Brian Noble (rugby league)
Brian David Noble MBE known by the nickname of "Nobby", is an English rugby league coach and former player. As a player, Noble was a Great Britain representative hooker, however he is better known for his coaching career, during which he coached the Bradford Bulls, the Wigan Warriors, the Crusaders RL and the Salford Red Devils in the Super League, the Great Britain national team, he was the first coach to win three Super League Grand Finals, is one of only two coaches to have achieved that feat along with Brian McDermott. He is the Director of Rugby for the Toronto Wolfpack, works as a pundit for BBC Sport. Noble was born in West Riding of Yorkshire, England. Brian Noble's early rugby league career was as a member of the Police Boys' Clubs before he signed for Bradford Northern, his début came in the 1978-79 season and was the beginning of 15 years and over 400 games with the club, concluding in the centenary season of 1995-96 following a spell at Wakefield Trinity. Noble combined his professional career with his job as a policeman, captained Great Britain on the Lions' tour of Australasia in 1984.
He played in all seven tests including the test in Papua New Guinea. Brian Noble played hooker in Bradford Northern's 5-10 defeat by Castleford in the 1981 Yorkshire County Cup Final during the 1981–82 season at Headingley Rugby Stadium, Leeds on Saturday 3 October 1981, played hooker in the 7-18 defeat by Hull F. C. in the 1982 Yorkshire County Cup Final during the 1981–82 season at Elland Road, Leeds on Saturday 2 October 1982, played hooker in the 12-12 draw with Castleford in the 1987 Yorkshire County Cup Final during the 1987–88 season at Headingley Rugby Stadium, Leeds on Saturday 17 October 1987, played hooker in the 11-2 victory Castleford in the 1987 Yorkshire County Cup Final replay during the 1987–88 season at Elland Road, Leeds on Saturday 31 October 1987. Brian Noble played hooker in Bradford Northern's 2-12 defeat by Warrington in the 1990–91 Regal Trophy Final during the 1990–91 season at Headingley Rugby Stadium, Leeds on Saturday 12 January 1991, played hooker in the 15-8 defeat by Wigan in the 1992–93 Regal Trophy Final during the 1992–93 season at Elland Road, Leeds on Saturday 23 January 1993.
After 6 years serving in the backroom staff at the club following his retirement, he was appointed Bradford head coach in November 2000. After initial confusion regarding chairman Chris Caisley's appointment - the tabloids reported that the new coach was Radio 4 comedian Ross Noble! - he was a hugely popular choice to succeed departing coach Matthew Elliott. Noble took Bradford Bulls to the 2001 Super League Grand Final; as Super League VI champions, Bradford played against 2001 NRL Premiers, the Newcastle Knights in the 2002 World Club Challenge. Noble oversaw Bradford's victory. In July 2002, Noble received an honorary doctorate from the University of Bradford for his achievements as a rugby league footballer, coach, he took Bradford to the 2002 Super League Grand Final, lost to St. Helens, he was named Super League coach of the year in 2003 and succeeded David Waite as Great Britain coach following the 2003 Ashes series. Noble took Bradford to the Grand Final again in 2004 but lost out to local rivals Leeds Rhinos 16-8 at Old Trafford.
Noble led Bradford to victory in the 2005 Super League Grand Final his third Championship in five years with the club. Noble left Bradford midway through the 2006 season to join Wigan, handing control to his assistant Steve McNamara. While head coach of Bradford, Noble guided the Bulls to two Minor Premiership titles, victory in three Grand Finals in 2001, 2003 and 2005, victory in the Challenge Cup in 2003 and to three World Club Championships in 2002, 2004 and 2006. In 2004 he received the Rugby League International Federation's coach of the year award. On 20 April 2006 Noble took up the position of head coach at Wigan, nine days after the sacking of Ian Millward. Brian took over at the club during a relegation battle which at one point looked as though Wigan would lose, however he has been credited for keeping Wigan in Super League following a number of impressive performance. However, despite having just £60,000 available to spend under the salary cap, Noble bought Stuart Fielden and Michael Dobson from the Bradford Bulls for a world record £450,000.
At the end of the season when the club's books were audited by the league's accountants, it was found there was an unauthorised overspend of £222,314, which led to allegations that the club cheated their way out of relegation by deliberately spending money they didn't have due to salary cap restrictions. However the club was only found guilty of "breaching the spirit of the cap", by trying to restructure existing contracts. On 17 January 2007 it was announced that his contract as head coach of the British national team would not be renewed. In June 2009 there was speculation that Wigan chairman Ian Lenagan had approached New Zealand national rugby league coach Stephen Kearney in relation to succeeding Brian Noble as head coach at Wigan. In October 2009, after the defeat by St Helens in the semi-final play-off game, Noble announced he would be leaving to club. On 14 October 2009 Noble was confirmed as the new head coach of the Welsh side Crusaders. Jon Sharp was first-team coach, Iestyn Harris was an assistant.
In the 2010 season Noble managed to gain 13 wins, a vast improvement on the season before, took them into the play offs for the first time. In November 2010, Noble confirmed his departure from Crusaders Rugby League after only one season in charge, his last match as Head Coach was an 18-12 loss away to Huddersfield in an Elimination Play-off tie. On 13 April 2013 N
England is a country, part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to Scotland to the north-northwest; the Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south; the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world; the English language, the Anglican Church, English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, the country's parliamentary system of government has been adopted by other nations.
The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the west; the capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. England's population of over 55 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom concentrated around London, the South East, conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century; the Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles"; the Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Anglia peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea; the earliest recorded use of the term, as "Engla londe", is in the late-ninth-century translation into Old English of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People. The term was used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was part of the English kingdom of Northumbria; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went "out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland", thus using it in the more ancient sense.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its modern spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used; the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars. How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe, less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons to distinguish them from continental Saxons of Old Saxony between the Weser and Eider rivers in Northern Germany. In Scottish Gaelic, another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England. An alternative name for England is Albion; the name Albion referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus the 4th-century BC De Mundo: "Beyond the Pillars of Hercules is the ocean that flows round the earth.
In it are two large islands called Britannia. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, i.e. it was written in the Graeco-Roman period or afterwards. The word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins, it either derives from a cognate of the Latin albus meaning white, a reference to the white cliffs of Dover or from the phrase the "island of the Albiones" in the now lost Massaliote Periplus, attested through Avienus' Ora Maritima to which the former served as a source. Albion is now applied to England in a more poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend; the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximate
Five-eighth or Stand-off is one of the positions in a rugby league football team. Wearing jersey number 6, this player is one of the two half backs in a team, partnering the scrum-half. Sometimes known as the pivot or second receiver, in a traditional attacking'back-line'. Play the five-eighth would receive the ball from the scrum half, the first receiver of the ball from the dummy-half or hooker following a tackle; the role of the five-eighth is to pass the ball away from the congested area around the tackle, further out along the'back-line' to the outside backs, the centres and wingers, who have more space to run with it. Furthermore, players in this position assume responsibility for kicking the ball for field position in general play; the five-eighth is therefore considered one of the most important positions referred to as a'play maker', assuming a decision-making role on the field. Over time, however, as the game has evolved, the roles of the two halves have grown more aligned and difficult to distinguish.
Along with other key positions - fullback and scrum half - the five-eighth makes up what is known as a team's spine. One book published in 1996 stated that in senior rugby league, the five-eighth and hooker handled the ball more than any other position; the Rugby League International Federation's Laws of the Game state that the "Stand-off half or Five-eighth" is to be numbered 6. However, traditionally players' jersey numbers have varied, in the modern Super League, each squad's players are assigned individual numbers regardless of position. Traditionally in rugby football, there have always been two half-backs as well as scrums involving the forwards. Of the two half backs, the name "scrum half" was given to the one, involved in the scrum by feeding the ball into it and the name "stand-off half" was given to the one which stood off to the side of the scrum. In Britain, where rugby league originated, this terminology has been retained. In Australian English, however, "five-eighth" is the term used for the number 6, to differentiate from the "half back", the name given to the number 7.
In New Zealand, both terms appear to be used interchangeably. Five-eighths that feature in their respective nations' rugby league halls of fame are England's Roger Millward, Australia's Wally Lewis, Bob Fulton, Brett Kenny, Albert Rosenfeld and Vic Hey, New Zealand's George Menzies. Rugby league's first known black player, Lucius Banks, played in the position for Hunslet R. L. F. C. in 1912-13. Rugby league positions Rugby league gameplay
Greater Manchester is a metropolitan county in North West England, with a population of 2.8 million. It encompasses one of the largest metropolitan areas in the United Kingdom and comprises ten metropolitan boroughs: Bolton, Oldham, Stockport, Trafford and the cities of Manchester and Salford. Greater Manchester was created on 1 April 1974 as a result of the Local Government Act 1972. Greater Manchester spans 493 square miles, which covers the territory of the Greater Manchester Built-up Area, the second most populous urban area in the UK, it is landlocked and borders Cheshire, West Yorkshire and Merseyside. There is a mix of high-density urban areas, semi-rural and rural locations in Greater Manchester, but land use is urban—the product of concentric urbanisation and industrialisation which occurred during the 19th century when the region flourished as the global centre of the cotton industry, it has a focused central business district, formed by Manchester city centre and the adjoining parts of Salford and Trafford, but Greater Manchester is a polycentric county with ten metropolitan districts, each of which has at least one major town centre and outlying suburbs.
Greater Manchester is governed by the Greater Manchester Combined Authority, which consists of political leaders from each of the ten metropolitan borough councils, plus a directly elected mayor, with responsibility for economic development and transport. Andy Burnham is the inaugural Mayor of Greater Manchester, elected in 2017. For the 12 years following 1974 the county had a two-tier system of local government; the county council was abolished in 1986, so its districts became unitary authority areas. However, the metropolitan county continued to exist in law and as a geographic frame of reference, as a ceremonial county, with a Lord Lieutenant and a High Sheriff. Several county-wide services were co-ordinated through the Association of Greater Manchester Authorities between 1985 and 2011. Before the creation of the metropolitan county, the name SELNEC was used for the area, from the initials of "South East Lancashire North East Cheshire". Greater Manchester is an amalgamation of 70 former local government districts from the former administrative counties of Lancashire, the West Riding of Yorkshire and eight independent county boroughs.
Since deindustrialisation in the mid-20th century, Greater Manchester has emerged as an exporter of media and digital content and dance music, association football. Although the modern county of Greater Manchester was not created until 1974, the history of its constituent settlements goes back centuries. There is evidence of Iron Age habitation at Mellor, Celtic activity in a settlement named Chochion, believed to have been an area of Wigan settled by the Brigantes. Stretford was part of the land believed to have been occupied by the Celtic Brigantes tribe, lay on their border with the Cornovii on the southern side of the River Mersey; the remains of 1st-century forts at Castlefield in Manchester, Castleshaw Roman fort in Saddleworth, are evidence of Roman occupation. Much of the region was omitted from the Domesday Book of 1086. During the Middle Ages, much of what became Greater Manchester lay within the hundred of Salfordshire – an ancient division of the county of Lancashire. Salfordshire encompassed several parishes and townships, some of which, like Rochdale, were important market towns and centres of England's woollen trade.
The development of what became Greater Manchester is attributed to a shared tradition of domestic flannel and fustian cloth production, which encouraged a system of cross-regional trade. In the late-18th century, the Industrial Revolution transformed the local domestic system. Infrastructure such as rows of terraced housing and roads were constructed to house labour, transport goods, produce cotton goods on an industrial scale for a global market; the townships in and around Manchester began expanding "at an astonishing rate" around the turn of the 19th century as part of a process of unplanned urbanisation brought on by a boom in industrial textile production and processing. This population increase resulted in the "vigorous concentric growth" of a conurbation between Manchester and an arc of surrounding mill towns, formed from a steady accretion of houses and transport infrastructure. Places such as Bury and Bolton played a central economic role nationally, by the end of the 19th century had become some of the most important and productive cotton-producing towns in the world.
However, it was Manchester, the most populous settlement, a major city, the world's largest marketplace for cotton goods, the natural centre of its region. By 1835 "Manchester was without challenge the first and greatest industrial city in the world". In the 1910s, local government reforms to administer this conurbation as a single entity were proposed. In the 18th century, German traders had coined the name Manchesterthum to cover the region in and around Manchester. However, the English term "Greater Mancheste
Super League is the top-level professional rugby league club competition in the Northern Hemisphere. The league has one from France. Super League began in 1996, replacing the Rugby Football League Championship and switching from a winter to a summer season; each team plays 29 games between February and September: 11 home games, 11 away games, Magic Weekend and an additional 6'loop fixtures' decided by league positions. The top five enter the play-off series leading to the Grand Final which determines the champions; the bottom team is relegated to the Championship. The Super League champions play the National Rugby League champions from Australasia in the World Club Challenge at the start of the season. A "super league" competition was first mooted during the Australian Super League war as a way for Rupert Murdoch to gain the upper hand during the battle for broadcasting supremacy with the Australian Rugby League. Murdoch approached the British clubs to form Super League. A large sum of money aided the decision, the competition got under way in 1996.
Part of the deal saw rugby league switch from a winter to a summer season. The 12 founding teams of Super League were: Bradford Bulls Castleford Tigers Halifax Leeds Rhinos London Broncos Oldham Bears Paris Saint-Germain Sheffield Eagles St. Helens Warrington Wolves Wigan Warriors Workington TownInitially, several mergers between existing clubs were proposed: Castleford, Wakefield Trinity and Featherstone Rovers would form Calder Hull F. C. and Hull Kingston Rovers would form Hull Salford and Oldham were to form Manchester Sheffield Eagles and Doncaster were to form South Yorkshire Warrington and Widnes were to form Cheshire Whitehaven, Workington Town and Carlisle would form CumbriaThey were to be included with the following stand-alone clubs: Bradford Northern, Leeds, London Broncos, Paris Saint-Germain, St. Helens and Wigan; however this proved so unpopular. The clubs finishing below 10th in the existing top flight were excluded, which meant Featherstone Rovers, Wakefield Trinity and Widnes were left out, as were pioneering club Keighley who had just won the Second Division Championship.
London Broncos, who had come fourth in the Second Division, were "fast-tracked" in on commercial grounds. A new team, Paris Saint-Germain, was created to give a French dimension. Between 1998 and 2000 there was no relegation from Super League. After two years Paris were dropped from the competition. Promotion and relegation between Super League and the Rugby League National Leagues was re-introduced, in 2002 the Super League Europe governing body re-integrated into the Rugby Football League. In 2006, French side Catalans Dragons from Perpignan joined the league, becoming the second non-English team to compete. To facilitate this move, two clubs were relegated from Super League at the end of the 2005 season: Leigh who finished bottom of the league were replaced by the one club coming up from the National Leagues and Widnes who finished 11th were dropped for Les Catalans, thus the number of clubs in Super League remained at 12. Super League licences were announced in May 2005 by the RFL as the new determinant of the Super League competition's participants from 2009 in place of promotion and relegation.
The licences were awarded after consideration of more factors than just the on-the-field performance of a club. After 2007 automatic promotion and relegation was suspended for Super League with new teams to be admitted on a licence basis with the term of the licence to start in 2009; the RFL stated that clubs applying to compete in Super League would be assessed by criteria in four areas with the final evaluations and decisions being taken by the RFL board of directors. Successful applicants were licensed for three years of Super League competition and three-yearly reviews of Super League membership took place to ensure ambitious clubs lower down the leagues can still be successful. Points attained by each club's application are translated into licence grades A, B or C. Clubs who achieved an A or B Licence would be automatically awarded a place in Super League, while those who achieved a C Licence underwent further scrutiny before the RFL decided who made the final cut. First licensing period In June 2008, the RFL confirmed that Super League would be expanded from 12 teams to 14 in 2009, on 22 July 2008 the RFL confirmed the teams awarded licences.
The teams announced were the 12 existing Super League teams along with National League 1 teams, Celtic Crusaders and Salford. Celtic Crusaders becoming the first Welsh team to play in Super League and the only team to be awarded a licence who had never played in the Super League previously. Featherstone Rovers, Halifax and Widnes all failed to attain a licence. Leigh and Widnes were disappointed with their exclusions with Leigh's chairman being critical of the RFL. Second licensing period For the 2012–14 seasons Championship sides Batley, Featherstone Rovers and Widnes all met the on-field criteria needed to submit an application, but despite this only Barrow and Widnes decided to submit an application. On 31 March 2011 Widnes were awarded a Super League licence; the Rugby Football League's final decision was announced on 26 July 2011, Widnes would be joi
Ian "Basil"/"Minibus" Millward is an Australian rugby league coach, occasional tv pundit and former player. Millward is now the assistant coach of St George Illawarra in the NRL Millward is the former head coach of Wigan, St. Helens and Castleford, he was in charge at Wigan from May 2005, his appointment coming just two weeks after an acrimonious departure from the club's fiercest rivals, St Helens. He was sacked by Wigan on 11 April 2006 for their poor start to 2006's Super League XI season - having won just one of eight league games. In October 2006 he returned to Australia. Millward lasted one and a half seasons at Castleford before leaving half-way through the 2013 season. Millward was born in Wollongong, New South Wales, played rugby league for Illawarra Steelers lower grades in his youth, after impressing for the state's schoolboys team, his hopes of a successful playing career were ended when he was forced to retire in 1983 after suffering a serious neck injury. He turned to coaching, he had spells with Wollongong University.
In 1997, he was coach of the Steelers reserve grade team, as well as an assistant coach with the first grade Illawarra Steelers side. His first senior appointment came in 1998 when he took charge of struggling English side Leigh, who had come close to relegation to the game's third tier, he soon transformed Leigh from relegation candidates to promotion contenders, catching the eye of a number of Super League clubs in the process. He moved to St Helens in March 2000 after the sacking of Ellery Hanley. Having won the 1999 Championship, St Helens under Millward contested in the 2000 World Club Challenge against National Rugby League Premiers the Melbourne Storm and lost. Under Millward, St Helens reached the 2000 Super League Grand Final and defeated Wigan Warriors, retaining their title, he took St Helens to the 2002 Super League Grand Final. They won the Rugby League Challenge Cup in 2001 and 2004 and the World Club Challenge in 2001. In 2001 Millward was named Super League Coach of the Year, his time there was not without controversy, however.
His decision to field an under-strength side due, he said, to injuries in a Super League match against Bradford, just a week before the Challenge Cup Final backfired badly. The move incurred the wrath of the game's authorities and St Helens were beaten in the final by Wigan, when all the injured players returned, he repeated the trick in another match against Bradford over Easter 2004, claiming a heavy fixture burden had taken its toll. St Helens were well beaten in the game at Odsal Stadium and the fall-out overshadowed the rest of the club's season, it emerged that two St Helens players, Sean Long and Martin Gleeson, had bet on their side to lose before the team was announced. Both were banned and the Rugby Football League tightened up rules by insisting squads had to be named 72 hours in advance. Millward's St Helens career ended controversially after he was suspended pending a disciplinary hearing in May 2005, he was sacked for gross misconduct a week his offences including three incidences of foul and abusive language: to a club employee.
St Helens claimed that Millward lied to an RFL disciplinary hearing and distorted the truth about the club's sale of Gleeson to Warrington in 2004. Within a fortnight, Millward was at Wigan Warriors as head coach above Denis Betts, he had a difficult start with Wigan, losing a Super League match 70-0 to Leeds Rhinos and, more humiliatingly, a Challenge Cup tie at St Helens 75-0. Wigan ended the season seventh in the Super League, missing out on the play-offs for the first time in the competition and club's history. After a disastrous start to the 2006 Super League, Millward was relieved of his duties as head coach of Wigan on 11 April 2006. During this time, a combination of poor performances and injuries to key players had seen Wigan slump to bottom of the engage Super League. Wigan had won just one of eight league games; the club issued this statement: "Following a meeting of the board of directors the Wigan club can confirm that head coach Ian Millward has been dismissed with immediate effect.
Ian will be leaving the club and team affairs will be managed in the short term by the assistant coaches Stuart Wilkinson and Andrew Farrar." He was replaced the following week by Bradford Bulls coach, Brian Noble. Millward enjoyed some time away from rugby league after being sacked by Wigan but in 2006 he returned to the club where he started his English coaching career to become coaching co-ordinator at National League 1 side Leigh Centurions. Millward worked as a co-presenter on rugby league matches shown on Sky Sports or BBC. In 2007 Millward was appointed the assistant coach at National Rugby League side North Queensland Cowboys. After Graham Murray resigned in May 2008, Millward took over as a head coach for the remainder of the season. Millward was appointed as assistant coach to David Furner at the Canberra Raiders on a two-year contract from 2009. On 30 June 2009 it was announced that Millward would be re-joining Championship side Leigh Centurions in England from 2010. Millward signed a three-year contract.
He took over from Terry Matterson as the coach of Castleford starting for the 2012 season he has signed a 3-year deal to stay with the club. Millward was released by Castleford Tigers by mutual consent on 9 April 2013 after a poor run of just one win in 18 games and with the team at the bottom of the Super League table at the time. In 2014, Millward returned to Australia to coach the Illawarra Cutters NSW Cup team, replacing former Steelers centre Paul
Rugby League European Championship
The Rugby League European Championship is a rugby league football tournament for European national teams, first held in 1935. The European Cup had three teams, with England and France each playing each other once. Unlike the Tri-Nations series, there was no final. From 1949 to 1956, a fourth Other Nationalities team entered the European Cup. From 2003 to 2009, the tournament featured six teams, including Scotland. Since 2014, the European Cup is contested with four teams and the most recent was held in 2018, it is run by the Rugby League European Federation. The tournament was played annually, with the exception of the years of the Second World War. In 1946–47, the tournament was altered, with each team playing each other twice, at home and away; the 1949–50 season saw a return to playing only once, but a new team, "Other Nationalities", was added. This team consisted of players who were not English, Welsh, or French playing in the British and French leagues: Australian, New Zealand, Irish players, others all played for this new side.
The 1955–56 tournament had no Welsh team, though Welsh players featured for Other Nationalities. The tournament was not played again until 1969–70, it was revived in 1975, with the three-team format of England and France playing each other team only once being made standard. The tournament was cancelled after 1981, but it was revived under the same format for 1995 and 1996; the tournament was revamped for 2003, with Scotland and Russia all joining. The new structure saw two groups of three, with the winner of each group meeting in a final; this structure was continued for the 2004 tournament. From 2004 Scotland and Wales had to have at least four'home grown' players from their domestic competitions in their squad; this means that at least one home grown player is guaranteed a start. The 2005 tournament did not include England as a participant. Georgia won the first European Nations qualifying tournament in 2005, beating both Serbia and the Netherlands to win a spot in the tournament; the 2010 and 2014 tournaments were used to choose the team that compete with Australia, New Zealand and England in the subsequent Four Nations.
Starting in 2018, the tournament is being used as apart of the qualification process for the Rugby League World Cup. List of international rugby league teams Rest of the world Rugby League International Federation