Seal of North Carolina
The Great Seal of the State of North Carolina was first authorized by the North Carolina Constitution of 1776, created in its first form in 1778, took on its modern form in 1835. According to a state law passed by the North Carolina General Assembly in the 19th century: The Governor shall procure of the State a Seal, which shall be called the great seal of the State of North Carolina, shall be two and one-quarter inches in diameter, its design shall be a representation of the figures of Liberty and Plenty, looking toward each other, but not more than half-fronting each other and other-wise disposed as follows: Liberty, the first figure, her pole with a cap on it in her left hand and a scroll with the word "Constitution" inscribed thereon in her right hand. Plenty, the second figure, sitting down, her right arm half extended toward Liberty, three heads of grain in her right hand, in her left, the small end of her horn, the mouth of, resting at her feet, the contents of the horn rolling out.
The background on the seal shall contain a depiction of mountains running from the left to the right to the middle of the seal. A side view of a three-masted ship shall be located to the right of Plenty; the date "May 20, 1775" shall appear within the seal and across the top of the seal and the words "esse quam videri" shall appear at the bottom around the perimeter. No other words, figures or other embellishments shall appear on the seal; the date of May 20, 1775, refers to the Mecklenburg Declaration of Independence the first declaration of independence adopted during the American Revolution. The motto "Esse quam videri" means "To Be Rather Than To Seem." The "pole with a cap" is a liberty pole. In 1971, the seal was standardized after the state's chief deputy attorney general discovered that there was more than one version in use. In 1983, state Senator Julian R. Allsbrook proposed a revision to the seal to add to the seal the date April 12, 1776, the date of the Halifax Resolves; these two dates are on the flag of North Carolina.
State of North Carolina Symbols of the State of North Carolina Flag of North Carolina History of the Great Seal of North Carolina
Seal of Georgia (U.S. state)
The Great Seal of the State of Georgia is a device, used to authenticate government documents executed by the state of Georgia. The first great seal of the state was specified in the State Constitution of 1777, its current form was adopted in 1914, its specifications are spelled out by statute. The obverse of the seal is centered on the coat of arms of the state: an arch with three columns, the arch symbolizing the state's Constitution and the columns representing the three branches of government; the words of the official state motto, "Wisdom, Moderation," are inscribed on scrolls that are wrapped around the columns. A member of the Georgia Militia stands between the second and third columns, holding a drawn sword in his right hand, representing the citizen/soldier's defense of the state's Constitution. A border surrounds the coat of arms, the motto "State of Georgia, 1776" is inscribed outside the arms; the reverse of the seal contains an image of Georgia's coast, with a ship arriving to take aboard tobacco and cotton, symbolizing Georgia's export trade.
A second, smaller boat represents the state's "internal traffic." Towards the left of the image, there is a flock of sheep. The motto "Agriculture and Commerce, 1776" is inscribed around the outside of the image; the dates listed on the obverse and reverse of the seal were 1799. The dates were changed by the Georgia state legislature in 1914 to reflect the date of the signing of the Declaration of Independence. In 1902, the Georgia legislature mandated that the coat of arms be included in the state flag of Georgia. Either the coat of arms or the state seal has appeared on every state flag since that date. By law, the Secretary of State is the official custodian of the Great Seal, attached to official papers by executive order of the Governor; this custodianship has led to some controversies: From 1868 to 1871, during the era of Reconstruction, the Great Seal was not used for state business. It had been hidden under the home of wartime Secretary of State Nathan C. Barnett, to prevent its use by Federal forces.
The Reconstruction government, having failed to locate the official seal, had a duplicate seal fabricated. The duplicate was a perfect match for the original, except for one small detail: the soldier held his sword in his left hand; the era of Reconstruction government in Georgia became known as the "Period of the False Seal". In 1872, when Georgians re-took control of the government, Barnett unearthed the original seal and returned it to the Capitol. In December 1946, Governor-elect Eugene Talmadge died before assuming office. Talmadge's son, was appointed governor by the State Legislature; this was challenged by the Lieutenant Governor-elect Melvin Thompson, who maintained that the state constitution authorized him to assume the office upon the death of the governor. Outgoing governor Ellis Arnall announced that he would not relinquish the office until it was clear who the new governor was; the political turmoil that ensued became known as the "Three Governors Controversy". In January 1947, while all three governors occupied different portions of the State Capitol, Secretary of State Ben W. Fortson, Jr. took the seal and hid it.
This prevented any of the claimants to the governorship from executing any business until the Supreme Court of Georgia could make a ruling on the rightful winner. Thompson was declared "acting governor" until a special election could be held to fill the remainder of the original term. Herman Talmadge served out the remaining portion of his father's term. In 1857, the University of Georgia constructed a cast iron representation of the architectural elements featured on the obverse of the Great Seal, it stands at the north entrance of the campus, has become known as The Arch. Fashioned from existing material, The Arch is a representation but not an exact replica of the elements of the Seal. Serving both symbolic and practical functions, it was connected to a barrier which kept cows from roaming over parts of the campus, was known as The Gate. Today, The Arch is an important symbol of the University. According to legend, it is bad luck for freshmen to walk under the arch. Legend suggests. List of Georgia state symbols Flag of Georgia Georgia Secretary of State Governor of Georgia Seal Seals of the U.
S. States Image of Georgia historical marker - Hiding Place of the Great Seal
Seal of Kansas
The Great Seal of the State of Kansas tells the history of Kansas. The seal contains: Landscape with a rising sun River and steamboat Settler's cabin and a man plowing a field Wagon train heading west Indians hunting American Bison Cluster of 34 stars – identifying Kansas as the 34th state to be accepted into the Union of the United States. State motto "Ad Astra per Aspera"; the design for the Great Seal of Kansas was submitted by John James Ingalls, a state senator from Atchison. Ingalls proposed the state motto, "Ad astra per aspera." The Great Seal of the State of Kansas was established by a joint resolution adopted by the Kansas Legislature on May 25, 1861. The resolution states: "The east is represented by a rising sun, in the right-hand corner of the seal; the circle is surrounded by the words, "Great seal of the state of Kansas. January 29, 1861." List of Kansas state symbols Flag of Kansas The Great Seal of the State of Kansas
Flag and seal of Illinois
The Great Seal of the State of Illinois is the official emblem of the state, signifies the official nature of a document produced by the state of Illinois. The flag of the state of Illinois consists of the seal of Illinois on a white background, with the word "Illinois" underneath the seal; the present seal was adopted in 1869, the flag bearing the central elements of the seal was adopted in 1915, the word Illinois was added to the flag in 1970. The current flag depicts the Great Seal of Illinois, designed in 1819 and emulated the Great Seal of the United States. In the eagle's beak there is a banner with the state motto, "State Sovereignty, National Union." The dates on the seal, 1818 and 1868, represent the year Illinois became a state and the year in which the Great Seal was redesigned by Sharon Tyndale. Although "State Sovereignty" comes first in the motto, "State" is at the bottom and "Sovereignty" is upside-down; the first Great Seal of the State of Illinois was adopted in 1819 by the first Illinois General Assembly.
The first law authorizing the Great Seal required the Secretary of State of Illinois to procure and keep the seal. The first seal engraved was a duplicate of the Great Seal of the United States, it was used until 1839. The seal designed in 1839 became the Second Great Seal. Illinois Secretary of State Sharon Tyndale spearheaded the drive to create a third state seal for Illinois. In 1867, he asked State Senator Allen C. Fuller to introduce legislation requiring a new seal, suggested to Fuller that the words of the state motto be reversed, from "State Sovereignty, National Union", to "National Union, State Sovereignty". However, the bill passed by the legislature on March 7, 1867, kept the original wording. Despite declining his suggestion, the legislature nonetheless entrusted Tyndale with designing the new seal, and Tyndale managed to twist the legislature's intent. Tyndale's seal features a bald eagle pitched on a rock carrying a shield in its talons and a banner with the state motto in its beak.
Thirteen stars and thirteen stripes on the shield represent the original thirteen states of the Union. The date August 26, 1818, when Illinois's first constitution was adopted in Kaskaskia, appears along the bottom arc of the circle, 1818, the year of statehood, displays on the seal below 1868, the year the current seal was adopted; this basic design has survived through several minor modifications. The Illinois Secretary of State is still the keeper of the Great Seal of the State of Illinois. During her time as state regent of the Daughters of the American Revolution in 1912, Ella Park Lawrence began a campaign to have Illinois adopt a state flag, she was unsuccessful during her time as state regent, but continued to lobby members of the Illinois General Assembly to adopt a state flag as a member of the Rockford chapter of the Daughters of the American Revolution. On April 1, 1914, Lawrence sent a letter to every Illinois chapter of the Daughters of the American Revolution announcing a contest to design an Illinois state flag, with the winner receiving a prize of $25.
Thirty-five designs were submitted in response to this contest. The contest was judged by a panel chaired by Lewis Stevenson, Illinois Secretary of State, they selected the design of Lucy Derwent. The flag became the official state banner on July 6, 1915, following its passage in the Illinois State House and Senate. Governor Edward F. Dunne did not sign the bill. In the 1960s, Chief Petty Officer Bruce McDaniel petitioned to have the name of the state added to the flag, he noted. Governor Richard B. Ogilvie signed the addition to the flag into law on September 17, 1969, the new flag was designed by Mrs. Sanford Hutchinson and became the official flag on July 1, 1970. For Illinois's first 100 years of statehood in 1918, Wallace Rice, who designed Chicago's flag, designed a centennial flag for the state, it had three horizontal bands of equal width alternating white, white. It was charged with 21 stars along the edge of the hoist. There were 10 blue stars in the upper white band and 10 in the lower white band, representing the 10 northern and 10 southern states at the time of Illinois' statehood in 1818.
The center blue band had one white star for the state of Illinois itself. Illinois Centennial half dollar State of Illinois Symbols of Illinois The Great Seal of the State of Illinois Illinois State Flag
Seal of Kentucky
The Seal of the Commonwealth of Kentucky was adopted in December 1792. Since that time, it has undergone several revisions; the current seal depicts two men, one in buckskin, the other in more formal dress. The men are facing each clasping hands; the outer ring of the seal is adorned with the words "Commonwealth of Kentucky", within the inner circle is the state motto "United we stand, divided we fall." The official colors of the seal are gold. A version of the seal appears on the flag of Kentucky. Provision for the creation of a seal for the Commonwealth was made during the first session of the Kentucky General Assembly. On December 20, 1792, the Assembly passed an act reading: "That the Governor be empowered and is hereby required to provide at the public charge a seal for this Commonwealth; this depiction would represent a literal rendering of the state motto. Lexington silversmith David Humphries was charged with designing the seal in 1793. Instead of hunting apparel, Humphries' version depicted two men in swallowtail coats, instead of a handshake, the two friends share a full embrace.
This original seal was destroyed in a fire that destroyed the state capitol in 1814. Because the description adopted by the General Assembly does not specify what the "two friends" should look like or how they should be embracing, several variants of the state seal were created subsequent to the destruction of the original. Different depictions of the seal have the friends outfitted in various clothing from coats and top hats to Roman togas; the embrace is shown as clasped hands, a hug, or a handshake combined with hands on one another shoulders. It has been speculated that certain die-makers have intentionally designed strange and unnatural poses to represent that the two friends were drunk on Kentucky bourbon or were demonstrating a secret handshake or symbol from a fraternal order. In 1857, an anonymous artist was commissioned to paint the seals of the various states in the skylights in the House of Representatives' chamber; this artist's depiction showed a hat and another in formal attire.
The two are standing in front of a row of columns and wearing garments resembling togas as overcoats. A 1952 article in The Courier-Journal opined that "They stand in a halfhearted embrace, as if each startled the other with his gesture."One odd-looking version of the seal had one of the friends joining his left hand to the other's right, which commissioner of conservation Henry Ward said made the two appear to be dancing an Irish jig. In 1954, Ward asked Louisville native Ernie Giancola to redesign the seal. Using a neighbor as a model, Giancola created a more natural-looking handshake for the friends. In 1962, the General Assembly further clarified the look of the seal to minimize variation in the future, they prescribed that the seal should depict "a pioneer meeting a gentleman in a swallowtail coat."The current version of the seal was designed by artist and former mayor of Hazard, Nan Gorman. Popular belief claims that the buckskin-clad man on the left is Daniel Boone, responsible for the exploration of Kentucky, the man in the suit on the right is Henry Clay, Kentucky's most famous statesman.
However, the official explanation is that the men represent all frontiersmen and statesmen, rather than any specific persons. The motto "United we stand, divided we fall" comes from the lyrics of "The Liberty Song", a patriotic song from the American Revolution. List of Kentucky state symbols Flag of Kentucky The Seal of the Commonwealth of Kentucky
Seal of Colorado
The Seal of the State of Colorado is an adaptation of the territorial seal, adopted by the First Territorial Assembly on November 6, 1861. The only changes made to the territorial seal design being the substitution of the words, "State of Colorado" and the figures "1876" for the corresponding inscriptions on the territorial seal; the first General Assembly of the State of Colorado approved the adoption of the state seal on March 15, 1877. The Colorado Secretary of State alone is authorized to affix the Great Seal of Colorado to any document whatsoever. By statute, the seal of the state is two and one-half inches in diameter with the following devices inscribed thereon: At the top is the Eye of Providence or "All Seeing Eye" within a triangle, from which golden rays radiate on two sides. Below the eye is a Roman fasces, a bundle of birch or elm rods with a battle axe bound together with a ribbon of red and blue with the words and Constitution; the bundle of rods bound together symbolizes strength, lacking in the single rod.
The axe symbolizes leadership. Below the fasces is a heraldic shield bearing across the top a red sky behind three snow-capped mountains and clouds above them; the lower half of the shield has two miner's tools, the pick and sledge hammer, crossed on a golden ground. Below the shield, on a scroll, is the motto, "Nil Sine Numine", Latin words meaning "Nothing without providence" or "nothing without the Deity", at the bottom the figures 1876, the year Colorado came into statehood; the design for the territorial seal which served as a model for the state seal or Great Seal of Colorado has been variously credited, but the individual responsible was Lewis Ledyard Weld, the territorial secretary, appointed by President Abraham Lincoln in July 1861. There is evidence that Territorial Governor William Gilpin was at least responsible for the design. Both Weld and Gilpin were knowledgeable in the symbolism of heraldry. Elements of design from both the Weld and Gilpin families’ coats of arms are incorporated in the territorial seal.
Nil sine numine is the state motto of Colorado. The Latin phrase appears to be an adaptation from Virgil's Aeneid where in Book II, line 777 the words "...non haec sine numine devum eveniunt" are found. The Colorado Department of Personnel and Administration said about the translation of the motto: At recurring intervals, discussion has ensued concerning interpretation of this Latin phrase which translated is "'Nothing without providence'". Others say it is "Nothing without God". Merriam Webster's translates it as "Nothing without the divine will". In the early mining days of the state, the unregenerate said it meant "nothing without a new mine"; the word "numen" means god or goddess, or divine spirit. The best evidence of intent of Colorado's official designers and framers of the resolution for adoption of the seal is contained in the committee report wherein clear distinction was made between "numine" and "Deo" and it states that the committee's interpretative translation was "Nothing without the Deity".
The motto appeared when Colorado's first territorial governor, asked Secretary of the Territory L. L. Weld for a suitable motto for the state seal. According to the story, Weld said: "Well, what would you suggest?" Gilpin is said to have paused in thought for a moment and responded "Nil Sine Numine". On November 6, 1861 by joint resolution the First Territorial Assembly adopted the motto with the territorial seal. Nil sine numine is the motto of the Weld family of Lulworth Castle in England; the family are descended from Sir Humphrey Weld, Lord Mayor of London in 1601 and were notable as a recusant family prior to Catholic Emancipation in the 19th century. The Luttrell Psalter, a famous medieval manuscript dated to the 14th century, contains inside its binding an armorial bookplate of Thomas Weld, one of the book's owners, the motto on the plate's ribbon reads "nil sine numine"; the motto is used by Colorado School of Mines and High Point University, a small liberal arts university in High Point, North Carolina, by Virginia Intermont College, a liberal arts college in Bristol, VA.
List of Colorado state symbols Flag of Colorado Seal of the State of Colorado
The Cumberland River is a major waterway of the Southern United States. The 688-mile-long river drains 18,000 square miles of southern Kentucky and north-central Tennessee; the river flows west from a source in the Appalachian Mountains to its confluence with the Ohio River near Paducah and the mouth of the Tennessee River. Major tributaries include the Obey, Caney Fork and Red rivers. Although the Cumberland River basin is predominantly rural, there are some large cities on the river, including Nashville and Clarksville, both in Tennessee. In addition, the river system has been extensively developed for flood control, with major dams impounding both the main stem and many of its important tributaries, its headwaters are three separate forks that begin in Kentucky and converge in Baxter, KY, located in Harlan County. Martin's Fork starts near Hensley Settlement on Brush Mountain in Bell County and snakes its way north through the mountains to Baxter. Clover Fork starts on Black Mountain in Holmes Mill, near the Virginia border, flows west in parallel with Kentucky Route 38 until it reaches Harlan.
Clover Fork once flowed through downtown Harlan and merged with Martins Fork at the intersection of Kentucky Route 38 and US Route 421 until a flood control project began in 1992 diverted it through a tunnel under Little Black Mountain from which it emerges in Baxter and converges with Martins Fork. Poor Fork begins as a small stream on Pine Mountain in Letcher County near Virginia, it flows southwest in parallel with Pine Mountain until it merges with the other two forks in Baxter. From there, the wider, now named Cumberland River continues flowing west through the mountains of Kentucky before turning northward toward Cumberland Falls; the 68-foot falls is one of the largest waterfalls in the southeastern United States and is one of the few places in the Western Hemisphere where a moonbow can be seen. Beyond Cumberland Falls, the river turns abruptly west once again and continues to grow as it converges with other creeks and streams, it receives the Laurel and Rockcastle rivers from the northeast and the Big South Fork of the Cumberland River from the south.
From here it flows into the man-made Lake Cumberland, formed by Wolf Creek Dam. The more than 100-mile reservoir is one of the largest artificial lakes in the eastern US. Near Celina, the river crosses south into Tennessee, where it is joined by the Obey River and Caney Fork. Northeast of Nashville, the river is dammed twice more, forming Cordell Hull Lake and Old Hickory Lake. After flowing through Nashville and picking up the Stones River, the river is dammed to form Cheatham Lake; the river turns northwest toward Clarksville, where it is joined by the Red River, flows back into Kentucky at the Land Between the Lakes National Recreation Area, a section of land nestled between Lake Barkley, fed by the Cumberland River, Kentucky Lake. The river flows north and merges with the Ohio River at Smithland, northeast of Paducah; the explorer Thomas Walker of Virginia in 1758 named the river, but whether for the Duke of Cumberland or the English county of Cumberland is not known. The Cumberland River was called Wasioto by the Shawnee Native Americans.
French traders called it the Riviere des Chaouanons, or "River of the Shawnee" for this association. The river was known as the Shawnee River for years after Walker's trip. Important first as a passage for hunters and settlers, the Cumberland River supported riverboat trade, which traveled to the Ohio and Mississippi rivers. Villages and cities were located at landing points along its banks. Through the middle of the 19th century, settlers depended on rivers as the primary transportation routes for trading and travel. In more recent history, a number of severe floods have struck various regions that the river flows through. In April 1977, Harlan and many surrounding communities were inundated with floodwaters, destroying most of the homes and businesses within the floodplain of the river; this event led to the building of the Martins Fork Dam for flood control and the diversion of the Clover Fork around the city of Harlan. In addition, the river was diverted through a mountain cut in Kentucky.
In late April and early May 2010, due to the 2010 Tennessee floods, the river overflowed its banks and flooded Nashville and Clarksville, Tennessee. The downtown area was ordered to evacuate. Quadrula tuberosa — Cumberland River endemic'Rough rockshell' freshwater mussel. List of longest rivers of the United States List of rivers of Kentucky List of rivers of Tennessee Media related to Cumberland River at Wikimedia Commons "Cumberland River"; the American Cyclopædia. 1879. "Cumberland River". The New Student's Reference Work. 1914