Asia is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located in the Eastern and Northern Hemispheres. It shares the continental landmass of Eurasia with the continent of Europe and the continental landmass of Afro-Eurasia with both Europe and Africa. Asia covers an area of 44,579,000 square kilometres, about 30% of Earth's total land area and 8.7% of the Earth's total surface area. The continent, which has long been home to the majority of the human population, was the site of many of the first civilizations. Asia is notable for not only its overall large size and population, but dense and large settlements, as well as vast populated regions, its 4.5 billion people constitute 60% of the world's population. In general terms, Asia is bounded on the east by the Pacific Ocean, on the south by the Indian Ocean, on the north by the Arctic Ocean; the border of Asia with Europe is a historical and cultural construct, as there is no clear physical and geographical separation between them. It has moved since its first conception in classical antiquity.
The division of Eurasia into two continents reflects East–West cultural and ethnic differences, some of which vary on a spectrum rather than with a sharp dividing line. The most accepted boundaries place Asia to the east of the Suez Canal separating it from Africa. China and India alternated in being the largest economies in the world from 1 to 1800 CE. China was a major economic power and attracted many to the east, for many the legendary wealth and prosperity of the ancient culture of India personified Asia, attracting European commerce and colonialism; the accidental discovery of a trans-Atlantic route from Europe to America by Columbus while in search for a route to India demonstrates this deep fascination. The Silk Road became the main east–west trading route in the Asian hinterlands while the Straits of Malacca stood as a major sea route. Asia has exhibited economic dynamism as well as robust population growth during the 20th century, but overall population growth has since fallen. Asia was the birthplace of most of the world's mainstream religions including Hinduism, Judaism, Buddhism, Taoism, Islam, Sikhism, as well as many other religions.
Given its size and diversity, the concept of Asia—a name dating back to classical antiquity—may have more to do with human geography than physical geography. Asia varies across and within its regions with regard to ethnic groups, environments, historical ties and government systems, it has a mix of many different climates ranging from the equatorial south via the hot desert in the Middle East, temperate areas in the east and the continental centre to vast subarctic and polar areas in Siberia. The boundary between Asia and Africa is the Red Sea, the Gulf of Suez, the Suez Canal; this makes Egypt a transcontinental country, with the Sinai peninsula in Asia and the remainder of the country in Africa. The border between Asia and Europe was defined by European academics; the Don River became unsatisfactory to northern Europeans when Peter the Great, king of the Tsardom of Russia, defeating rival claims of Sweden and the Ottoman Empire to the eastern lands, armed resistance by the tribes of Siberia, synthesized a new Russian Empire extending to the Ural Mountains and beyond, founded in 1721.
The major geographical theorist of the empire was a former Swedish prisoner-of-war, taken at the Battle of Poltava in 1709 and assigned to Tobolsk, where he associated with Peter's Siberian official, Vasily Tatishchev, was allowed freedom to conduct geographical and anthropological studies in preparation for a future book. In Sweden, five years after Peter's death, in 1730 Philip Johan von Strahlenberg published a new atlas proposing the Urals as the border of Asia. Tatishchev announced; the latter had suggested the Emba River as the lower boundary. Over the next century various proposals were made until the Ural River prevailed in the mid-19th century; the border had been moved perforce from the Black Sea to the Caspian Sea into which the Ural River projects. The border between the Black Sea and the Caspian is placed along the crest of the Caucasus Mountains, although it is sometimes placed further north; the border between Asia and the region of Oceania is placed somewhere in the Malay Archipelago.
The Maluku Islands in Indonesia are considered to lie on the border of southeast Asia, with New Guinea, to the east of the islands, being wholly part of Oceania. The terms Southeast Asia and Oceania, devised in the 19th century, have had several vastly different geographic meanings since their inception; the chief factor in determining which islands of the Malay Archipelago are Asian has been the location of the colonial possessions of the various empires there. Lewis and Wigen assert, "The narrowing of'Southeast Asia' to its present boundaries was thus a gradual process." Geographical Asia is a cultural artifact of European conceptions of the world, beginning with the Ancient Greeks, being imposed onto other cultures, an imprecise concept causing endemic contention about what it means. Asia does not correspond to the cultural borders of its various types of constituents. From the time of Herodotus a minority of geographers have rejected the three-continent system on the grounds that there is no substantial physical separation between
Norddeutscher Lloyd was a German shipping company. It was founded by Hermann Henrich Meier and Eduard Crüsemann in Bremen on 20 February 1857, it developed into one of the most important German shipping companies of the late 19th and early 20th centuries, was instrumental in the economic development of Bremen and Bremerhaven. On 1 September 1970, the company merged with Hamburg America Line to form Hapag-Lloyd AG; the German shipping company North German Lloyd was founded by the Bremen merchants Hermann Henrich Meier and Eduard Crüsemann on 20 February 1857, after the dissolution of the Ocean Steam Navigation Company, a joint German-American enterprise. The new shipping company had no association with the British maritime classification society Lloyd's Register. H. H. Meier became NDL's first Chairman of the Supervisory Board, Crüsemann became the first director of the company. Crüsemann was in charge of both cargo services and passenger transport, which, as a result of emigration, was growing significantly.
The company was active in other areas, including tugboats, bathing and ship repair. The first office of the shipping company was located at number 13 Martinistraße in Bremen; the company started with a route to England prior to starting a transatlantic service. In 1857, the first ship, the Adler, began regular passenger service between the Weser region and England. On 28 October 1857, it made its maiden voyage from Nordenham to London. Just one year regular, scheduled services were started between the new port in Bremerhaven and New York using two 2,674 GRT steamships, the Bremen and the New York. International economic crises made the start of the NDL difficult, the company took losses until 1859. However, during the succeeding years, passenger connections to Baltimore and New Orleans were added to the schedule, the company first rented and in 1869 bought facilities on the waterfront in Hoboken, New Jersey. In 1867-1868, NDL began a partnership with the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, which initiated the Baltimore Line.
In 1869, Crüsemann died at only 43 years old. From 1877 to 1892, the Director of NDL was Johann Georg Lohmann, he established a new policy for the company. However, H. H. Meier and Lohmann fell out over the direction of the company. In 1892, a 5,481 GRT twin-screw steamer, the company's first, was christened the H. H. Meier after the founder. During the Gründerzeit at the beginning of the German Empire, the NDL expanded greatly. Thirteen new ships of the "Strassburg class" were ordered. A route to the West Indies offered from 1871 to 1874 proved unprofitable, but was followed by a permanent line to the east coast of South America. On the transatlantic route, the HAPAG, the Holland-America Line, the Red Star Line were now all fierce rivals. Beginning in 1881 with the Elbe, eleven fast steamships of from 4500 to 6,900 GRT of the so-called "Rivers class", were introduced to serve the North Atlantic trade. In 1885, the NDL won the commission to provide postal service between the German Empire and Australia and the Far East.
The associated subsidy underwrote further expansion, beginning with the first large-scale order placed with a German shipyard, for three postal steamers for the major routes and three smaller steamers for branch service from AG Vulcan Stettin. It was in fact a requirement of the commission. By 1890, with 66 ships of a total 251,602 GRT, NDL was the second largest shipping company in the world, after the British Peninsular and Oriental Steam Navigation Company, with 48 ships of a total 251,603 GRT, dominated shipping to Germany, with 31.6% of the traffic. NDL was the carrying more transatlantic passengers to New York than any other company, due to its dominance in steerage, which consisted of immigrants. In cabin class, it carried only more passengers than the British Cunard Line and White Star Line. 42% of NDL's passenger traffic was to New York, 15% to other US ports, but only 16.2% eastward-bound from New York. Its westbound South Atlantic service represented 17.3% of its passengers. In 1887, the NDL withdrew from the route to England in favor of Argo Reederei.
However, it continued to provide tug services through participation beginning in 1899 in the Schleppschifffahrtsgesellschaft Unterweser. H. H. Meyer stood down from the board in 1888. Johann Georg Lohmann became Director of the company; the lawyer Heinrich Wiegand became Director. He held this position until 1909, presided over appreciable expansion. In 1897, with the commissioning of SS Kaiser Wilhelm der Große, the NDL had a major ship for the North Atlantic; this was the largest and fastest ship in the world, the company benefited from the reputation advantage of the Blue Riband for the fastest Atlantic crossing, with an average speed of 22.3 knots. Between 1897 and 1907, the line followed with three further four-screw and four-funnel steamers of the Kaiser class, of 14,000–19,000 GT: the SS Kronprinz Wilhelm, the SS Kaiser Wilhelm II and the SS Kronprinzessin Cecilie. With these the company offered a regular service across the Atlantic to its docks
A compartment is a portion of the space within a ship defined vertically between decks and horizontally between bulkheads. It is analogous to a room within a building, may provide watertight subdivision of the ship's hull important in retaining buoyancy if the hull is damaged. Subdivision of a ship's hull into watertight compartments is called compartmentation. Bulkhead watertight compartments were invented by the Chinese which strengthened the junks and slowed flooding in case of holing during the Han and Song dynasties; the wide application of Chinese watertight compartments soon spread to the Europeans through the Indian and Arab merchants. Watertight subdivision limits loss of buoyancy and freeboard in the event of damage, may protect vital machinery from flooding. Most ships have some pumping capacity to remove accumulated water from the bilges, but a steel ship with no watertight subdivision will sink if water accumulates faster than pumps can remove it. Standards of watertight subdivision assume no dewatering capability, although pumps kept in working order may provide an additional measure of safety in the event of minor leaks.
The most common watertight subdivision is accomplished with transverse bulkheads dividing the elongated hull into a number of watertight floodable lengths. Early watertight subdivision tested with hoses sometimes failed to withstand the hydrostatic pressure of an adjoining flooded compartment. Effective watertight subdivision requires these transverse bulkheads to be both watertight and structurally sound. A ship will sink if the transverse bulkheads are so far apart that flooding a single compartment would consume all the ship's reserve buoyancy. Aside from the possible protection of machinery, or areas most susceptible to damage, such a ship would be no better than a ship without watertight subdivision, is called a one-compartment ship. A ship capable of remaining afloat when any single watertight compartment is flooded is called a two-compartment ship, but damage destroying the tightness of a transverse bulkhead may cause flooding of two compartments and loss of the ship. A ship able to remain afloat with any two compartments flooded is called a three-compartment ship, will withstand damage to one transverse bulkhead.
After the Titanic sinking, safety standards recommended spacing transverse bulkheads so no single point of damage would either submerge the end of the upper bulkhead deck or reduce bulkhead deck freeboard to less than 3 inches. Wartime experience with torpedo damage indicated the typical damage diameter of 35 feet defined a practical minimum distance for transverse bulkhead spacing. Three types of doors are used between compartments. A closed watertight door is structurally capable of withstanding the same pressures as the watertight bulkheads they penetrate, although such doors require frequent maintenance to maintain effective seals, must, of course, be kept closed to contain flooding. A closed weathertight door can seal out spray and periodic minor flow over weather decks, but may leak during immersion; these outward opening doors are useful at weather deck entrances to compartments above the main deck. Joiner doors are similar to doors used in conventional buildings ashore, they afford privacy and temperature control for compartments formed by non-structural bulkheads within the ship's hull.
Compartments are identified by the deck forming the floor of that compartment. Different types of ships have different deck naming conventions. Passenger ships use letters of the alphabet sequentially down from A deck above B deck, B deck above C deck, so forth. Another popular naming convention is numbering the main deck 1, the deck below it 2, the deck below that the third deck, so forth. Decks above the main deck may be named, like the bridge deck or poop deck, or they may be numbered upwards from the main deck with a zero prefix: 01 above the main deck, 02 deck above 01, so forth; the United States Navy has used the latter convention in a compartment numbering system since 1949. The USN system identifies each compartment by a four-part code separated by hyphens; the first part of the code represents a numbered deck, the second part of the code is a hull support frame numbered sequentially from the bow, the third part of the code is a number representing compartment position with respect to the ship's centerline, the fourth part of the code is alphabetic representing the use of that compartment.
The centerline position code is zero for a compartment on the ship's centerline, odd numbers for compartments to starboard of the centerline, for compartments to port. For compartments sharing the same deck and forward frame, the first two parts of the code are identical, the third part of the code is numbered outward from the centerline. For example, four main-deck compartments at frame 90 would be 1-90-1-L inboard and 1-90-3-L outboard on the starboard side of the ship and 1-90-2-L inboard and 1-90-4-L outboard on the port side; the fourth part of the code is: A for store rooms C for manned communication or control centers E for manned engineering machinery spaces F for oil storage tanks G for gasoline-storage tanks J for JP-5 storage tanks K for chemical-storage spaces L for living spaces, including sleeping, washrooms, sick bay, passageways. M for ammunition magazines Q for miscellaneous spaces not otherwise coded, including laundry, pantries, wiring trunks, unmanned engineering and electronic spaces and offices.
T for vertical-access trunks V for void spaces W for George Charles. Manual of
Great Britain is an island in the North Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of continental Europe. With an area of 209,331 km2, it is the largest of the British Isles, the largest European island, the ninth-largest island in the world. In 2011, Great Britain had a population of about 61 million people, making it the world's third-most populous island after Java in Indonesia and Honshu in Japan; the island of Ireland is situated to the west of Great Britain, together these islands, along with over 1,000 smaller surrounding islands, form the British Isles archipelago. The island is dominated by a maritime climate with quite narrow temperature differences between seasons. Politically, Great Britain is part of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, constitutes most of its territory. Most of England and Wales are on the island; the term "Great Britain" is used to include the whole of England and Wales including their component adjoining islands. A single Kingdom of Great Britain resulted from the union of the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Scotland by the 1707 Acts of Union.
In 1801, Great Britain united with the neighbouring Kingdom of Ireland, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, renamed the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland" after the Irish Free State seceded in 1922. The archipelago has been referred to by a single name for over 2000 years: the term'British Isles' derives from terms used by classical geographers to describe this island group. By 50 BC Greek geographers were using equivalents of Prettanikē as a collective name for the British Isles. However, with the Roman conquest of Britain the Latin term Britannia was used for the island of Great Britain, Roman-occupied Britain south of Caledonia; the earliest known name for Great Britain is Albion or insula Albionum, from either the Latin albus meaning "white" or the "island of the Albiones". The oldest mention of terms related to Great Britain was by Aristotle, or by Pseudo-Aristotle, in his text On the Universe, Vol. III. To quote his works, "There are two large islands in it, called the British Isles and Ierne".
Pliny the Elder in his Natural History records of Great Britain: "Its former name was Albion. Old French Bretaigne and Middle English Bretayne, Breteyne; the French form replaced the Old English Breoton, Bryten, Breten. Britannia was used by the Romans from the 1st century BC for the British Isles taken together, it is derived from the travel writings of the Pytheas around 320 BC, which described various islands in the North Atlantic as far north as Thule. Marcian of Heraclea, in his Periplus maris exteri, described the island group as αἱ Πρεττανικαὶ νῆσοι; the peoples of these islands of Prettanike were called the Priteni or Pretani. Priteni is the source of the Welsh language term Prydain, which has the same source as the Goidelic term Cruithne used to refer to the early Brythonic-speaking inhabitants of Ireland; the latter were called Picts or Caledonians by the Romans. Greek historians Diodorus of Sicily and Strabo preserved variants of Prettanike from the work of Greek explorer Pytheas of Massalia, who travelled from his home in Hellenistic southern Gaul to Britain in the 4th century BC.
The term used by Pytheas may derive from a Celtic word meaning "the painted ones" or "the tattooed folk" in reference to body decorations. The Greco-Egyptian scientist Ptolemy referred to the larger island as great Britain and to Ireland as little Britain in his work Almagest. In his work, Geography, he gave the islands the names Alwion and Mona, suggesting these may have been the names of the individual islands not known to him at the time of writing Almagest; the name Albion appears to have fallen out of use sometime after the Roman conquest of Britain, after which Britain became the more commonplace name for the island. After the Anglo-Saxon period, Britain was used as a historical term only. Geoffrey of Monmouth in his pseudohistorical Historia Regum Britanniae refers to the island as Britannia major, to distinguish it from Britannia minor, the continental region which approximates to modern Brittany, settled in the fifth and sixth centuries by migrants from Britain; the term Great Britain was first used in 1474, in the instrument drawing up the proposal for a marriage between Cecily the daughter of Edward IV of England, James the son of James III of Scotland, which described it as "this Nobill Isle, callit Gret Britanee".
It was used again in 1604, when King James VI and I styled himself "King of Great Brittaine and Ireland". Great Britain refers geographically to the island of Great Britain, it is often used to refer politically to the whole of England and Wales, including their smaller off shore islands. While it is sometimes used to refer to the whole of the United Kingdom, including Northern Ireland, this is not correct. Britain can refer to either all island
Boyce is a town in Clarke County, United States. The population was 589 at the 2010 census, up from 426 at the 2000 census. Boyce is located in western Clarke County at 39°5′35″N 78°3′33″W, along U. S. Route 340, it is 6 miles southwest of the county seat and 16 miles northeast of Front Royal. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 0.35 square miles, all of it land. The town is situated at the crossing of the Norfolk & Western Railway and the Winchester and Berry's Ferry Turnpike about 2 miles northwest of Millwood, of which it is the shipping point, it is built upon a ridge, which drains on the east into Page Brook and to the west into Roseville Run. It is well underlaid with water; as of the census of 2000, there were 426 people, 159 households, 114 families residing in the town. The population density was 1,179.9 people per square mile. There were 168 housing units at an average density of 465.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 86.38% White, 11.74% African American, 1.17% Native American, 0.23% Asian, 0.47% from two or more races.
There were 159 households out of which 27.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.2% were married couples living together, 11.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.3% were non-families. 25.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.68 and the average family size was 3.19. In the town, the population was spread out with 25.8% under the age of 18, 5.2% from 18 to 24, 31.5% from 25 to 44, 24.4% from 45 to 64, 13.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 106.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 98.7 males. The median income for a household in the town was $48,333, the median income for a family was $52,000. Males had a median income of $35,179 versus $21,354 for females; the per capita income for the town was $17,041. About 6.5% of families and 8.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 8.5% of those under age 18 and 16.7% of those age 65 or over.
The town of Boyce was incorporated by the Circuit Court for the County of Clarke on the 28th day of November, 1910, with a recorded population of 312. The first election for mayor and four councilmen was held on the 20 December 1910, at which W. M. Gaunt was elected Mayor and George W. Garvin, M. O. Simpson, J. T. Sprint and Geo. B. Harrison were elected Councilmen. B. Harrison, Recorder; the Norfolk & Western Railway passes through the center of the business portion of the town, which at the time of the building of the railroad in 1881 was dense woods. The Norfolk & Western Railway erected a large station in the town in 1912; the Shenandoah Valley Railroad was constructed in Clarke County in 1879. It started in Hagerstown and went south to Roanoke, Virginia; the railroad opened from Hagerstown to Berryville on October 1, 1879. The town of Boyce, located 6 miles southwest of Berryville, began in 1881 with the arrival of the Shenandoah Valley Railroad. Located at the railroad crossing with the Millwood Turnpike, Boyce remains much as it was in the early 20th century.
The town was named after Colonel Upton L. Boyce, who lived at the nearby Tuleyries estate and, influential in persuading the railroad to pass through Clarke County. Previous to the current railroad station, there was a much smaller one located on the same side of the tracks but right along the Millwood Turnpike; the railroad was upgrading some of their railroad stations during the early 1910s and were going to replace the original station in Boyce. The new building was to be a small wooden one, sit along the west side of the tracks at its intersection with the Millwood Turnpike. According to local tradition and some historical accounts, the citizens of Boyce wanted a larger, more ornate building and wanted it to be located on the east side of the tracks, they raised money on their own and gave it to the Norfolk and Western to upgrade to a larger station. A December 11, 1912, article in The Clarke Courier entitled "New Depot for Boyce" states: "The public spirit of the citizens of Boyce has again scored a victory.
Some time ago the N & W Railway Company announced that it would erect a new passenger station at Boyce. "The plans submitted by the railway company did not suit the Boyce people, they at once started a movement to secure a better piece of ground in order that a more pretentious station might be erected. "The old buildings have been removed from the Page-Manning lot, work on a new and commodious passenger station, of concrete construction, will be started at once. "This is the spirit. "The Boyce people are quick to go down in their pockets and contribute to any and every cause which will advance their town...." The train station was completed in late 1913. A November 26, 1913, article in The Clarke Courier states: "The new N & W station, with fine concrete platforms, promenade, long train shed, electric-lighted throughout, with all modern conveniences for the comfort of patrons, is a great addition to the town." In a December 23, 1914, article in The Clarke Courier, entitled "The Hustling Town of Boyce," the railroad station is described: "...water is now piped to the ma
Railway Mail Service
The United States Postal Service's Railway Mail Service was a significant mail transportation service in the US from the mid-19th century until the mid-20th century. The RMS, or its successor the Postal Transportation Service, carried the vast majority of letters and packages mailed in the United States from the 1890s until the 1960s. George B. Armstrong, manager of the Chicago Post Office, is credited with being the founder of the concept of en route mail sorting aboard trains which became the Railway Mail Service. Mail had been carried in locked pouches aboard trains prior to Armstrong's involvement with the system, but there had been no organized system of sorting mail en route, to have mail prepared for delivery when the mail pouches reached their destination city. In response to Armstrong's request to experiment with the concept, the first railway post office began operating on the Chicago and North Western Railway between Chicago and Clinton, Iowa, on August 28, 1864; the concept was successful, was expanded to other railroads operating from Chicago, including the Chicago and Quincy, Chicago and Rock Island and the Erie.
By 1869 when the Railway Mail Service was inaugurated, the system had expanded to all of the major railroads of the United States, the country was divided into six operating divisions. A superintendent was over each division, all under the direction of George B. Armstrong, summoned from Chicago to Washington, D. C. to become general superintendent of the postal railway service. Armstrong served only two years as general superintendent before resigning because of failing health, he died in Chicago on May 1871, two days after his resignation. Armstrong's successor in Chicago, George Bangs, was appointed as the second general superintendent of the postal railway service. Bangs encouraged the use of fast mail trains, trains made up of mail cars, traveling on expedited schedules designed to accommodate the needs of the Post Office rather than the needs of the traveling public. In 1890, 5,800 postal railway clerks provided service over 154,800 miles of railroad. By 1907, over 14,000 clerks were providing service over 203,000 miles of railroad.
When the post office began handling parcel post in 1913, terminal Railway Post Office operations were established in major cities by the RMS to handle the large increase in mail volume. The Railway Mail Service reached its peak in the 1920s began a gradual decline with the discontinuance of RPO service on branchlines and secondary routes. After 1942, Highway Post Office service was utilized to continue en route sorting after discontinuance of some railway post office operations; as highway mail transportation became more prevalent, the Railway Mail Service was redesignated as the Postal Transportation Service. Abandonment of routes accelerated in the late 1950s and early 1960s, many of the remaining lines were discontinued in 1967. On June 30, 1974, the Cleveland and Cincinnati highway post office, the last HPO route, was discontinued; the last railway post office operated between New York and Washington, D. C. on June 30, 1977. A large bust and monument to Armstrong is displayed in the north side of Chicago's Loop Station Post Office.
A restored RPO car is displayed as part of the Pioneer Zephyr at the Chicago's Museum of Science and Industry. The restored 1927 AT&SF Railway #74 RPO car is displayed at the Pacific Southwest Railway Museum in Campo, CA. First Division: Maine, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, Massachusetts. Headquarters: Boston, Massachusetts. Second Division: New York, New Jersey. Headquarters: New York City. Third Division: District of Columbia, West Virginia, North Carolina. Headquarters: Washington, D. C. Fourth Division: Tennessee, South Carolina, Georgia, Florida. Headquarters: Atlanta. Fifth Division: Kentucky, Ohio. Headquarters: Cincinnati. Sixth Division: Illinois, Iowa. Headquarters: Chicago. Seventh Division: Missouri, Kansas. Headquarters: St. Louis, Missouri. Eighth Division: California, Utah, Arizona. Headquarters: San Francisco. Ninth Division: Michigan lines of New York Central Railroad between New York City and Chicago. Headquarters: Cleveland. Tenth Division: North Dakota, South Dakota, Wisconsin, Michigan peninsula.
Headquarters: St. Paul, Minnesota. Eleventh Division: New Mexico, Oklahoma. Headquarters: Fort Worth. Twelfth Division: Arkansas, Mississippi. Headquarters: New Orleans. Thirteenth Division: Montana, Oregon, Washington. Headquarters: Seattle. Fourteenth Division: Colorado, Nebraska. Headquarters: Omaha. Fifteenth Division: Pennsylvania, Delaware lines of Pennsylvania Railroad west of Pittsburgh. Headquarters: Pittsburgh. Owney, railway service mascot Railway Mail Service Library Washington Park and Zoo Railway Mobile Post Office Society History of the United States Postal Service 1775-1993: Railway Mail Service National Postal Museum - Railway Post Office Bergman, Edwin B. 29 Years to Oblivion, The Last Years of Railway Mail Service in the United States, Mobile Post Office Society, Nebraska. Wilking, Clarence; the Railway Mail Service, Railway Mail Service Library, Virginia. Available as an MS Word file at http://www.railwaymailservicelibrary.org/articles/THE_RMS. DOC U. S. Post Office Department. MEN AND MAIL IN TRANSIT, Railway Mail Service Library, Virginia.
Portion available as a video clip at http://www.railwaymailservicelibrary.org/videos/m&mit01. MPG National Postal Transport Association. MAIL IN MOTION, Railway Mail Service Library, Virginia. Portion available as a video clip at http://www.railwaymailservicelibrary.org/videos/MI
South America is a continent in the Western Hemisphere in the Southern Hemisphere, with a small portion in the Northern Hemisphere. It may be considered a subcontinent of the Americas, how it is viewed in the Spanish and Portuguese-speaking regions of the Americas; the reference to South America instead of other regions has increased in the last decades due to changing geopolitical dynamics. It is bordered on the west on the north and east by the Atlantic Ocean, it includes twelve sovereign states, a part of France, a non-sovereign area. In addition to this, the ABC islands of the Kingdom of the Netherlands and Tobago, Panama may be considered part of South America. South America has an area of 17,840,000 square kilometers, its population as of 2016 has been estimated at more than 420 million. South America ranks fourth in fifth in population. Brazil is by far the most populous South American country, with more than half of the continent's population, followed by Colombia, Argentina and Peru. In recent decades Brazil has concentrated half of the region's GDP and has become a first regional power.
Most of the population lives near the continent's western or eastern coasts while the interior and the far south are sparsely populated. The geography of western South America is dominated by the Andes mountains. Most of the continent lies in the tropics; the continent's cultural and ethnic outlook has its origin with the interaction of indigenous peoples with European conquerors and immigrants and, more locally, with African slaves. Given a long history of colonialism, the overwhelming majority of South Americans speak Portuguese or Spanish, societies and states reflect Western traditions. South America occupies the southern portion of the Americas; the continent is delimited on the northwest by the Darién watershed along the Colombia–Panama border, although some may consider the border instead to be the Panama Canal. Geopolitically and geographically all of Panama – including the segment east of the Panama Canal in the isthmus – is included in North America alone and among the countries of Central America.
All of mainland South America sits on the South American Plate. South America is home to Angel Falls in Venezuela. South America's major mineral resources are gold, copper, iron ore and petroleum; these resources found in South America have brought high income to its countries in times of war or of rapid economic growth by industrialized countries elsewhere. However, the concentration in producing one major export commodity has hindered the development of diversified economies; the fluctuation in the price of commodities in the international markets has led to major highs and lows in the economies of South American states causing extreme political instability. This is leading to efforts to diversify production to drive away from staying as economies dedicated to one major export. South America is one of the most biodiverse continents on earth. South America is home to many interesting and unique species of animals including the llama, piranha, vicuña, tapir; the Amazon rainforests possess high biodiversity, containing a major proportion of the Earth's species.
Brazil is the largest country in South America, encompassing around half of the continent's land area and population. The remaining countries and territories are divided among three regions: The Andean States, the Guianas and the Southern Cone. Traditionally, South America includes some of the nearby islands. Aruba, Curaçao, Trinidad and the federal dependencies of Venezuela sit on the northerly South American continental shelf and are considered part of the continent. Geo-politically, the island states and overseas territories of the Caribbean are grouped as a part or subregion of North America, since they are more distant on the Caribbean Plate though San Andres and Providencia are politically part of Colombia and Aves Island is controlled by Venezuela. Other islands that are included with South America are the Galápagos Islands that belong to Ecuador and Easter Island, Robinson Crusoe Island, Chiloé and Tierra del Fuego. In the Atlantic, Brazil owns Fernando de Noronha and Martim Vaz, the Saint Peter and Saint Paul Archipelago, while the Falkland Islands are governed by the United Kingdom, whose sovereignty over the islands is disputed by Argentina.
South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands may be associate