Coat of arms of Rhode Island
The coat of arms of Rhode Island is an official emblem of the state, alongside the seal and state flag. The blazon was adopted by the General Assembly in 1881, to be effective 1 February 1882; the arms are described thus: "The arms of the state are a golden anchor on a blue field, the motto thereof is the word'Hope'". Besides being used by itself, the coat of arms of Rhode Island is used on the standard of the Governor of Rhode Island, many governmental seals of the state. Coats of arms of the U. S. states
The lunar phase or phase of the Moon is the shape of the directly sunlit portion of the Moon as viewed from Earth. The lunar phases and cyclically change over the period of a synodic month, as the orbital positions of the Moon around Earth and of Earth around the Sun shift; the Moon's rotation is tidally locked by Earth's gravity. This near side is variously sunlit, depending on the position of the Moon in its orbit. Thus, the sunlit portion of this face can vary from 0% to 100%; the lunar terminator is the boundary between the darkened hemispheres. Each of the four "intermediate" lunar phases is around 7.4 days, but this varies due to the elliptical shape of the Moon's orbit. Aside from some craters near the lunar poles, such as Shoemaker, all parts of the Moon see around 14.77 days of daylight, followed by 14.77 days of "night". In western culture, the four principal phases of the Moon are new moon, first quarter, full moon, third quarter; these are the instances when the Moon's ecliptic longitude and the Sun's ecliptic longitude differ by 0°, 90°, 180°, 270°, respectively.
Each of these phases occur at different times when viewed from different points on Earth. During the intervals between principal phases, the Moon's apparent shape is either crescent or gibbous; these shapes, the periods when the Moon shows them, are called the intermediate phases and last one-quarter of a synodic month, or 7.38 days, on average. However, their durations vary because the Moon's orbit is rather elliptical, so the satellite's orbital speed is not constant; the descriptor waxing is used for an intermediate phase when the Moon's apparent shape is thickening, from new to full moon, waning when the shape is thinning. The eight principal and intermediate phases are given the following names, in sequential order: Non-Western cultures may use a different number of lunar phases; when the Sun and Moon are aligned on the same side of the Earth, the Moon is "new", the side of the Moon facing Earth is not illuminated by the Sun. As the Moon waxes, the lunar phases progress through new moon, crescent moon, first-quarter moon, gibbous moon, full moon.
The Moon is said to wane as it passes through the gibbous moon, third-quarter moon, crescent moon, back to new moon. The terms old moon and new moon are not interchangeable; the "old moon" is a waning sliver until the moment it aligns with the Sun and begins to wax, at which point it becomes new again. Half moon is used to mean the first- and third-quarter moons, while the term quarter refers to the extent of the Moon's cycle around the Earth, not its shape; when an illuminated hemisphere is viewed from a certain angle, the portion of the illuminated area, visible will have a two-dimensional shape as defined by the intersection of an ellipse and circle. If the half-ellipse is convex with respect to the half-circle the shape will be gibbous, whereas if the half-ellipse is concave with respect to the half-circle the shape will be a crescent; when a crescent moon occurs, the phenomenon of earthshine may be apparent, where the night side of the Moon dimly reflects indirect sunlight reflected from Earth.
In the Northern Hemisphere, if the left side of the Moon is dark the bright part is thickening, the Moon is described as waxing. If the right side of the Moon is dark the bright part is thinning, the Moon is described as waning. Assuming that the viewer is in the Northern Hemisphere, the right side of the Moon is the part, always waxing. In the Southern Hemisphere, the Moon is observed from a perspective inverted, or rotated 180°, to that of the Northern and to all of the images in this article, so that the opposite sides appear to wax or wane. Closer to the Equator, the lunar terminator will appear horizontal during the evening. Since the above descriptions of the lunar phases only apply at middle or high latitudes, observers moving towards the tropics from northern or southern latitudes will see the Moon rotated anti-clockwise or clockwise with respect to the images in this article; the lunar crescent can open upward or downward, with the "horns" of the crescent pointing up or down, respectively.
When the Sun appears above the Moon in the sky, the crescent opens downward. The crescent Moon is most and brightly visible when the Sun is below the horizon, which implies that the Moon must be above the Sun, the crescent must open upward; this is therefore the orientation in which the crescent Moon is most seen from the tropics. The waxing and waning crescents look similar; the waxing crescent appears in the western sky in the evening, the waning crescent in the eastern sky in the morning. When the Moon as seen from Earth is a narrow crescent, Earth as viewed from the Moon is fully lit by the Sun; the dark side of the Moon is dimly illuminated by indirect sunlight reflected from Earth, but is bright enough to be visible from Earth. This phenomenon is called earthshine and sometimes picturesquely described as "the old moon in the new
Marcus Tullius Cicero was a Roman statesman, orator and philosopher, who served as consul in the year 63 BC. He came from a wealthy municipal family of the Roman equestrian order, is considered one of Rome's greatest orators and prose stylists, his influence on the Latin language was so immense that the subsequent history of prose, not only in Latin but in European languages up to the 19th century, was said to be either a reaction against or a return to his style. Cicero introduced the Romans to the chief schools of Greek philosophy and created a Latin philosophical vocabulary distinguishing himself as a translator and philosopher. Though he was an accomplished orator and successful lawyer, Cicero believed his political career was his most important achievement, it was during his consulship that the second Catilinarian conspiracy attempted to overthrow the government through an attack on the city by outside forces, Cicero suppressed the revolt by summarily and controversially executing five conspirators.
During the chaotic latter half of the 1st century BC marked by civil wars and the dictatorship of Gaius Julius Caesar, Cicero championed a return to the traditional republican government. Following Julius Caesar's death, Cicero became an enemy of Mark Antony in the ensuing power struggle, attacking him in a series of speeches, he was proscribed as an enemy of the state by the Second Triumvirate and executed by soldiers operating on their behalf in 43 BC after having been intercepted during an attempted flight from the Italian peninsula. His severed hands and head were as a final revenge of Mark Antony, displayed on The Rostra. Petrarch's rediscovery of Cicero's letters is credited for initiating the 14th-century Renaissance in public affairs and classical Roman culture. According to Polish historian Tadeusz Zieliński, "the Renaissance was above all things a revival of Cicero, only after him and through him of the rest of Classical antiquity." The peak of Cicero's authority and prestige came during the 18th-century Enlightenment, his impact on leading Enlightenment thinkers and political theorists such as John Locke, David Hume and Edmund Burke was substantial.
His works rank among the most influential in European culture, today still constitute one of the most important bodies of primary material for the writing and revision of Roman history the last days of the Roman Republic. Cicero was born in 106 BC in a hill town 100 kilometers southeast of Rome, he belonged to the tribus Cornelia. His father possessed good connections in Rome. However, being a semi-invalid, he studied extensively to compensate. Although little is known about Cicero's mother, Helvia, it was common for the wives of important Roman citizens to be responsible for the management of the household. Cicero's brother Quintus wrote in a letter. Cicero's cognomen, or personal surname, comes from the Latin for cicer. Plutarch explains that the name was given to one of Cicero's ancestors who had a cleft in the tip of his nose resembling a chickpea. However, it is more that Cicero's ancestors prospered through the cultivation and sale of chickpeas. Romans chose down-to-earth personal surnames.
The famous family names of Fabius and Piso come from the Latin names of beans and peas, respectively. Plutarch writes that Cicero was urged to change this deprecatory name when he entered politics, but refused, saying that he would make Cicero more glorious than Scaurus and Catulus. During this period in Roman history, "cultured" meant being able to speak both Greek. Cicero was therefore educated in the teachings of the ancient Greek philosophers and historians. Cicero used his knowledge of Greek to translate many of the theoretical concepts of Greek philosophy into Latin, thus translating Greek philosophical works for a larger audience, it was his broad education that tied him to the traditional Roman elite. Cicero's interest in philosophy figured in his career and led to him providing a comprehensive account of Greek philosophy for a Roman audience, including creating a philosophical vocabulary in Latin. In 87 BC, Philo of Larissa, the head of the Academy, founded by Plato in Athens about 300 years earlier, arrived in Rome.
Cicero, "inspired by an extraordinary zeal for philosophy", sat enthusiastically at his feet and absorbed Plato's philosophy. Cicero said of Plato's Dialogues. According to Plutarch, Cicero was an talented student, whose learning attracted attention from all over Rome, affording him the opportunity to study Roman law under Quintus Mucius Scaevola. Cicero's fellow students were Gaius Marius Minor, Servius Sulpicius Rufus, Titus Pomponius; the latter two became Cicero's friends for life, Pomponius would become, in Cicero's own words, "as a second brother", with both maintaining a lifelong correspondence. In 79 BC, Cicero left for Asia Minor and Rhodes; this was to avoid the potential wrath of Sulla, as Plutarch claims, though Cicero himself says it was to hone his skills and improve his p
Seal of Missouri
The Great Seal of the State of Missouri was adopted on January 11, 1822. Judge Robert William Wells designed the seal; the center of the seal contains the Great Seal of the United States on the right side, and, on the left, symbols representing the state. On both sides of the center circle, a bear represents bravery. Surrounding these symbols is the motto "United we stand, divided we fall"; the belt buckle signifies the State's ability to secede from the Union if deemed necessary, i.e. the belt can be unbuckled. Two mighty grizzly bears support this center shield. A scroll carries the state motto, Salus populi suprema lex esto, a Latin phrase meaning "Let the welfare of the people be the supreme law." The year 1820 is inscribed in Roman numerals below the scroll, although Missouri was not granted statehood until 1821. A star representing each of the other states of the Union graces the top portion of the seal; the outer circle of the seal bears the words "The Great Seal of the State of Missouri".
Above the shield is a helmet representing Missouri's state sovereignty. The large star above the helmet surrounded by 23 smaller stars represents Missouri's status as the 24th state; the cloud around the stars indicates the problems Missouri had in becoming a state. Salus populi suprema lex esto is found in Cicero's De Legibus, as Ollis salus populi suprema lex esto; the phrase is the state motto of Missouri, accepted in its state seal. It is the motto, appears on the coat of arms, of the City of Salford, the London Borough of Lewisham, the Duquesne University School of Law, is used as the motto of the Vlaams Belang political group in the Belgian Chamber of Representatives. John Locke uses it as the epigraph in his Second Treatise on Government and refers to it as a fundamental rule for government. Coat of Arms of the U. S. States Seals of the U. S. states List of Missouri state symbols Flag of Missouri Marie Elizabeth Watkins Oliver Office of the Secretary of State of Missouri
Seal of Massachusetts
The Great Seal of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts contains the coat of arms of Massachusetts. The coat of arms is encircled by the Latin text "Sigillum Reipublicæ Massachusettensis"; the Massachusetts Constitution designates the form of government a "commonwealth," for which Respublica is the correct Latin term. The Seal uses as its central element the Coat of Arms of Massachusetts. An official emblem of the State, the Coat of Arms was adopted by the Legislature in 1775, reaffirmed by Governor John Hancock and his Council on December 13, 1780; the present rendition of the seal was drawn by resident-artist Edmund H. Garrett, was adopted by the state in 1900. While the inscription around the seal is in Latin, a variant with "Commonwealth of Massachusetts" in English is sometimes used; the seal was adopted by the Provincial Congress on December 13, 1780. The shield depicts an Algonquian Native American with arrow. A white star with five points appears next to the figure's head. A blue ribbon surrounds the shield, bearing the state motto "Ense petit placidam sub libertate quietem" This comes from the Book of Mottoes in the Royal Danish Library in Copenhagen, Denmark.
It was adopted in 1775 by the Provincial Congress and the literal translation is, "With a sword, she seeks quiet peace under liberty." Although the looser English translation more used is, "By the sword we seek peace, but peace only under liberty." Above the shield is the state military crest: a bent arm holding a broadsword aloft. The sword has its blade up, to remind that it was through the American Revolution that independence was won. There have been a number of Seals of Massachusetts throughout history; the first seal of Massachusetts Bay Colony showed a nude American Indian with a bush covering his groin. Like the current seal, he held. A scroll came out over his mouth with the words "Come over and help us", emphasizing the missionary and commercial intentions of the original colonists; this legend coming from the Indian's mouth may originate with Acts 16:9: "And a vision appeared to Paul in the night. This seal was used until 1686, shortly after the charter was annulled, again from 1689-1692.
In 1775 the Revolutionary seal appeared, depicting a minuteman with a sword in his right hand and the magna carta in his left. The Revolutionary seal would mark the first time the Latin motto used by the state today appeared on a state seal, meant that the colony no longer recognized the authority of the Royal Governor General Thomas Gage; the source is attributed to the letter written by a father of an English soldier and politician Algernon Sidney: "It is said that the University of Copenhagen brought their album unto you, desiring you to write something therein. The last words were written in Sidney's "Book of Mottoes" favored by some in the American colonies. Metrically, the motto is dactylic hexameter. A stained glass window at the top of the Grand Staircase at the State House shows all the seals used in Massachusetts, including the royal seals of the Governors during colonial days. Coat of Arms of the U. S. States Seals of the U. S. states List of Massachusetts state symbols Flag of Massachusetts The History of the Arms and Great Seal of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts Arms of Massachusetts, American Heraldry Society
Coat of arms of Vermont
The coat of arms of Vermont is the official armorial bearings of the U. S. state of Vermont. Most of the elements found in the coat of arms originate in the Great Seal of Vermont designed by Ira Allen. Whereas the Great Seal of Vermont is reproduced in a single color and is reserved for embossing and authenticating state documents, the coat of arms is a more naturalistic and colorful representation of many of the same elements; the Coat of arms of Vermont was first used in 1807 on $5 bank notes of The Vermont State Bank. One of these notes is in the special collections of the Vermont History Center in Vermont. Prior to the discovery of the 1807 banknotes, the earliest representation of the coat of arms of Vermont was found on an engraved 1821 state military commissions; the exact designer is not known, but it is that Secretary of State Robert Temple worked with an engraver in developing the arms. Considerable liberties were taken in early depictions of the coat of arms; the location of the cow and the sheaves moved about the foreground, the height of the pine tree and size of the buck's head varied.
A state statute was approved in 1840, modified in 1862, both attempts to codify and create more consistent representation of the arms. The coat of arms was cast in brass to ornament uniforms of Vermont's military regiments before, through the U. S. Civil War, when individual states raised and trained their own regiments. Today the coat of arms appears on the current flag of Vermont, above the rostrum in the Hall of Representatives at the Vermont State House, on state court buildings, signage marking the Vermont border, at Vermont Welcome Centers; the blazon was formalized and described by state statute in 1840 in the following manner: "the coat of arms of the state shall be, is described as follows: Green, a landscape occupying half of the shield. From near the base, reaching nearly to the top of the shield, arises a pine-tree of the natural color, between three erect sheaves, placed bendwise on the dexter side, a red cow standing on the sinister side of the field; the Crest: A buck's head, of the natural color, cut off and placed on a scroll and yellow.
The Motto and Badge: On a scroll beneath the shield, the motto: Vermont: Freedom and Unity. The Vermonter's Badge: two pine branches of natural color, crossed between the shield and scroll." The crest and Vermonter's Badge, can be seen, in modified form, on the Vermont Military Crest. The "Vermonter's Badge" described in the statute was worn as an expression of Vermont identity by citizens during the period of the Vermont Republic, again during the American Civil War by Vermont's military regiments; the motto Freedom and Unity is central to the Vermont ideal of balancing personal freedom with the individual's responsibility to their community. Many government seals of Vermont use the state's coat of arms. Coats of arms of the U. S. states Seal of William. Webster's Coats of Arms. Crescent Books" 1985. ISBN 0-517-49951-7. Zieber, Heraldry in America: The Civic Armorial Bearings of American States. Greenwich House: 1969. Zieber, Heraldry in America: A Classic Surverry of Coats of Arms and Insignia. Greenwich House: 1974.
ISBN 0-8383-0322-6. A history of the Coat of Arms of Vermont
Flag and coat of arms of Pennsylvania
The coat of arms of Pennsylvania is an official emblem of the state, alongside the seal and state flag, was adopted in 1778. The flag of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania consists of a blue field on which the state coat of arms is embroidered; the Pennsylvania coat of arms features a shield crested by an American bald eagle, flanked by horses, adorned with symbols of Pennsylvania's strengths—a ship carrying state commerce to all parts of the world. An olive branch and cornstalk cross limbs beneath -- symbols of prosperity; the state motto, "Virtue and Independence", appears festooned below. Atop the coat of arms is a bald eagle, representing Pennsylvania's loyalty to the United States. Authorized by the state in 1799, the current design was enacted by law in 1907. In the summer of 2005, House Bill 179 was introduced to the state legislature to add "Pennsylvania" to the bottom of the flag in golden letters; the Pennsylvania House of Representatives voted in favor of the change, 164-31. The legislation was proposed by State Representative Tim Solobay.
The Senate State Government Committee never considered the bill, which died at the end of the Pennsylvania General Assembly's two-year session. The flag of the governor of Pennsylvania contains the state coat of arms on a field of white. Above the coat of arms, the flag displays a red ribbon with "The Governor" written in gold sans serif lettering. Below the coat of arms, the flag displays another red ribbon with "Commonwealth of Pennsylvania" in gold lettering. In 2001, the North American Vexillological Association surveyed its members on the designs of the 72 U. S. state, U. S. territorial and Canadian provincial flags. The survey ranked Pennsylvania's flag 57th out of the 72. Besides being used by itself, the coat of arms is used on many governmental seals of the state, as well as the flag of the Governor. Coats of arms of the U. S. states Display of the state flag