A seal is a device for making an impression in wax, paper, or some other medium, including an embossment on paper, is the impression thus made. The original purpose was to authenticate a document, a wrapper for one such as a modern envelope, or the cover of a container or package holding valuables or other objects; the seal-making device is referred to as the seal matrix or die. If the impression is made purely as a relief resulting from the greater pressure on the paper where the high parts of the matrix touch, the seal is known as a dry seal. In most traditional forms of dry seal the design on the seal matrix is in intaglio and therefore the design on the impressions made is in relief; the design on the impression will reverse that of the matrix, important when script is included in the design, as it often is. This will not be the case if paper is embossed from behind, where the matrix and impression read the same way, both matrix and impression are in relief; however engraved gems were carved in relief, called cameo in this context, giving a "counter-relief" or intaglio impression when used as seals.
The process is that of a mould. Most seals have always given a single impression on an flat surface, but in medieval Europe two-sided seals with two matrices were used by institutions or rulers to make two-sided or three-dimensional impressions in wax, with a "tag", a piece of ribbon or strip of parchment, running through them; these "pendent" seal impressions dangled below the documents they authenticated, to which the attachment tag was sewn or otherwise attached. Some jurisdictions consider rubber stamps or specified signature-accompanying words such as "seal" or "L. S." to be the legal equivalent of, i.e. an effective substitute for, a seal. In the United States, the word "seal" is sometimes assigned to a facsimile of the seal design, which may be used in a variety of contexts including architectural settings, on flags, or on official letterheads. Thus, for example, the Great Seal of the United States, among other uses, appears on the reverse of the one-dollar bill. S. states appear on their respective state flags.
In Europe, although coats of arms and heraldic badges may well feature in such contexts as well as on seals, the seal design in its entirety appears as a graphical emblem and is used as intended: as an impression on documents. The study of seals is known as sigillography or sphragistics. Seals were used in the earliest civilizations and are of considerable importance in archaeology and art history. In ancient Mesopotamia carved or engraved cylinder seals in stone or other materials were used; these could be rolled along to create an impression on clay, used as labels on consignments of trade goods, or for other purposes. They are hollow and it is presumed that they were worn on a string or chain round the neck. Many have only images very finely carved, with no writing, while others have both. From ancient Egypt seals in the form of signet-rings, including some with the names of kings, have been found. Seals have come to light in South Arabia datable to the Himyarite age. One example shows a name written in Aramaic engraved in reverse so as to read in the impression.
From the beginning of the 3rd millennium BC until the Middle Ages, seals of various kinds were in production in the Aegean islands and mainland Greece. In the Early Minoan age these were formed of soft stone and ivory and show particular characteristic forms. By the Middle Minoan age a new set for seal forms and materials appear. Hard stone requires new rotary carving techniques; the Late Bronze Age is the time par excellence of the lens-shaped seal and the seal ring, which continued into the Archaic and Hellenistic periods, in the form of pictorial engraved gems. These were a major luxury art form and became keenly collected, with King Mithridates VI of Pontus the first major collector according to Pliny the Elder, his collection fell as booty to Pompey the Great. Engraved gems continued to be collected until the 19th century. Pliny explained the significance of the signet ring, how over time this ring was worn on the little finger. Known as yinzhang in China, injang in Korea, inshō in Japan, ấn giám in Vietnam, seals have been used in East Asia as a form of written identification since the Qin dynasty.
The seals of the Han dynasty were impressed in a soft clay, but from the Tang dynasty a red ink made from cinnabar was used. In modern times, seals known as "chops" in local colloquial English, are still used instead of handwritten signatures to authenticate official documents or financial transactions. Both individuals and organizations have official seals, they have multiple seals in different sizes and styles for different situations. East Asian seals bear the names of the people or organizations represented, but they can bear poems or personal mottoes. Sometimes both types of seals, or large seals that bear both names and mottoes, are used to authenticate official documents. Seals are so important in East Asia that for
Sealing the Tomb
Sealing the Tomb is a great altarpiece triptych by William Hogarth in the English city of Bristol. It was commissioned for St Mary Redcliffe in 1755. In the 19th century attempts were made to sell it, but it was given to the Bristol Fine Art Academy, which became the Royal West of England Academy, its size made it difficult to display and it was rolled up and stored in the basement. In 1973 it was displayed in the ecclesiastical museum created in the war-damaged Church of St Nicholas; when the museum closed it was converted to offices. It will be on display to the public again when the church is re-consecrated in 2018; the three scenes depicted are the Ascension featuring Mary Magdalene, on a central canvas, 22 feet by 19 feet. It is flanked by The Sealing of the Sepulchre and the Three Marys at the Tomb each of, 13 feet 10 inches by 12 feet, they are mounted in gilded frames. The painting was commissioned from William Hogarth in 1755 to fill the east end of the chancel of St Mary Redcliffe, it was Hogarth's only commission from the Church of England.
The churchwardens paid him £525 for his painting. Thomas Paty made the frames; the total cost was £7671 6s 4d. The three paintings were too wide for the church and the side panels were placed at an angle to the central one. During the Victorian era Hogarth's work was no longer thought to be suitable for the church and attempts were made to sell it to the National Gallery or via Christie's and an advertisement was placed in The Times, it was given to the Bristol Fine Art Academy, which became the Royal West of England Academy, in 1859. In 1910 another attempt was made to sell it, again without success; the work presented challenges for public display. It was rolled up and stored in the basement; the museum acquired the paintings in 1955 with £500 from the Art Collections Fund. The painting is now stored in Bristol; the church was damaged by incendiary bombs during World War II and was considered for demolition in the 1950s. The building was restored and the roof replaced by 1964 when it was leased to The Corporation of Bristol as a museum of church artefacts and local history.
It opened in 1973 and Hogarth's triptych was installed at the eastern end. The museum closed in 1991; when the church is re-consecrated in 2018, the three paintings will be on display to the public again
Sealant is a substance used to block the passage of fluids through the surface or joints or openings in materials, a type of mechanical seal. In building construction sealant is sometimes synonymous with caulking and serve the purposes of blocking dust and heat transmission. Sealants may be flexible or rigid, permanent or temporary. Sealants are not adhesives but some have adhesive qualities and are called adhesive-sealants or structural sealants. Sealants were first used in prehistory in the broadest sense as mud and reeds to seal dwellings from the weather such as the daub in wattle and daub and thatching. Natural sealants and adhesive-sealants included plant resins such as pine pitch and birch pitch, wax, natural gum, clay mortar, lime mortar, lead and egg. In the 17th century glazing putty was first used to seal window glass made with linseed oil and chalk other drying oils were used to make oil-based putties which were referred to as caulks. In the 1920s polymers such as acrylic polymers, butyl polymers and silicone polymers were first developed and used in sealants.
By the 1960s synthetic-polymer-based sealants were available. Sealants, despite not having great strength, convey a number of properties, they seal top structures to the substrate, are effective in waterproofing processes by keeping moisture out the components in which they are used. They can provide thermal and acoustical insulation, may serve as fire barriers, they may have electrical properties, as well. Sealants can be used for simple smoothing or filling, they are called upon to perform several of these functions at once. A caulking sealant has three basic functions: It fills a gap between two or more substrates; the sealant performs these functions by way of correct formulation to achieve specific application and performance properties. Other than adhesives, there are few functional alternatives to the sealing process. Soldering or welding can be used as alternatives in certain instances, depending on the substrates and the relative movement that the substrates will see in service. However, the simplicity and reliability offered by organic elastomers make them the clear choice for performing these functions.
A sealant may be viscous material that has little or no flow characteristics and which stay where they are applied. Anaerobic acrylic sealants are the most desirable, as they are required to cure in the absence of air, unlike surface sealants that require air as part of the cure mechanism that changes state to become solid, once applied, is used to prevent the penetration of air, noise, fire, smoke, or liquid from one location through a barrier into another. Sealants are used to close small openings that are difficult to shut with other materials, such as concrete, etc. Desirable properties of sealants include insolubility, corrosion resistance, adhesion. Uses of sealants vary and sealants are used in many industries, for example, construction and aerospace industries. Sealants can be categorized in accordance with varying criteria, e. g. in accordance with the reactivity of the product in the ready-to-use condition or on the basis of its mechanical behavior after installation. The intended use or the chemical basis is used to classify sealants, too.
A typical classification system for most used sealants is shown below. Types of sealants fall between the higher-strength, adhesive-derived sealers and coatings at one end, low-strength putties and caulks at the other. Putties and caulks serve only one function -- i.e. to fill voids. Silicone is an example of a sealant - and has a proven long life and is unaffected by UV or extremes of weather or temperature. See below for other common types of sealants - The main difference between adhesives and sealants is that sealants have lower strength and higher elongation than adhesives do; when sealants are used between substrates having different thermal coefficients of expansion or differing elongation under stress, they need to have adequate flexibility and elongation. Sealants contain inert filler material and are formulated with an elastomer to give the required flexibility and elongation, they have a paste consistency to allow filling of gaps between substrates. Low shrinkage after application is required.
Many adhesive technologies can be formulated into sealants
Divine Sealing is an unlicensed Sega Mega Drive video game developed by Studio Fazzy. The game was a vertical scrolling shooter with a sci-fi/fantasy hentai theme: players destroyed enemies and end level bosses in shoot'em up fashion and would be treated to scenes where the damsels in distress would be stripped of their clothing; the gameplay was slim for a shoot em’ up. The player was not able to have pick-up items. Only one straight firing normal shot was possible in a total of five stages. However, the player’s shot was upgraded with every 10,000 points as well as being awarded with extends at the same score. Once the player passed the level and defeated the level boss, a scene involving one of four anime women would follow, resulting in the loss of 90% of the woman’s clothes. Divine Sealing at GameFAQs Divine Sealing review at Sega-16 Divine Sealing at MobyGames
Stone sealing is the application of a surface treatment to products constructed of natural stone to retard staining and corrosion. All bulk natural stone is riddled with interconnected capillary channels that permit penetration by liquids and gases; this is true for igneous rock types such as granite and basalt, metamorphic rocks such as marble and slate, sedimentary rocks such as limestone and sandstone. These porous channels act like a sponge, capillary action draws in liquids over time, along with any dissolved salts and other solutes. Porous stone, such as sandstone absorb liquids quickly, while denser igneous stones such as granite are less porous. Natural stone is used in kitchens, walls, dining rooms, around swimming pools, building foyers, public areas and facades. Since ancient times, stone has been popular for building and decorative purposes, it has been valued for its strength and insulation properties. It can be cut, cleft, or sculpted to shape as required, the variety of natural stone types and colors provide an exceptionally versatile range of building materials.
The porosity and makeup of most stone does, leave it prone to certain types of damage if unsealed. Staining is the most common form of damage, it is the result of oils or other liquids penetrate into the capillary channels and deposit material, impossible to remove without destroying the stone. Salt Attack occurs; the two commonest effects are spalling. Salts that expand on crystallization in capillary gaps can cause surface spalling. For example, various magnesium and calcium salts in sea water expand on drying by taking on water of crystallization; however sodium chloride, which does not include water of crystallization, can exert considerable expansive forces as its crystals grow. Efflorescence is the formation of a gritty deposit white, on the surface. Efflorescence is the result of mineral solutions in the capillary channels being drawn to the surface. If the water evaporates, the minerals remain as the so-called efflorescence, it can be the result of chemical reaction. In the open air the lime reacts with carbon dioxide to form water-insoluble calcium carbonate that might take the form of powdery efflorescence or dripstone-like crusting.
Acid Attack. Acid-soluble stone materials such as the calcite in marble and travertine, as well as the internal cement that binds the resistant grains in sandstone, react with acidic solutions on contact, or on absorbing acid-forming gases in polluted air, such as oxides of sulfur or nitrogen. Acid erodes the stone. In time it may cause deep pitting totally obliterating the forms of statues and other sculptures. Mild household acids, including cola, vinegar, lemon juice and milk, can damage vulnerable types of stone; the milder the acid, the longer it takes to etch calcite-based stone. Picture Framing occurs when water or grout moves into the edges of the stone to create an unsightly darkening or "frame" affect; such harm is irreversible. Freeze-thaw Spalling results; the general term is Frost weathering. The water expands on freezing, causing the stone to spall, crumble, or to crack through; the longevity and usefulness of stone can be extended by sealing its surface so as to exclude harmful liquids and gases.
The ancient Romans used olive oil to seal their stone. Such treatment provides some protection by excluding water and other weathering agents, but it stains the stone permanently. During the renaissance Europeans experimented with the use of topical varnishes and sealants made from ingredients such as egg white, natural resins and silica, which were clear, could be applied wet and harden to form a protective skin. Most such measures did not last long, some proved harmful in the long run. Modern stone sealers are divided into 3 broad types: Topical sealers Generally made from polyurethanes, acrylics, or natural wax; these sealers may be effective at stopping stains but, being exposed on the surface of the material, they tend to wear out quickly on high-traffic areas of flooring. This type of sealer will change the look and slip resistance of the surface when it is wet; these sealers are not breathable i.e. do not allow the escape of water vapour and other gases, are not effective against salt attack, such as efflorescence and spalling.
Penetrating sealers The most penetrating sealers use siliconates, fluoro-polymers and siloxanes, which repel liquids. These sealers penetrate the surface of the stone enough to anchor the material to the surface, they are longer lasting than topical sealers and do not alter the look of the stone, but still can change the slip characteristics of the surface and do wear quickly. Penetrating sealers require the use of special cleaners which both clean and top up the repellent ingredient left on the stone surface; these sealers are breathable to a certain degree, but do not penetrate enough to be effective against salt attack, such as efflorescence and spalling. Impregnating sealers Uses modified silanes; these are a type of penetrating sealer, which penetrate into the material, impregnating it with molecules which bond to
In temples of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, an ordinance room is a room where the ceremony known as the Endowment is administered, as well as other ordinances such as Sealings. Some temples perform a progressive-style ordinance where patrons move from room to room, each room representing a progression of mankind: the Creation room, representing the Genesis creation story. There is an additional ordinance room, the Sealing room, at least one temple has a Holy of Holies; these two rooms are reserved for the administration of ordinances beyond the Endowment. The Holy of Holies is representative of that talked about; the first building to have ordinance rooms, designed to conduct the Endowment, was Joseph Smith's store in Nauvoo, Illinois, in 1842. Using canvas, Smith divided the store's large, second-floor room into "departments," which represented "the interior of a temple as much as circumstances would permit"; the departments included a garden with potted plants and a veil..
After conducting the endowment services, Smith told Brigham Young, "This is not arranged right but we have done the best we could under the circumstances in which we are placed." Smith concluded that he wanted Young to "organize and systemize all these ceremonies.". After Smith's death in 1844, Young used canvas to divide the large attic room in the Nauvoo Temple in the departments. Participants in the Nauvoo Temple ceremonies used the same names for these departments as the ordinance rooms in temples: Garden Room, World Room, Terrestrial Room, Celestial Room, Sealing Room, called the Holy of Holies.. With the resumption of temple ordinances in Salt Lake City in the 1850s, Young followed the same method of using canvas to divide an upper floor of the Council House into the ordinance departments; the above arrangement for administering the Endowment consisted of only temporary modifications to a building's interior rooms. The first building to be designed with actual progressive-style ordinance rooms for presentation of the Endowment was the Endowment House built in 1855 on Temple Square.
This structure had the same rooms as the Nauvoo Temple and Council House, including a Garden Room with murals and potted evergreen plants, but the sealing room was not called the Holy of Holies. However, when the St. George Temple was completed in 1877, Young followed the Nauvoo Temple pattern of using "frame petitions with the curtains and doors" for Endowment rooms; the rooms were made more permanent in 1881, when a group of Utah artists painted murals on the walls. Using the precedent of the rooms in Endowment House and St. George, architect Truman O. Angell, Jr. designed the Logan Temple interior with progressive ordinance rooms. Manti Temple architect William Folsom, followed the same arrangement for that temple, dedicated in 1888. Based on his experience with the Logan Temple, Angell petitioned church president John Taylor to override Young's original design for the Salt Lake Temple's interior with progressive ordinance rooms, which Taylor enthusiastically approved; this became the pattern for all temples until the construction of the Swiss Temple, when non-progressive ordinance rooms were developed to incorporate the new filmed Endowment ceremony.
The following description of the various rooms is based on James E. Talmage's The House of the Lord, typical of similar rooms in other LDS Church temples; these ordinance rooms reflect the overall temple ceremonies, an overview of God's plan for humanity. Beginning with the creation, the endowment reviews man's mortal existence, what one must do in order to return to God's presence as husband and wife with their children; this room has "murals on the walls are subdued in tones, depict scenes representative of the creation of the earth" as recorded in Genesis. It has no altar, only comfortable theater seating. In this room temple patrons "learn about the creation of the world"; this room has murals "showing landscape of rare beauty." The murals depict scenes such as "sylvan grottos and mossy dells and brooks, waterfalls and rivulets, trees and flowers, insects and beasts, in short, the earth beautiful, as it was before the Fall of Adam and Eve. It may be called the Garden of Eden Room." It has an theater seating.
In this room temple patrons learn "about our first parents being placed in the Garden of Eden....how Satan tempted Adam and Eve, how they were cast out of the garden and out of the presence of God into our world". This room's murals stand "in strong contrast to with those of the Garden Room." The "rocks are rent and riven" with "gnarled trees and blasted.
Sealing wax is a wax material of a seal which, after melting, hardens forming a bond, difficult to separate without noticeable tampering. Wax is used to verify something such as a document is unopened, to verify the sender's identity, for example with a signet ring, as decoration. Sealing wax can be used to take impressions of other seals. Wax was used to seal letters close and from about the 16th century, envelopes. Before sealing wax, the Romans used bitumen for this purpose. Formulas vary. In the Middle Ages sealing wax was made of beeswax and "Venice turpentine", a greenish-yellow resinous extract of the European Larch tree; the earliest such wax was uncoloured. From the 16th century it was compounded of various proportions of shellac, resin, chalk or plaster, colouring matter, but not beeswax; the proportion of chalk varied. In some situations, such as large seals on public documents, beeswax was used. On occasion, sealing wax has been perfumed by ambergris and other scents. By 1866 many colours were available: gold, black, yellow, green and so on.
Some users, such as the British Crown, assigned different colours to different types of documents. Today a range of synthetic colours are available. Sealing wax is available in the form of sticks, sometimes as granules; the stick is melted at one end, or the granules heated in a spoon using a flame, placed where required on the flap of an envelope. While the wax is still soft, the seal should be and pressed into it and released; the modern day has brought sealing wax to a new level of application. Traditional sealing wax candles are produced in Canada, France and Scotland, with formulations similar to those used historically. Since the advent of a postal system, the use of sealing wax has become more for ceremony than security. Modern times have required new styles of wax, allowing for mailing of the seal without damage or removal; these new waxes are flexible for mailing and are referred to as glue-gun sealing wax, faux sealing wax and flexible sealing wax. Bulla Papal bull Tamper-evident "Sealing Wax".
Encyclopædia Britannica. 1911