A conurbation is a region comprising a number of cities, large towns, other urban areas that, through population growth and physical expansion, have merged to form one continuous urban or industrially developed area. In most cases, a conurbation is a polycentric urbanised area, in which transportation has developed to link areas to create a single urban labour market or travel to work area; the term "conurbation" was coined in 1915 by Patrick Geddes in his book Cities In Evolution. He drew attention to the ability of the new technology of electric power and motorised transport to allow cities to spread and agglomerate together, gave as examples "Midlandton" in England, the Ruhr in Germany, Randstad in the Netherlands and North Jersey in the United States; the term as described is used in Britain, whereas in the United States each polycentric "metropolitan area" may have its own common designation, such as San Francisco Bay Area or the Dallas-Fort Worth Metroplex. Conurbation consists of adjacent metropolitan areas that are connected with one another by urbanization Internationally, the term "urban agglomeration" is used to convey a similar meaning to "conurbation."
A conurbation should be contrasted with a megalopolis, where the urban areas are close but not physically contiguous and where the merging of labour markets has not yet developed. The cities and towns of Port Louis, Beau Bassin-Rose Hill, Quatre Bornes, Vacoas-Phoenix and other urbanized villages form a large and central conurbation on the island of Mauritius. A large part of this conurbation is located in the district of Plaines Wilhems; this network of urban areas has a total population of 606,650 as of 2011. Rabat-Salé Lagos is a conurbation formed through the merged development of the initial Lagos city area with other cities and towns, such as Ikeja, along with various suburban communities like Agege, Ifako-Ijaiye, Mushin and Shomolu. Johannesburg and Tshwane are merging to form a region that has a population of 14.6 million. Greater Buenos Aires – Greater La Plata – Zárate / Campana The entire Rio–São Paulo area is sometimes considered a conurbation, plans are in the works to connect the cities with a high-speed rail.
Yet the government of Brazil does not consider this area a single unit for statistical purposes, population data may not be reliable. The "Golden Horseshoe" is a densely populated and industrialized region centred on the west end of Lake Ontario in Southern Ontario, Canada. Most of it is part of the Windsor-Quebec City corridor. With a population of 8.8 million people, the Golden Horseshoe makes up over a quarter of the population of Canada and contains 75% of Ontario's population, making it one of the largest population concentrations in North America. Although it is a geographically named sub-region of Southern Ontario, "Greater Golden Horseshoe" is more used today to describe the metropolitan regions that stretch across the area in totality; the largest cities in the region include Toronto, Oakville, Burlington, St. Catherines and Hamilton. Greater Montreal is Canada's 2nd largest conurbation, with Statistics Canada defining the Census Metropolitan Area as 4,258.31 square kilometres and a population of 3,824,221 as of 2011, which represents half of the population of the province of Quebec.
Smaller, there are 82 municipalities grouped under the Montreal Metropolitan Community to coordinate issues such as land planning and economic development. British Columbia's Lower Mainland is the most populated area in Western Canada, it consists of many mid-sized contiguous urban areas, including Vancouver, North Vancouver, Burnaby and Coquitlam. The Lower Mainland population is around 2.5 million and the area has one of the highest growth rates on the continent of up to 9.2 percent from the 2006 census. The National Capital Region is made up of the capital and neighbouring Gatineau, located across the Ottawa River; as Ottawa is in Ontario and Gatineau, this is a unique conurbation. Federal government buildings are located in both cities and many workers live in one city and work in the other; the National Capital Region consists of an area of 5,319 square kilometres that straddles the boundary between the provinces of Ontario and Quebec. The area of the National Capital Region is similar to that of the Ottawa-Gatineau Census Metropolitan Area, although the National Capital Region contains a number of small neighbouring communities that are not contained within the CMA.
When all the communities are added, the population is around 1,500,000. Ottawa-Gatineau is the only CMA in the nation to fall within two provinces; the Caribbean area, not considered to be part of a continent geographically speaking, has a conurbation in Puerto Rico consisting of San Juan, Bayamón, Carolina, Canóvanas, Trujillo Alto, Toa Alta, Toa Baja, Cataño, Caguas. This area is colloquially known as the "Área Metropolitana", houses around 1.4 million inhabitants spread over an area of 396.61 square kilometers. Thus, making it the largest city in the Caribbean by area. One example of a conurbation is the expansive concept of the New York metropolitan area centered on New York City, including 30 counties spread among New York State, New Jersey and Pennsylvania, with an estimated population of 21,961,994 in 2007. One-fifteenth of all U. S. residents live in the Greater New York City area. This conurbation is the result of se
A polder is a low-lying tract of land enclosed by dikes that form an artificial hydrological entity, meaning it has no connection with outside water other than through manually operated devices. There are three types of polder: Land reclaimed from a body of water, such as a lake or the sea bed Flood plains separated from the sea or river by a dike Marshes separated from the surrounding water by a dike and subsequently drained. All polders will be below the surrounding water level some or all of the time. Water enters the low-lying polder through infiltration and water pressure of ground water, or rainfall, or transport of water by rivers and canals; this means that the polder has an excess of water, pumped out or drained by opening sluices at low tide. Care must be taken not to set the internal water level too low. Polder land made up of peat will sink in relation to its previous level, because of peat decomposing when exposed to oxygen from the air. Polders are at risk from flooding at all times, care must be taken to protect the surrounding dikes.
Dikes are built with locally available materials, each material has its own risks: sand is prone to collapse owing to saturation by water. Some animals dig tunnels in the barrier. Polders are most though not found in river deltas, former fenlands and coastal areas. Flooding of polders has been used as a military tactic in the past. One example is the flooding of the polders along the Yser river during World War I. Opening the sluices at high tide and closing them at low tide turned the polders into an inaccessible swamp which allowed the Allied armies to stop the German army. From Dutch polder, from Middle Dutch polre, from Old Dutch polra from pol- "part of land, elevated above its surroundings"; the Netherlands is associated with polders, as its engineers became noted for developing techniques to drain wetlands and make them usable for agriculture and other development. This is illustrated by a saying: "God created the world; the Dutch have a long history of reclamation of marshes and fenland, resulting in some 3,000 polders nationwide.
By 1961, about half of the country's land, 18,000 square kilometres, was reclaimed from the sea. About half the total surface area of polders in north-west Europe is in the Netherlands; the first embankments in Europe were constructed in Roman times. The first polders were constructed in the 11th century; as a result of flooding disasters, water boards called waterschap or hoogheemraadschap were set up to maintain the integrity of the water defences around polders, maintain the waterways inside a polder, control the various water levels inside and outside the polder. Water boards hold separate elections, levy taxes, function independently from other government bodies, their function is unchanged today. As such they are the oldest democratic institution in the country; the necessary cooperation among all ranks to maintain polder integrity gave its name to the Dutch version of third way politics—the Polder Model. The 1953 flood disaster prompted a new approach to the design of dikes and other water-retaining structures, based on an acceptable probability of overflowing.
Risk is defined as the product of probability and consequences. The potential damage in lives and rebuilding costs is compared with the potential cost of water defences. From these calculations follows an acceptable flood risk from the sea at one in 4,000–10,000 years, while it is one in 100–2,500 years for a river flood; the particular established policy guides the Dutch government to improve flood defences as new data on threat levels becomes available. Some famous Dutch polders and the year they were laid dry are: Beemster Schermer Haarlemmermeerpolder As part of the Zuiderzee Works: Wieringermeerpolder Noordoostpolder Flevopolder Bangladesh has 123 polders, of which 49 are sea-facing; these were constructed in the 1960s to protect the coast from tidal flooding and reduce salinity incursion. They reduce waterlogging following storm surges from tropical cyclones, they are cultivated for agriculture. De Moeren, near Veurne in West Flanders Polders along the Yser rive between Nieuwpoort and Diksmuide Polders of Muisbroek and Ettenhoven, in Ekeren and Hoevenen Polder of Stabroek, in Stabroek Kabeljauwpolder, in Zandvliet Scheldepolders on the left bank of the Scheldt Uitkerkse polders, near Blankenberge in West Flanders Prosperpolder, near Doel and Kieldrecht.
Holland Marsh Pitt Polder Ecological Reserve Grand Pré, Nova Scotia The city of Kunshan has over 100 polders. The Jiangnan region, at the Yangtze River Delta, has a long history of constructing polders; the bulk of these projects were performed between the 13th centuries. The Chinese government assisted local communities in constructing dikes for swampland water drainage; the Lijia self-monitoring system of 110 households under a lizhang headman was used for the purposes of service administration and tax collection in the polder, with a liangzhang responsilbe for maintaining the water system and a tangzhang (塘长, dike chief）for po
Hawarden Airport, is an airport near Hawarden in Flintshire, near the border with England and 3.5 NM west southwest of the English city of Chester. Aviation Park Group is based at the airport and provides handling and related services to private clients. APG has a longterm tenancy agreement with Airbus UK, giving sole handling rights at the site. A large Airbus factory, which produces aircraft wings, is located at the airport; the factory is known as the Broughton factory, named after the nearest village. Hawarden Aerodrome has a CAA Ordinary Licence that allows flights for the public transport of passengers or for flying instruction as authorised by the licensee; the aircraft factory at Broughton was established early in the Second World War as a shadow factory for Vickers-Armstrongs Limited. The factory produced 5,540 Vickers Wellingtons and 235 Avro Lancasters. PA474 is one of only two Lancaster aircraft remaining in airworthy condition out of the 7,377 that were built. PA474 rolled off the production line at the Vickers Armstrong Broughton factory at Hawarden Airfield on 31 May 1945, just after the war in Europe came to an end, so she was prepared for use against the Japanese as part of the ‘Tiger Force’.
PA474 is now part of the RAF's Battle of Britain Memorial Flight. Post-war the factory was used by Vickers to build 28,000 aluminium prefab bungalows; the RAF's No. 48 Maintenance Unit was formed at Hawarden on 1 September 1939 and until 1 July 1957 stored and scrapped military aircraft, including the Handley Page Halifax, Horsa gliders and de Havilland Mosquitoes. It was located on the northwest portion of the airfield. No. 3 Ferry Pilots Pool/Ferry Pool, Air Transport Auxiliary, was based at Hawarden between 5 November 1940 and 30 November 1945. Its pilots ferried thousands of military aircraft from the factories and maintenance facilities at Hawarden and elsewhere to and from RAF and Naval squadrons throughout the UK. On 1 July 1948 The de Havilland Aircraft Company took over the Vickers factory and over the years built the following aircraft types: de Havilland Mosquito de Havilland Hornet de Havilland Sea Hornet de Havilland Vampire de Havilland Venom and Sea Venom de Havilland Dove and Devon de Havilland Comet 13 only, two aircraft that became the prototypes for the Hawker Siddeley Nimrod de Havilland Canada Chipmunk de Havilland Canada Beaver de Havilland Sea Vixen de Havilland HeronThe company became part of Hawker Siddeley Aviation in the 1960s and the production of the Hawker Siddeley HS125 business jet, designed by de Havilland as the DH.125, became the main aircraft type produced by the factory for nearly forty years.
Production was moved to the United States in 1996 when the 125 business was sold to the Raytheon Corporation. Some parts continued to be manufactured at Broughton for some years after.. In 1977 the Broughton factory became part of British Aerospace operations, it is now owned and operated by Airbus, has continued to be the centre of wing production for all models of Airbus commercial aircraft. The airport land includes a football ground named The Airfield, home of Welsh Premier League side Airbus UK Broughton F. C. which has movable floodlights due to its proximately to the runway. Although there have been scheduled services to Hawarden in past years, including a service from Liverpool to London via Hawarden operated by British Eagle in the 1960s and Air Wales in 1977, there are no public scheduled passenger flights to the airport. Airbus considered the A330-300 and A340-500 to require too much of the limited 1,663m runway 04 at Hawarden, chose the A330-200 as the base of a new version of the Beluga.
A runway extension was considered, but abandoned when Airbus chose the A330-200 which could use the existing runway. There are regular shuttle flights to Bristol Lulsgate and on to Toulouse for Airbus workers; these were operated by Eastern Airways & now defunct BMI Regional but are operated by Loganair using an Embraer 145 aircraft. The airport is used as a back-up for scheduled flights to Anglesey whenever Anglesey Airport is closed. There is much private and general activity at the airport, adding to the number of aircraft movements. Operators include Aviation Park Group, which provides air taxi and charter services, Flintshire Flying School, NWMAS and National Police Air Service base a Eurocopter EC135 Helicopter at the airport. Operating from Hawarden Airport is Williams Aviation Ltd, which offers private jet charter; the Airfield is PPR. Air Wales began operations at Cardiff Airport on 6 December 1977 using a 9-seater Piper PA-31 Navajo Chieftain on its twice-daily scheduled route from Cardiff to Hawarden Airport, Flintshire - a destination, billed as "Chester".
Clwyd County Council provided the company with a start-up grant of £10,000 on the grounds that the service would improve communications between North East Wales and Cardiff. The single fare was £16.50p. Notwithstanding the confined space of the aircraft, complimentary coffee was served in-flight to passengers by the First Officer. An aircraft service centre managed and owned separately from the Airbus operation is located at the airport. Raytheon Systems
Emergency medical services in the United Kingdom
Emergency medical services in the United Kingdom provide emergency care to people with acute illness or injury and are predominantly provided free at the point of use by the four National Health Services of England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Emergency care including ambulance and emergency department treatment is free to everyone, regardless of immigration or visitor status; the NHS commissions most emergency medical services through the 14 NHS organisations with ambulance responsibility across the UK. As with other emergency services, the public access emergency medical services through one of the valid emergency telephone numbers. In addition to ambulance services provided by NHS organisations, there are some private and volunteer emergency medical services arrangements in place in the UK, the use of private or volunteer ambulances at public events or large private sites, as part of community provision of services such as community first responders. Air ambulance services in the UK are not part of the NHS and are funded through charitable donations.
Paramedics are seconded from a local NHS ambulance service, with the exception of Great North Air Ambulance Service who employ their own paramedics. Doctors are provided by their home hospital and spend no more than 40% of their time with an air ambulance service. Public ambulance services across the UK are required by law to respond to four types of requests for care, which are: Emergency calls Doctor's urgent admission requests High dependency and urgent inter-hospital transfers Major incidentsAmbulance trusts and services may undertake non-urgent patient transport services on a commercial arrangement with their local hospital trusts or health boards, or in some cases on directly funded government contracts, although these contracts are fulfilled by private and voluntary providers; the National Health Service Act 1946 gave county and borough councils a statutory responsibility to provide an emergency ambulance service, although they could contract a voluntary ambulance service to provide this, with many contracting the British Red Cross, St John Ambulance or another local provider.
The last St John Division, to be so contracted is reputed to have been at Whittlesey in Cambridgeshire, where the two-bay ambulance garage can still be seen at the branch headquarters. The Regional Ambulance Officers’ Committee reported in 1979 that “There was considerable local variation in the quality of the service provided in relation to vehicles and equipment. Most Services were administered by Local Authorities through their Medical Officer of Health and his Ambulance Officer, a few were under the aegis of the Fire Service, whilst others relied upon agency methods for the provision of part or all of their services.” The 142 existing ambulance services were transferred by the National Health Service Reorganisation Act 1973 from local authority to central government control in 1974, consolidated into 53 services under regional or area health authorities. This led to the formation of predominantly county based ambulance services, which merged up and changed responsibilities until 2006, when there were 31 NHS ambulance trusts in England.
The June 2005 report "Taking healthcare to the Patient", authored by Peter Bradley, Chief Executive of the London Ambulance Service, for the Department of Health led to the merging of the 31 trusts into 13 organisations in England, plus one organisation each in Wales and Northern Ireland. Following further changes as part of the NHS foundation trust pathway, this has further reduced to 10 ambulance service trusts in England, plus the Isle of Wight which has its own provision. Following the passage of the Health and Social Care Act 2012, commissioning of the ambulance services in each area passed from central government control into the hands of regional clinical commissioning groups; the commissioners in each region are responsible for contracting with a suitable organisation to provide ambulance services within their geographical territory. The primary provider for each area is held by a public NHS body, of which there are 11 in England, 1 each in the other three countries. In England there are now ten NHS ambulance trusts, as well as an ambulance service on the Isle of Wight, run directly by Isle of Wight NHS Trust, with boundaries following those of the former regional government offices.
The ten trusts are: East Midlands Ambulance Service NHS Trust East of England Ambulance Service NHS Trust London Ambulance Service NHS Trust North East Ambulance Service NHS Foundation Trust North West Ambulance Service NHS Trust South Central Ambulance Service NHS Foundation Trust South East Coast Ambulance Service NHS Foundation Trust South Western Ambulance Service NHS Foundation Trust West Midlands Ambulance Service University NHS Foundation Trust Yorkshire Ambulance Service NHS TrustThe English ambulance trusts are represented by the Association of Ambulance Chief Executives, with the Scottish and Northern Irish providers all associate members. On the 14 November 2018 West Midlands Ambulance Service became the UK's first university-ambulance trust; the service was operated before reorganisation in 1974 by the St Andrews’ Ambulance Association under contract to the Secretary of State for Scotland. The Scottish Ambulance Service is a Special Health Board that provides ambulance services throughout whole of Scotland, on behalf of the Health and Social Care Directorates of the Scottish Government.
Due to the remote nature of many areas of Scotland compared to the other Home Nations, the Scottish Ambulance Service has Britain's only publi
National Assembly for Wales
The National Assembly for Wales is the devolved parliament of Wales, with power to make legislation, vary taxes and scrutinise the Welsh Government. The Assembly comprises AMs. Since 2011, Members are elected for five-year terms under an additional members system, in which 40 AMs represent geographical constituencies elected by the plurality system, 20 AMs represent five electoral regions using the d'Hondt method of proportional representation; the largest party in the Assembly forms the Welsh Government. The Assembly was created by the Government of Wales Act 1998, which followed a referendum in 1997; the Assembly had no powers to initiate primary legislation until limited law-making powers were gained through the Government of Wales Act 2006. Its primary law-making powers were enhanced following a Yes vote in the referendum on 3 March 2011, making it possible for it to legislate without having to consult the UK parliament or the Secretary of State for Wales in the 20 areas that are devolved.
Legislation has been introduced by the Assembly Commission which will change the name of the institution from National Assembly for Wales to the Senedd, which may be known as the Welsh Parliament. An appointed Council for Wales and Monmouthshire was established in 1949 to "ensure the government is adequately informed of the impact of government activities on the general life of the people of Wales"; the council had 27 members nominated by local authorities in Wales, the University of Wales, National Eisteddfod Council and the Welsh Tourist Board. A post of Minister of Welsh Affairs was created in 1951 and the post of Secretary of State for Wales and the Welsh Office were established in 1964 leading to the abolition of the Council for Wales; the establishment of the Welsh Office created the basis for the territorial governance of Wales. The Royal Commission on the Constitution was set up in 1969 by Harold Wilson's Labour Government to investigate the possibility of devolution for Scotland and Wales.
Its recommendations formed the basis of the 1974 White Paper Democracy and Devolution: proposals for Scotland and Wales, which proposed the creation of a Welsh Assembly. However, Welsh voters rejected the proposals by a majority of four to one in a referendum held in 1979. After the 1997 general election, the new Labour Government argued that an Assembly would be more democratically accountable than the Welsh Office. For eleven years prior to 1997 Wales had been represented in the Cabinet of the United Kingdom by a Secretary of State who did not represent a Welsh constituency at Westminster. A second referendum was held in Wales on 18 September 1997 in which voters approved the creation of the National Assembly for Wales with a total of 559,419 votes, or 50.3% of the vote. The following year the Government of Wales Act was passed by the United Kingdom parliament, establishing the Assembly. In July 2002, the Welsh Government established an independent commission, with Lord Richard as chair, to review the powers and electoral arrangements of the National Assembly to ensure that it is able to operate in the best interests of the people of Wales.
The Richard Commission reported in March 2004. It recommended that the National Assembly should have powers to legislate in certain areas, whilst others would remain the preserve of Westminster, it recommended changing the electoral system to the single transferable vote which would produce greater proportionality. In response, the British government, in its Better Governance for Wales White Paper, published on 15 June 2005, proposed a more permissive law-making system for the Welsh Assembly based on the use of Parliamentary Orders in Council. In so doing, the Government rejected many of the cross party Richard Commission's recommendations; this has attracted criticism from opposition others. The Government of Wales Act 2006 received Royal Assent on 25 July 2006, it conferred on the Assembly legislative powers similar to other devolved legislatures through the ability to pass Assembly Measures concerning matters that are devolved. Requests for further legislative powers made through legislative competence requests were subject to the veto of the Secretary of State for Wales, House of Commons or House of Lords.
The Act reformed the assembly to a parliamentary-type structure, establishing the Welsh Government as an entity separate from, but accountable to the National Assembly. It enables the Assembly to legislate within its devolved fields; the Act reforms the Assembly's electoral system. It prevents individuals from standing as candidates in regional seats; this aspect of the act was subject to a great deal of criticism, most notably from the Electoral Commission. The Act was criticised. Plaid Cymru, the Official Opposition in the National Assembly from 1999–2007, attacked it for not delivering a fully-fledged parliament. Many commentators have criticised the Labour Party's partisan attempt to alter the electoral system. By preventing regional Assembly Members from standing in constituency seats the party has been accused of changing the rules to protect constituency representatives. Labour had 29 members in the Assembly at the time; the changes to the Assembly's powers were commenced on 4 May 2007, after the election.
Following a referendum on 3 March 2011, the Welsh Assembly gained direct law making powers, without the need to consult Westminster. The Conservative-Liberal coalition government created the Commission on Devolution in Wales
The England–Wales border, sometimes referred to as the Wales–England border or the Anglo-Welsh border, is the border between England and Wales, two constituent countries of the United Kingdom. It runs for 160 miles from the Dee estuary, in the north, to the Severn estuary in the south, it has followed broadly the same line since the 8th century, in part that of Offa's Dyke. The administrative boundary of Wales was confirmed in the Local Government Act 1972. Whether Monmouthshire was part of Wales, or an English county treated for most purposes as though it were Welsh, was settled by the 1972 Act, which included it in Wales; the modern boundary between Wales and England runs from the salt marshes of the Dee estuary adjoining the Wirral Peninsula, across reclaimed land to the River Dee at Saltney just west of Chester. It loops south to include within England an area southwest of Chester, before rejoining the Dee, loops east of the river to include within Wales a large area known as Maelor an exclave of Flintshire, between Bangor-on-Dee and Whitchurch.
Returning to the River Dee as far as Chirk, the boundary loops to the west, following Offa's Dyke itself for about 2 miles, including within England the town of Oswestry, before reaching the River Vyrnwy at Llanymynech. It follows the Vyrnwy to its confluence with the River Severn, continues southwards, rising over Long Mountain east of Welshpool. East of Montgomery, the boundary again follows the line of Offa's Dyke for about 2 miles, before looping eastwards to include within Wales a large area near Churchstoke, it runs westwards to the River Teme, follows the river southeastwards through Knighton before turning south towards the River Lugg at Presteigne, within Wales. The boundary continues southwards across hills to the River Wye, follows the river upstream for a short distance to Hay-on-Wye, on the Welsh side of the border, it continues southwards and rises through and across the Black Mountains, following the Hatterall Ridge past Llanthony on the Welsh side and Longtown on the English side, to reach the River Monnow near Pandy.
It generally follows the river, past Pontrilas and Skenfrith, towards Monmouth, looping eastwards to include the town itself and a surrounding area within Wales. At Redbrook, the boundary again reaches the Wye, follows the river southwards, past Tintern and Chepstow on the Welsh side, to its confluence with the Severn at the Severn Bridge; the boundary continues down the Severn estuary towards the Bristol Channel, with the small island of Flat Holm being administered as part of Wales and the neighbouring island of Steep Holm as part of England. The boundary passes between Flintshire, Wrexham County Borough and Monmouthshire in Wales and Cheshire West and Chester, Shropshire and Gloucestershire in England. There are several places where the border runs along the centre of a lane or street, resulting in properties on one side of the street being in Wales and those on the other side being in England. Notable examples include the main street of Llanymynech. Before and during the Roman occupation of Britain, all the native inhabitants of the island spoke Brythonic languages, a sub-family of the Insular Celtic languages, were regarded as Britons.
The clear geographical divide between the mountainous western areas of southern Britain and the lower-lying areas to the east was reflected in the pattern of Roman occupation. The main Roman military bases for the control of what became Wales were beyond the mountains, at Deva and Isca Augusta, all located close to the national border; when the Roman garrison left around 410, the various parts of Britain were left to govern and defend themselves. The western area Wales, had become Christian, soon comprised a number of separate kingdoms, the largest being Gwynedd in the northwest and Powys in the east. Powys coincided with the territory of the Celtic Cornovii tribe whose civitas or administrative centre during the Roman period was at Viroconium. Gwynedd, at the height of its power, extended as far east as the Dee estuary. From the 5th century onwards, pagan tribes from the east, including the Angles and Saxons, conquered eastern and southern Britain, which became England. In the south, the Welsh kingdom of Gwent broadly covered the same area as the pre-Roman Silures, traditionally the area between the rivers Usk and the Severn estuary.
It was centred at different times on Venta, from which it derived its name, Isca Augusta. Gwent allied with, at various times was joined with, the smaller Welsh kingdom of Ergyng, centred in present-day southern Herefordshire west of the Wye; the name Glywysing may indicate. The Battle of Mons Badonicus, circa 500, could have been fought near Bath between the British, the victors, Anglo-Saxons attempting to reach the Severn estuary, but its date and location are uncertain and it may well have taken place in Somerset or Dorset. However, it is more certain that the Anglo-Saxon kingdom of Wessex emerged in the 6th and 7th centuries in the upper Thames valley and Hampshi
Deeside is the name given to a predominantly industrial conurbation of towns and villages in Flintshire and Cheshire on the Wales–England border lying near the canalised stretch of the River Dee that flows from neighbouring Chester into the Dee Estuary. These include Connah's Quay, Queensferry, Garden City, Broughton, Hawarden, Mancot, Pentre and Sandycroft; the population is with a plurality living in Connah's Quay. Although locally the term Deeside is only used to refer to Connah's Quay, Queensferry, Garden city and the Deeside industrial estate. Deeside is known for its industry, providing jobs for the people of Cheshire, Merseyside & North Wales; the biggest employment area in Deeside is Deeside Industrial Park, located on the north bank of the Dee on the southern edge of the Wirral peninsula, which has both historical and contemporary significance, provides Deeside and the surrounding area with jobs in many different industries from construction to food production. Deeside is home to steel manufacturer Tata Steel and Toyota's advanced engine manufacturing plant.
Shotton's history dates back around 1000 years to Saxon times. Various settlements within the Deeside area are recorded in the Domesday book which list them within the Cheshire Hundred of Ati's Cross, they are Aston, Clayton, Hawarden and Wepre. The largest of these was Hawarden with 14 households; until industrialisation in the nineteenth century, Shotton remained a cluster of hamlets: a settlement comprising Shotton, Nine Houses and Shotton Hall, which itself dates back to 1637. Coal mining developed in the eighteenth century in 1889 the opening of the Hawarden Railway Bridge over the River Dee improved access to the reclaimed Dee Marshes. Following this, in 1895, the Summers family purchased 40 acres of Dee marshland, on which they established Shotton Steelworks. In September 1896, Shotton Steelworks began producing sheet steel; the development of this steelworks on the banks of the River Dee changed an area, once marshland, with Shotton – just across the Dee – little more than a hamlet. Shotton Steelworks led to the development of whole communities to house the influx of workers, estimated up to 13,000 at the height of the industry, with Shotton and Connah's Quay Jetty hubs of activity serving the steelworks.
There were brickworks and other industries in and around Shotton, Connah's Quay developed as a town on the banks of the Dee Estuary, becoming known for its shipbuilding industry. The city of Chester and Deeside is a proposed city region spanning the large urban areas of Wrexham and Chester and the community of Deeside; this would be a unique city in the UK as its boundaries would cross the border on Wales. A preliminary report has been issued. Primary schools in the area include: Well House Primary School, Bryn Deva Primary, Wepre Primary, Ysgol Cae'r Nant, Golftyn Primary, Venerable Edward Morgan, Sealand County Primary, Sandycroft County Primary, St Ethelwold's Primary School, most Queenferry County Primary School. Secondary schools in the area include: Connah's Quay High School, John Summers High School which closed on 20th July 2017, St David's High School. Coleg Cambria is a popular college in Connah's Quay, it offers a range of part-time courses as well as apprenticeships. In an inspection in 2007 the college gained the highest possible grade 1 inspection ratings for its Work Based Learning provision, it was Deeside College, but a College Merger was finalised in August 2013 with Yale College Wrexham, It is now one of the largest College's in the UK and the largest in Wales.
Bus travel in Deeside is provided by Arriva North West who offer services to Chester Bus Exchange from a starting point in Connah's Quay. Arriva provide a service to Rhyl in North Wales from Chester which passes through parts of Deeside. Senior citizens are entitled to free public transport to and from Chester. Arriva provide Train services in the Deeside area; the main services are to Wrexham and Rhyl. There are services to London and Cardiff which call at Shotton railway station; the other three railway stations in Deeside are Shotton high level railway station, Hawarden railway station and Hawarden Bridge railway station. A new station serving Deeside Industrial Estate has been proposed and is in the planning stages; the Deeside Shuttle Bus is a service which enables people to travel to and from work at a time convenient to them. The Deeside Shuttle Bus allows local residents to book a seat on the bus at a time and place specified by them, which will take them to work on Deeside Industrial Park.
It has proved popular and has now grown to serve other local areas. The most striking landmark in Deeside is the fixed cable-stayed bridge, opened by Queen Elizabeth II in 1998; the bridge is known as the Flintshire Bridge but is referred to by locals as the "New Bridge". The industrial park has been used as the base and the service area of the Wales Rally GB every year since 2013; the Deeside area is covered by both the Winter Hill transmitters. The area receives BBC Wales and BBC North West and ITV Wales and ITV Granada although the North West services do not provide news coverage of events on the Welsh side of the border. Local radio stations include Capital North West and Wales, Chester's Dee 106.3, BBC Radio Merseyside and Radio City 96.7. There are three main newspapers for Deeside: these are The Evening Leader, a Deeside edition of the Chester Chronicle and a Deeside edition of the Chester