792. Since that time, it has undergone several revisions; the current seal depicts two men, one in buckskin, the other in more formal dress. The men are facing each clasping hands; the outer ring of the seal is adorned with the words "Commonwealth of Kentucky", within the inner circle is the state motto "United we stand, divided we fall." The official colors of the seal are gold. A version of the seal appears on the flag of Kentucky. Provision for the creation of a seal for the Commonwealth was made during the first session of the Kentucky General Assembly. On December 20, 1792, the Assembly passed an act reading: "That the Governor be empowered and is hereby required to provide at the public charge a seal for this Commonwealth; this depiction would represent a literal rendering of the state motto. Lexington silversmith David Humphries was charged with designing the seal in 1793. Instead of hunting apparel, Humphries' version depicted two men in swallowtail coats, instead of a handshake, the two friends share a full embrace.
This original seal was destroyed in a fire that destroyed the state capitol in 1814. Because the description adopted by the General Assembly does not specify what the "two friends" should look like or how they should be embracing, several variants of the state seal were created subsequent to the destruction of the original. Different depictions of the seal have the friends outfitted in various clothing from coats and top hats to Roman togas; the embrace is shown as clasped hands, a hug, or a handshake combined with hands on one another shoulders. It has been speculated that certain die-makers have intentionally designed strange and unnatural poses to represent that the two friends were drunk on Kentucky bourbon or were demonstrating a secret handshake or symbol from a fraternal order. In 1857, an anonymous artist was commissioned to paint the seals of the various states in the skylights in the House of Representatives' chamber; this artist's depiction showed a hat and another in formal attire.
The two are standing in front of a row of columns and wearing garments resembling togas as overcoats. A 1952 article in The Courier-Journal opined that "They stand in a halfhearted embrace, as if each startled the other with his gesture."One odd-looking version of the seal had one of the friends joining his left hand to the other's right, which commissioner of conservation Henry Ward said made the two appear to be dancing an Irish jig. In 1954, Ward asked Louisville native Ernie Giancola to redesign the seal. Using a neighbor as a model, Giancola created a more natural-looking handshake for the friends. In 1962, the General Assembly further clarified the look of the seal to minimize variation in the future, they prescribed that the seal should depict "a pioneer meeting a gentleman in a swallowtail coat."The current version of the seal was designed by artist and former mayor of Hazard, Nan Gorman. Popular belief claims that the buckskin-clad man on the left is Daniel Boone, responsible for the exploration of Kentucky, the man in the suit on the right is Henry Clay, Kentucky's most famous statesman.
However, the official explanation is that the men represent all frontiersmen and statesmen, rather than any specific persons. The motto "United we stand, divided we fall" comes from the lyrics of "The Liberty Song", a patriotic song from the American Revolution. List of Kentucky state symbols Flag of Kentucky The Seal of the Commonwealth of Kentucky
Seal of Connecticut
The Great Seal of the State of Connecticut has been the coat of arms of the U. S. state of Connecticut since May 1784. It depicts three grapevines and a ribbon below with the Latin motto: Qui Transtulit Sustinet, with SIGILLUM REIPUBLICÆ CONNECTICUTENSIS in the border; the first seal of Connecticut was brought from England by Colonel George Fenwick in 1639. It was the seal of the Saybrook Colony and was turned over to the Connecticut Colony at about the time that it purchased the land and fort at Saybrook Point from Colonel Fenwick in 1644; the seal was used by the General Court from that time forward, but there is no clear record of who had custody of the seal. On October 9, 1662 the assembly formally declared that the seal would be kept by the Secretary of the Colony and used as the Seal of the Colony on necessary occasions, it remained the colony's seal until October 1687, when Sir Edmund Andros took control of the colony's government and the seal disappeared. On October 25, 1711, a meeting of the Governor and Council resolved, that "a new stamp shall be made and cut of the seal of this Colony, suitable for sealing upon wafers, that a press be provided with the necessary appurtenances, for that purpose, as soon as may be, at the cost and charge of this Colony, to be kept in the secretary's office".
The new, less elaborately decorated seal was more oval shaped than the original. The words of the motto remained the same, but the number of grape vines was reduced to three and the legend Sigillum Coloniae Connecticutensis is added to the edge of the seal; the three vines may have been intended to represent the three colonies: New Haven Colony, Saybrook Colony and Connecticut Colony. After the conclusion of the Revolutionary War, the inscription on the colonial seal was no longer appropriate. Therefore, in May 1784 the General Assembly directed the Secretary to alter the inscription to read SIGILL. REIP. CONNECTICUTENSIS. However, when a new version of the seal was prepared, the inscription contained the words spelled out: SIGILLUM REIPUBLICÆ CONNECTICUTENSIS. There has been no subsequent alteration to the official state seal. In 1931 the General Assembly required that all representations of the state seal conform to the description in chapter 54 of the Public Acts of that year; this legislation prohibited reproduction of the seal except by or under the direction of the Secretary of the State.
It is the only non-circular state seal out of the fifty states, is joined only by the Seal of Guam when insular areas are included. Qui transtulit sustinet is the state motto of Connecticut depicted on a blue ribbon below the grapevines; the motto has been re-used for the name of Connecticut's SustiNet program to provide health care to state residents. The current motto looks a little different than the 1639 version, it was first seen in the colonies in 1639 on a seal brought from England by Colonel George Fenwick. The meaning of the motto was explained on April 23, 1775 in a letter stamped in Wethersfield, Connecticut: "We fix on our Standards and Drums the Colony arms, with the motto, Qui Transtulit Sustinet, round it in letters of gold, which we construe thus: God, who transplanted us hither, will support us". However, this explanation for the origin of the motto is questionable. In 1889, State Librarian Charles J. Hoadly published an article, "The Public Seal of Connecticut" that indicated the 80th Psalm as a possible source.
The article stated: "The vines symbolize the Colony planted here in the wilderness. We read in the 80th Psalm:'Thou has brought a vine out of Egypt: Thou hast cast out the heathen, planted it" - in Latin,'Vineam de Aegypto transtulisti, ejicisti gentes et plantasti eam'; the grapevines are said to represent more either early towns or the early individual colonies. Some 19th-century versions of the Connecticut Great Seal show several grapevines; the best answer today is that the grapevines should be taken to represent the three original colonies of Connecticut:, Saybrook, though it can represent the first three settlements of the Connecticut colony proper- Windsor and Wethersfield, as New Haven and Saybrook were reluctant additions to Connecticut. There is a seal of the Governor of Connecticut. Unlike the State Seal however, it uses the coat of arms of Connecticut as its central motif. List of Connecticut state symbols The Great Seal of the State of Connecticut
The Sun is the star at the center of the Solar System. It is a nearly perfect sphere of hot plasma, with internal convective motion that generates a magnetic field via a dynamo process, it is by far the most important source of energy for life on Earth. Its diameter is about 1.39 million kilometers, or 109 times that of Earth, its mass is about 330,000 times that of Earth. It accounts for about 99.86% of the total mass of the Solar System. Three quarters of the Sun's mass consists of hydrogen; the Sun is a G-type main-sequence star based on its spectral class. As such, it is informally and not accurately referred to as a yellow dwarf, it formed 4.6 billion years ago from the gravitational collapse of matter within a region of a large molecular cloud. Most of this matter gathered in the center, whereas the rest flattened into an orbiting disk that became the Solar System; the central mass became so hot and dense that it initiated nuclear fusion in its core. It is thought that all stars form by this process.
The Sun is middle-aged. It fuses about 600 million tons of hydrogen into helium every second, converting 4 million tons of matter into energy every second as a result; this energy, which can take between 10,000 and 170,000 years to escape from its core, is the source of the Sun's light and heat. In about 5 billion years, when hydrogen fusion in its core has diminished to the point at which the Sun is no longer in hydrostatic equilibrium, its core will undergo a marked increase in density and temperature while its outer layers expand to become a red giant, it is calculated that the Sun will become sufficiently large to engulf the current orbits of Mercury and Venus, render Earth uninhabitable. After this, it will shed its outer layers and become a dense type of cooling star known as a white dwarf, no longer produce energy by fusion, but still glow and give off heat from its previous fusion; the enormous effect of the Sun on Earth has been recognized since prehistoric times, the Sun has been regarded by some cultures as a deity.
The synodic rotation of Earth and its orbit around the Sun are the basis of solar calendars, one of, the predominant calendar in use today. The English proper name Sun may be related to south. Cognates to English sun appear in other Germanic languages, including Old Frisian sunne, Old Saxon sunna, Middle Dutch sonne, modern Dutch zon, Old High German sunna, modern German Sonne, Old Norse sunna, Gothic sunnō. All Germanic terms for the Sun stem from Proto-Germanic *sunnōn; the Latin name for the Sun, Sol, is not used in everyday English. Sol is used by planetary astronomers to refer to the duration of a solar day on another planet, such as Mars; the related word solar is the usual adjectival term used for the Sun, in terms such as solar day, solar eclipse, Solar System. A mean Earth solar day is 24 hours, whereas a mean Martian'sol' is 24 hours, 39 minutes, 35.244 seconds. The English weekday name Sunday stems from Old English and is a result of a Germanic interpretation of Latin dies solis, itself a translation of the Greek ἡμέρα ἡλίου.
The Sun is a G-type main-sequence star. The Sun has an absolute magnitude of +4.83, estimated to be brighter than about 85% of the stars in the Milky Way, most of which are red dwarfs. The Sun is heavy-element-rich, star; the formation of the Sun may have been triggered by shockwaves from more nearby supernovae. This is suggested by a high abundance of heavy elements in the Solar System, such as gold and uranium, relative to the abundances of these elements in so-called Population II, heavy-element-poor, stars; the heavy elements could most plausibly have been produced by endothermic nuclear reactions during a supernova, or by transmutation through neutron absorption within a massive second-generation star. The Sun is by far the brightest object in the Earth's sky, with an apparent magnitude of −26.74. This is about 13 billion times brighter than the next brightest star, which has an apparent magnitude of −1.46. The mean distance of the Sun's center to Earth's center is 1 astronomical unit, though the distance varies as Earth moves from perihelion in January to aphelion in July.
At this average distance, light travels from the Sun's horizon to Earth's horizon in about 8 minutes and 19 seconds, while light from the closest points of the Sun and Earth takes about two seconds less. The energy of this sunlight supports all life on Earth by photosynthesis, drives Earth's climate and weather; the Sun does not have a definite boundary, but its density decreases exponentially with increasing height above the photosphere. For the purpose of measurement, the Sun's radius is considered to be the distance from its center to the edge of the photosphere, the apparent visible surface of the Sun. By this measure, the Sun is a near-perfect sphere with an oblateness estimated at about 9 millionths, which means that its polar diameter differs from its equatorial diameter by only 10 kilometres; the tidal effect of the planets is weak and does not affect the shape of the Sun. The Sun rotates faster at its equator than at its poles; this differential rotation is caused by convective motion