Philip J. Crowley
Philip J. "P. J." Crowley is the former United States Assistant Secretary of State for Public Affairs, having been sworn into office on May 26, 2009. He resigned on March 2011, following comments he made about the treatment of Chelsea Manning. Crowley was named the 2011-2012 recipient of the General Omar N. Bradley Chair in Strategic Leadership, a joint initiative among the United States Army War College, Dickinson College and the Pennsylvania State University – Dickinson School of Law. While in residence, Crowley conducted classes at the three institutions, he is teaching at George Washington University and is affiliated with the university's Institute for Public Diplomacy and Global Communication. Crowley was born in Massachusetts, his mother, Mary Crowley, was a homemaker. His father, William C. Crowley, was a vice president for public relations with the Boston Red Sox, a former U. S. Army Air Forces B-17 pilot. Crowley was educated at the College of the Holy Cross, graduating with a B. A. in English in 1973.
He joined the United States Air Force in June 1973. He spent 26 years in the Air Force, was stationed in New Hampshire, New York, Colorado, Washington and Germany. During the Gulf War, he was stationed at Incirlik Air Base for four months. In 1997, he was named senior director of public affairs for the United States National Security Council and Special Assistant to the President for national security affairs. During the Kosovo War, he worked with Javier Solana, Secretary General of NATO from April to June 1999, he retired from the Air Force in September 1999 at the rank of Colonel. In 2001, Crowley became a vice president of the Insurance Information Institute, specializing in the impact of terrorism on insurance in the wake of the September 11 attacks, he joined the Center for American Progress as a senior fellow in 2003 becoming the Center's director of national defense and homeland security. In 2009, President Barack Obama nominated Crowley to be Assistant Secretary of State for Public Affairs.
Crowley was sworn into office on May 26, 2009. He was noted for his dry wit: when reminding Americans on the ban on visiting North Korea, he pointed out on Twitter that "we only have a handful of former presidents" to visit North Korea and retrieve captured Americans, he was forced to apologize to Libyan dictator Muammar Gaddafi after telling an interviewer that Gaddafi's speech to the United Nations did not make "a lot of sense". On March 10, 2011, Crowley publicly criticized the Pentagon for the alleged mistreatment of military prisoner Chelsea Manning, the U. S. soldier suspected of providing whistle-blower website WikiLeaks with classified diplomatic cables. Crowley told an audience of about twenty people at Massachusetts Institute of Technology's Center for Future Civic Media that while Manning was "in the right place," she was being "mistreated" by the United States Department of Defense. Crowley called the Defense Department's treatment of Manning "ridiculous and counterproductive and stupid."
When asked "Are you on the record?" by British journalist Philippa Thomas, Crowley replied "Sure."His remarks, revealed in Thomas's blog, caused anger in the White House. On March 13, 2011, Crowley resigned from office. In his resignation letter, Crowley stood by his remarks, writing that while the "unauthorized disclosure of classified information is a serious crime under U. S. law", the "exercise of power in today's challenging times and relentless media environment must be prudent and consistent with our laws and values". Archived Profile from www.whorunsgov.com Philip J. Crowley on Twitter Appearances on C-SPAN
Cable-Satellite Public Affairs Network is an American cable and satellite television network, created in 1979 by the cable television industry as a nonprofit public service. It televises many proceedings of the United States federal government, as well as other public affairs programming; the C-SPAN network includes the television channels C-SPAN, C-SPAN2, C-SPAN3, the radio station WCSP-FM, a group of websites which provide streaming media and archives of C-SPAN programs. C-SPAN's television channels are available to 100 million cable and satellite households within the United States, while WCSP-FM is broadcast on FM radio in Washington, D. C. and is available throughout the U. S. on SiriusXM via Internet streaming, globally through apps for iOS, BlackBerry, Android devices. The network televises U. S. political events live and "gavel-to-gavel" coverage of the U. S. Congress, as well as occasional proceedings of the Canadian and British Parliaments and other major events worldwide, its coverage of political and policy events is unmoderated, providing the audience with unfiltered information about politics and government.
Non-political coverage includes historical programming, programs dedicated to non-fiction books, interview programs with noteworthy individuals associated with public policy. C-SPAN is a private, non-profit organization funded by its cable and satellite affiliates, it does not have advertisements on any of its networks, radio stations, or websites, nor does it solicit donations or pledges; the network operates independently, neither the cable industry nor Congress has control of its programming content. Brian Lamb, C-SPAN's chairman and former chief executive officer, first conceived the concept of C-SPAN in 1975 while working as the Washington, D. C. bureau chief of the cable industry trade magazine Cablevision. It was a time of rapid growth in the number of cable television channels available in the United States, Lamb envisioned a cable-industry financed nonprofit network for televising sessions of the U. S. Congress and other public affairs event and policy discussions. Lamb shared his idea with several cable executives.
Among them were Bob Rosencrans, who provided $25,000 of initial funding in 1979, John D. Evans, who provided the wiring and access to the headend needed for the distribution of the C-SPAN signal. C-SPAN was launched on March 19, 1979, in time for the first televised session made available by the House of Representatives, beginning with a speech by then-Tennessee representative Al Gore. Upon its debut, only 3.5 million homes were wired for C-SPAN, the network had just three employees. The second C-SPAN channel, C-SPAN2, followed on June 2, 1986 when the U. S. Senate permitted itself to be televised. C-SPAN3, the most recent expansion channel, began full-time operations on January 22, 2001, shows other public policy and government-related live events on weekdays along with weekend historical programming. C-SPAN3 is the successor of a digital channel called C-SPAN Extra, launched in the Washington D. C. area in 1997, televised live and recorded political events from 9:00 a.m. to 6:00 p.m. Eastern Time Monday through Friday.
C-SPAN Radio began operations on October 9, 1997, covering similar events as the television networks and simulcasting their programming. The station broadcasts on WCSP in Washington, D. C. is available on XM Satellite Radio channel 120 and is streamed live at c-span.org. It was available on Sirius Satellite Radio from 2002 to 2006. Lamb semi-retired in March 2012, coinciding with the channel's 33rd anniversary, gave executive control of the network to his two lieutenants, Rob Kennedy and Susan Swain. On January 12, 2017, the online feed for C-SPAN1 was interrupted and replaced by a feed from the Russian television network RT America for 10 minutes. C-SPAN announced that they were troubleshooting the incident and were "operating under the assumption that it was an internal routing issue." C-SPAN celebrated its 10th anniversary in 1989 with a three-hour retrospective, featuring Lamb recalling the development of the network. The 15th anniversary was commemorated in an unconventional manner as the network facilitated a series of re-enactments of the seven historic Lincoln-Douglas debates of 1858, which were televised from August to October 1994, have been rebroadcast from time to time since.
Five years the series American presidents: Life Portraits, which won a Peabody Award, served as a year-long observation of C-SPAN's 20th anniversary. In 2004, C-SPAN celebrated its 25th anniversary, by which time the flagship network was viewed in 86 million homes, C-SPAN2 was in 70 million homes and C-SPAN3 was in eight million homes. On the anniversary date, C-SPAN repeated the first televised hour of floor debate in the House of Representatives from 1979 and, throughout the month, 25th anniversary features included "then and now" segments with journalists who had appeared on C-SPAN during its early years. Included in the 25th anniversary was an essay contest for viewers to write in about how C-SPAN has influenced their life regarding community service. For example, one essay contest winner wrote about how C-SPAN's non-fiction book programming serves as a resource in his charitable mission to record non-fiction audio books for people who are blind. To commemorate 25 years of taking viewer telephone calls, in 2005, C-SPAN had a 25-hour "call-in marathon", from 8:00 pm.
Eastern Time on Friday, October 7, concluding at 9:00 pm. Eastern Time on Saturday, October 8; the network had a viewer essay contest, the winner of, invited to co-host an hour of the broadcast from C-SPAN's Capitol
Assistant Secretary of State for Public Affairs
The Assistant Secretary of State for Public Affairs is the head of the Bureau of Public Affairs within the United States Department of State. The Assistant Secretary of State for Public Affairs reports to the Secretary of State and the Under Secretary of State for Public Diplomacy and Public Affairs; the position was first created in December 1944 as the Assistant Secretary of State for Public and Cultural Relations. It was changed to its current name in 1946. Incumbents supervised the forerunners of the United States Information Agency and the Voice of America. Under the Presidential Appointment Efficiency and Streamlining Act of 2011, the Assistant Secretary for Public Affairs does not require Senate confirmation; the Assistant Secretary for Public Affairs had a dual role as the Spokesperson for the State Department. However, this has not been the case since Philip J. Crowley's tenure ended in 2011. Since 2011, the Assistant Secretary and the State Department Spokesperson have been two separate roles held by different people.
In late 2015, the two roles were once again merged with the appointment of Spokesperson John Kirby as Assistant Secretary for Public Affairs. Website of the Bureau of Public Affairs
The White House is the official residence and workplace of the President of the United States. It is located at 1600 Pennsylvania Avenue NW in Washington, D. C. and has been the residence of every U. S. President since John Adams in 1800; the term "White House" is used as a metonym for the president and his advisers. The residence was designed by Irish-born architect James Hoban in the neoclassical style. Hoban modelled the building on Leinster House in Dublin, a building which today houses the Oireachtas, the Irish legislature. Construction took place between 1800 using Aquia Creek sandstone painted white; when Thomas Jefferson moved into the house in 1801, he added low colonnades on each wing that concealed stables and storage. In 1814, during the War of 1812, the mansion was set ablaze by the British Army in the Burning of Washington, destroying the interior and charring much of the exterior. Reconstruction began immediately, President James Monroe moved into the reconstructed Executive Residence in October 1817.
Exterior construction continued with the addition of the semi-circular South portico in 1824 and the North portico in 1829. Because of crowding within the executive mansion itself, President Theodore Roosevelt had all work offices relocated to the newly constructed West Wing in 1901. Eight years in 1909, President William Howard Taft expanded the West Wing and created the first Oval Office, moved as the section was expanded. In the main mansion, the third-floor attic was converted to living quarters in 1927 by augmenting the existing hip roof with long shed dormers. A newly constructed East Wing was used as a reception area for social events. East Wing alterations were completed in 1946. By 1948, the residence's load-bearing exterior walls and internal wood beams were found to be close to failure. Under Harry S. Truman, the interior rooms were dismantled and a new internal load-bearing steel frame constructed inside the walls. Once this work was completed, the interior rooms were rebuilt; the modern-day White House complex includes the Executive Residence, West Wing, East Wing, the Eisenhower Executive Office Building—the former State Department, which now houses offices for the President's staff and the Vice President—and Blair House, a guest residence.
The Executive Residence is made up of six stories—the Ground Floor, State Floor, Second Floor, Third Floor, as well as a two-story basement. The property is a National Heritage Site owned by the National Park Service and is part of the President's Park. In 2007, it was ranked second on the American Institute of Architects list of "America's Favorite Architecture". Following his April 1789 inauguration, President George Washington occupied two executive mansions in New York City: the Samuel Osgood House at 3 Cherry Street, the Alexander Macomb House at 39–41 Broadway. In May 1790, New York began construction of Government House for his official residence, but he never occupied it; the national capital moved to Philadelphia in December 1790. The July 1790 Residence Act named Philadelphia, Pennsylvania the temporary national capital for a 10-year period while the Federal City was under construction; the City of Philadelphia rented Robert Morris's city house at 190 High Street for Washington's presidential residence.
The first U. S. President occupied the Market Street mansion from November 1790 to March 1797 and altered it in ways that may have influenced the design of the White House; as part of a futile effort to have Philadelphia named the permanent national capital, Pennsylvania built a much grander presidential mansion several blocks away, but Washington declined to occupy it. President John Adams occupied the Market Street mansion from March 1797 to May 1800. On Saturday, November 1, 1800, he became the first president to occupy the White House; the President's House in Philadelphia became a hotel and was demolished in 1832, while the unused presidential mansion became home to the University of Pennsylvania. The President's House was a major feature of Pierre Charles L'Enfant's' plan for the newly established federal city, Washington, D. C.. The architect of the White House was chosen in a design competition which received nine proposals, including one submitted anonymously by Thomas Jefferson. President Washington visited Charleston, South Carolina in May 1791 on his "Southern Tour", saw the under-construction Charleston County Courthouse designed by Irish architect James Hoban.
He is reputed to have met with Hoban then. The following year, he summoned the architect to Philadelphia and met with him in June 1792. On July 16, 1792, the President met with the commissioners of the federal city to make his judgment in the architectural competition, his review is recorded as being brief, he selected Hoban's submission. The building has classical inspiration sources, that could be found directly or indirectly in the Roman architect Vitruvius or in Andrea Palladio styles; the building Hoban designed is verifiably influenced by the upper floors of Leinster House, in Dublin, which became the seat of the Oireachtas. Several other Georgian-era Irish country houses have been suggested as sources of inspiration for the overall floor plan, details like the bow-fronted south front, interior details like the former niches in the present Blue Room; these influences, though undocumented, are cited in the official White House guide, in White
Richard A. Boucher is an American diplomat, deputy secretary-general of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development from 2009 until 2013, he took up post on November 5, 2009. Prior to joining OECD, he was the Assistant Secretary of State for South and Central Asian Affairs, a post he took up on February 21, 2006; the Bureau of South Asian Affairs was expanded to include the nations of Central Asia shortly before his confirmation. In 2005, Boucher became the longest-serving Assistant Secretary of State for Public Affairs in the U. S. Department of State's history, he began his most recent tenure as spokesman for the State Department in May 2000 under Secretary Madeleine Albright and continued as spokesman throughout the tenure of Secretary Colin Powell and for Secretary Condoleezza Rice until June 2005. He has served as the department's deputy spokesman under Secretary Baker, starting in 1989 and became the spokesman for Secretary Eagleburger in August 1992 and for Secretary Christopher until June 1993.
Boucher’s early career focused on economic affairs and Europe. From October 1993 to June 1996 he served as ambassador to Cyprus, from 1996 to 1999 he headed the U. S. Consulate General in Hong Kong as the consul general, he led U. S. efforts as the U. S. senior official for Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation from July 1999 to April 2000. Since joining the Foreign Service in 1977, Boucher served in Taiwan, the State Department's Economic Bureau, on the China Desk, he returned to China from 1984 to 1986 as deputy principal officer at the U. S. Consulate General in Shanghai, went back to Washington in July 1986, where he served in the State Department's Operations Center and as the deputy director of the Office of European Security and Political Affairs, he served as a Peace Corps volunteer in Senegal from 1973 to 1975. Boucher is a foreign service officer with the personal rank of career ambassador, the highest rank obtainable by a foreign service officer, was the longest-serving assistant secretary for public affairs in the Department of State’s history.
Fluent in Chinese and French, Boucher obtained his bachelor's degree in 1973 at Tufts University in English and French literature and did graduate work in economics at the George Washington University. He is a senior fellow in international and public affairs at the Watson Institute at Brown University. "Notable Former Volunteers / Foreign Service". Peace Corps official site. Accessed January 5, 2007. "Richard Boucher | Watson Institute". Watson Institute faculty page. Accessed November 13, 2017. Biography from the U. S. State Department Hong Kong Consul General Appearances on C-SPAN
Colby College is a private liberal arts college in Waterville, Maine. 1,800 students from more than 60 countries are enrolled annually. The college offers 54 major fields of 30 minors, it was founded in 1813 as the Maine Literary and Theological Institution until it was renamed after the city it resides in with Waterville College. The donations of Christian philanthropist Gardner Colby saw the institution renamed again to Colby University before concluding on its final and current title, reflecting its liberal arts college curriculum. Located in central Maine, the 714-acre Neo-Georgian campus sits atop Mayflower Hill and overlooks downtown Waterville and the Kennebec River Valley. Along with fellow Maine institutions Bates College and Bowdoin College, Colby competes in the New England Small College Athletic Conference and the Colby-Bates-Bowdoin Consortium. Colby is ranked as the 18th best liberal arts in the country according to U. S. News & World Report and is ranked 61st among all institutions of higher learning according to Forbes.
On February 27, 1813, the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, led by Baptists, adopted a petition to establish the Maine Literary and Theological Institution. It was moved to Waterville and used 179 acres of land donated by citizens. In 1818, trustees assigned the institution to Rev. Jeremiah Chaplin and classes began a vacant Waterville home. After Maine separated from Massachusetts in 1820, the first Maine legislature affirmed the Massachusetts charter for the institution, but made significant changes. Students could no longer be denied admission based on religion, the institution was prohibited from applying a religious test when selecting board members, the trustees now had the authority to grant degrees; the Maine Literary and Theological Institution was renamed Waterville College on February 5, 1821, four years the theological department was discontinued. In 1828 the trustees decided to turn the somewhat informal preparatory department of the college into a separate school, to, given the name Waterville Academy (most called the Coburn Classical Institute.
In 1833, Rev. Rufus Babcock became Colby's second president, students formed the nation's first college-based anti-slavery society. In 1845, the college's first Greek Society was formed, a chapter of Delta Kappa Epsilon, followed by chapters of Zeta Psi in 1850 and Delta Upsilon in 1852. During the Civil War, many young men were called away from school to join the fight. Shannon, Henry C. Merriam, Benjamin Butler. Twenty-seven Waterville College students perished in the war, more than 100 men from the town. In the years following the war, as was the case at many American colleges, Waterville College was left with few students remaining to pay the bills and a depleted endowment; the college was on the verge of closing. On August 9, 1865, prominent Baptist philanthropist Gardner Colby attended Waterville College's commencement dinner, unbeknownst to anyone in attendance except college president James Tift Champlin, announced a matching $50,000 donation to the college. Trustees of the college voted to construct a library and chapel to honor the Colby men who died in the war, called the Memorial Hall.
The college remained isolated from neighboring Bates College, Bowdoin College due to relative location in Waterville, coupled with socio-economic and political differences. At the 1871 commencement, a Martin Milmore sculpture based on the Lion of Lucerne was added as the centerpiece of the building. In the fall of 1871, Colby University was the first all-male college in New England to accept female students; the national Sigma Kappa sorority was founded at Colby in 1874 by the college's first five female students. However the college resegregated them in 1890. One of the buildings is named after the first woman to attend, Mary Caffrey Low, the valedictorian of the Class of 1875. In 1874, based on the success of its partnership with the Coburn Classical Institute, Colby created relationships with Hebron Academy and Houlton Academy In 1893, the Higgins Classical Institute was deeded to Colby - the last preparatory school that the university would acquire. Students published the first issue of The Colby Echo in 1877.
On January 25, 1899, Colby president Nathaniel Butler Jr.'73, renamed the "university" Colby College. In 1920, Colby celebrated its centennial, marking not the date of the original charter, but the date of its charter from the new State of Maine in 1820. Franklin W. Johnson was appointed president of the college in June 1929; that same year saw the public release of the Maine Higher Education Survey Report, which gave Colby's campus a less than desirable review. Criticisms included a cramped location of just 28 acres located between the Kennebec River and the Maine Central Railroad Company tracks through Waterville, an aging physical plant, proximity to the unpleasant odors of a pulp mill and the soot of the railroad. Using the report as justification, President Johnson presented a proposal to move the college to a more adequate location to the Trustees on June 14, 1929; the campaign to raise funds for the move was complicated by the Wall Street Crash of 1929 and the Great Depression, competing offers for the college's contemplated location emerged.
Most notably, William H. Gannett offered a site in Augusta - a financially attractive option for the college, but a troublesome prospect for the town of Waterville. A joint effort between Waterville citizens and the college raised more than $100,000 to purchase 600 acres near the outskirts of the city on Mayflower
The Boeing Company is an American multinational corporation that designs and sells airplanes, rockets and missiles worldwide. The company provides leasing and product support services. Boeing is among the largest global aircraft manufacturers. Boeing stock is included in the Dow Jones Industrial Average. Boeing was founded by William Boeing on July 15, 1916, in Washington; the present corporation is the result of the merger of Boeing with McDonnell Douglas on August 1, 1997. Former Boeing's chair and CEO Philip M. Condit continued as the chair and CEO of the new Boeing, while Harry Stonecipher, former CEO of McDonnell Douglas, became the president and chief operating officer of the newly merged company; the Boeing Company has its corporate headquarters in Illinois. The company is led by CEO Dennis Muilenburg. Boeing is organized into five primary divisions: Boeing Commercial Airplanes. In 2017, Boeing recorded $93.3 billion in sales, ranked 24th on the Fortune magazine "Fortune 500" list, ranked 64th on the "Fortune Global 500" list, ranked 19th on the "World's Most Admired Companies" list.
In March 1910, William E. Boeing bought Heath's shipyard in Seattle on the Duwamish River, which became his first airplane factory. Boeing was incorporated in Seattle by William Boeing, on July 15, 1916, as "Pacific Aero Products Co". Boeing was incorporated in Delaware. Boeing, who studied at Yale University, worked in the timber industry, where he became wealthy and learned about wooden structures; this knowledge proved invaluable in his subsequent assembly of airplanes. The company stayed in Seattle to take advantage of the local supply of spruce wood. One of the two "B&W" seaplanes built with the assistance of George Conrad Westervelt, a U. S. Navy engineer, took its maiden flight on June 15, 1916. Boeing and Westervelt decided to build the B&W seaplane after having flown in a Curtiss aircraft. Boeing bought a Glenn Martin "Flying Birdcage" seaplane and was taught to fly by Glenn Martin himself. Boeing soon crashed the Birdcage and when Martin informed Boeing that replacement parts would not become available for months, Boeing realized he could build his own plane in that amount of time.
He and his friend Cdr. G. C. Westervelt soon produced the B&W Seaplane; this first Boeing airplane was assembled in a lakeside hangar located on the northeast shore of Seattle's Lake Union. Many of Boeing's early planes were seaplanes. On April 6, 1917, the U. S. declared war on Germany and entered World War I. On May 9, 1917, the company became the "Boeing Airplane Company". With the U. S. entering the war, Boeing knew that the U. S. Navy needed seaplanes for training. So Boeing shipped two new Model Cs to Pensacola, where the planes were flown for the Navy; the Navy ordered 50 more. The company moved its operations to a larger former shipbuilding facility known as Boeing Plant 1, located on the lower Duwamish River, Washington state; when World War I ended in 1918, a large surplus of cheap, used military planes flooded the commercial airplane market, preventing aircraft companies from selling any new airplanes, driving many out of business. Others, including Boeing, started selling other products. Boeing built dressers and furniture, along with flat-bottom boats called Sea Sleds.
In 1919 the Boeing B-1 flying boat made its first flight. It accommodated two passengers and some mail. Over the course of eight years, it made international airmail flights from Seattle to Victoria, British Columbia. On May 24, 1920, the Boeing Model 8 made its first flight, it was the first plane to fly over Mount Rainier. In 1923, Boeing entered competition against Curtiss to develop a pursuit fighter for the U. S. Army Air Service. Although Curtiss finished its design first and was awarded the contract, Boeing continued to develop its PW-9 fighter; that plane, along with the Boeing P-12/F4B fighter, made Boeing a leading manufacturer of fighters over the course of the next decade. In 1925, Boeing built its Model 40 mail plane for the U. S. government to use on airmail routes. In 1927, an improved version of this plane was built, the Model 40A which won the U. S. Post Office's contract to deliver mail between San Chicago; the 40A had a passenger cabin that accommodated two. That same year, Boeing created an airline named Boeing Air Transport, which merged a year with Pacific Air Transport and the Boeing Airplane Company.
The first airmail flight for the airline was on July 1, 1927. In 1929 the company merged with Pratt & Whitney, Hamilton Aero Manufacturing Company, Chance Vought under the new title United Aircraft and Transport Corporation; the merge was followed by the acquisition of the Sikorsky Manufacturing Corporation, Stearman Aircraft Corporation, Standard Metal Propeller Company. United Aircraft purchased National Air Transport in 1930. On July 27, 1928, the 12-passenger Boeing 80 biplane made its first flight. With three engines, it was Boeing's first plane built with the sole intention of being a passenger transport. An upgraded version, the 80A, carrying eighteen passengers, made its first flight in September 1929. In the early 1930s Boeing became a leader in all-metal aircraft construction, in the design revolution t