Gateshead is a large town in Tyne and Wear, England, on the southern bank of the River Tyne opposite Newcastle upon Tyne. Gateshead and Newcastle are joined by seven bridges across the Tyne, including the Gateshead Millennium Bridge; the town is known for its architecture, including the Sage Gateshead, the Angel of the North and the Baltic Centre for Contemporary Art. Residents of Gateshead, like the rest of Tyneside, are referred to as Geordies. Gateshead's population in 2011 was 120,046. Part of County Durham, under the Local Government Act 1888 the town was made a county borough, meaning it was administered independently of the county council. Since 1974, the town has been administered as part of the Metropolitan Borough of Gateshead within the metropolitan county of Tyne and Wear. Gateshead is first mentioned in Latin translation in Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People as ad caput caprae; this interpretation is consistent with the English attestations of the name, among them Gatesheued "goat's head" but in the context of a place-name meaning'headland or hill frequented by goats'.
Although other derivations have been mooted, it is this, given by the standard authorities. A Brittonic predecessor, named with the element *gabro-,'goat', may underlie the name. Gateshead might have been the Roman-British fort of Gabrosentum. There has been a settlement on the Gateshead side of the River Tyne, around the old river crossing where the Swing Bridge now stands, since Roman times; the first recorded mention of Gateshead is in the writings of the Venerable Bede who referred to an Abbot of Gateshead called Utta in 623. In 1068 William the Conqueror defeated the forces of Edgar the Ætheling and Malcolm king of Scotland on Gateshead Fell. During medieval times Gateshead was under the jurisdiction of the Bishop of Durham. At this time the area was forest with some agricultural land; the forest was the subject of Gateshead's first charter, granted in the 12th century by Hugh du Puiset, Bishop of Durham. An alternative spelling may be "Gatishevede", as seen in a legal record, dated 1430; the earliest recorded coal mining in the Gateshead area is dated to 1344.
As trade on the Tyne prospered there were several attempts by the burghers of Newcastle to annex Gateshead. In 1576 a small group of Newcastle merchants acquired the'Grand Lease' of the manors of Gateshead and Whickham. In the hundred years from 1574 coal shipments from Newcastle increased elevenfold while the population of Gateshead doubled to 5,500. However, the lease and the abundant coal supplies ended in 1680; the pits were shallow as problems of ventilation and flooding defeated attempts to mine coal from the deeper seams. William Hawks a blacksmith, started business in Gateshead in 1747, working with the iron brought to the Tyne as ballast by the Tyne colliers. Hawks and Co. became one of the biggest iron businesses in the North, producing anchors, chains and so on to meet a growing demand. There was keen contemporary rivalry between'Hawks' Blacks' and'Crowley's Crew'; the famous ` Hawks' men' including Ned White, went on to be celebrated in Geordie story. Throughout the Industrial Revolution the population of Gateshead expanded rapidly.
This expansion resulted in the spread southwards of the town. In 1854, a catastrophic explosion on the quayside destroyed most of Gateshead's medieval heritage, caused widespread damage on the Newcastle side of the river. Robert Stirling Newall took out a patent on the manufacture of wire ropes in 1840 and in partnership with Messrs. Liddell and Gordon, set up his headquarters at Gateshead. A worldwide industry of wire-drawing resulted; the submarine telegraph cable received its definitive form through Newall's initiative, involving the use of gutta percha surrounded by strong wires. The first successful Dover-Calais cable on 25 September 1851, was made in Newall's works. In 1853, he invented the cone for laying cable in deep seas. Half of the first Atlantic cable was manufactured in Gateshead. Newall was interested in astronomy, his giant 25-inch telescope was set up in the garden at Ferndene, his Gateshead residence, in 1871. In 1831 a locomotive works was established by the Newcastle and Darlington Railway part of the York and Berwick Railway.
In 1854 the works moved to the Greenesfield site and became the manufacturing headquarters of North Eastern Railway. In 1909, locomotive construction was moved to Darlington and the rest of the works were closed in 1932. Sir Joseph Swan lived at Underhill, Low Fell, Gateshead from 1869–83, where his experiments led to the invention of the electric light bulb; the house was the first in the world to be wired for domestic electric light. In 1870, the old town hall was built, designed by John Johnstone who designed the previously-built Newcastle town hall; the ornamental clock in front of the old town hall was presented to Gateshead in 1892 by the mayor, Walter de Lancey Willson, on the occasion of him being elected for a third time. He was one of the founders of Walter Willson's, a chain of grocers in the North East and Cumbria; the old town hall served as a magistrate's court and one of Gateshead's police stations. In 1835, Gateshead was established as a municipal borough and in 1889 it was made a county borough, independent from Durham County Council.
In the same year, one of the largest employers, Hawks and Company, closed down and unemployment has since been a burden. Up to the Second World War there were repeated newspaper reports of the unemployed sending deputations to the council to provide work; the depre
The A19 is a major road in England running parallel to and east of the A1 road, although the two roads meet at the northern end of the A19, the two roads met at the southern end of the A19 in Doncaster but the old route of the A1 was changed to the A638. From Sunderland northwards, the route was the A108. In the past the route was known as the East of Snaith-York-Thirsk-Stockton-on-Tees-Sunderland Trunk Road. Most traffic joins the A19, heading for Teesside, from the A168 at Dishforth Interchange; the southern end of the A19 starts at the St Mary's Roundabout with the A630 Church Way and A638 just to the north of Doncaster itself near to the parish church. It leaves the A638 at the next roundabout as Bentley Road, winds its way over the East Coast Main Line, which it follows through Selby and York, through the suburb of Bentley passing the Shell Bentley Service Station, St Peter's church and the Druid's Arms and out into the countryside to the north of the urban area, it passes the Pavilion exhibition centre.
Much of the course of the southern section of the A19 runs through the old Yorkshire coalfield, with evidence of old slag-heaps and colliery buildings. It passes through the primary school, it passes through a former mining village. It goes through Owston, passing the Owston Park Lodge. Here it passes the Askern Hotel, Red Lion Hotel and Askern Service Station and goes over a level crossing. There is a boating lake, St Peter's church and a greyhound stadium. There is a left turn for Norton. There are some long straights north of here, the surrounds are flat as the road heads towards the M62, it enters North Yorkshire and the district of Selby where it crosses the River Went near Walden Stubbs. There are some crossroads at Balne Moor, it passes through Whitley Thorpe and Whitley and the George & Dragon, it meets the M62 at junction 34. From the M62, the village of Eggborough has been bypassed in recent years, with the new road travelling from this roundabout to near the power station to the right.
Close by is Whitley Bridge and the A19 meets the A645 at a roundabout and its previous alignment to the north of the village, before travelling through Chapel Haddlesey where it crosses the River Aire and the small village of Burn, west of the former RAF Burn, where it crosses the Selby Canal before Brayton, it joins the A63. The £44m six mile A63 Selby bypass, to the south of the town opened on 11 June 2004. Before this happened, all the traffic, headed straight towards the centre of Selby, over a level-crossing and on to a busy traffic-light junction with the A63 from Leeds; the A19 took the major of the concurrency through the town centre, whilst crossing the old toll bridge and heading on north towards York. The road is still the A19 through Selby, but the bypass is the A63. However, north-bound traffic follows the A63; the £5m 5-mile Riccall and Barlby bypass opened in October 1987. This provided better junctions with the A63 and A163; the A63 and A19 meet at a roundabout near a large pickle factory.
It heads towards Riccall. Where the road leaves the old railway, the Trans Pennine Trail follows along the old track. At Escrick, it enters the Vale of York, passes the BP York Road Garage, the Parsonage Hotel and the church of St Helen. Next is Deighton, passing the White Swan Inn it heads towards Crockey Hill, it meets the A64 near the headquarters of Persimmon plc. The York Northern By-Pass as the A1237 is a substitute for the A19 through York – this road is poorly engineered and has frequent roundabouts; the A19 still goes through York, beginning with the Fulford Interchange with the A64 close to a shopping centre Fulford, meeting the B1222 and passing St Oswald's church. It passes through Clifton and Rawcliffe. North of York, the road passes the Riverside Farm pub goes through Skelton as Shipton Road passing the Blacksmith's Arms and Ramada York Hotel, it re-enters North Yorkshire and the district of Hambleton and goes straight through the middle of Shipton by Beningbrough as Main Street, to the annoyance of many residents.
It passes Dawnay Arms and the Holy Evangelists church. Leaving the village it passes a garage on the left. There goes through Tollerton Forest. Heading northward the section between York and Thirsk was not helped much by the opening of the £5m 3-mile Easingwold Bypass in November 1994, as the road remained single carriageway, starting at a roundabout. There is a left turn for Raskelf; the residents of Thormanby look forward to their village being bypassed. Here it passes the Black Bull pub. There is the small dwelling of Birdforth with a roadside cafe and crossroads for Hutton Sessay and Carlton Husthwaite, it goes across Pudding Pie Hill. It meets the A168 from the south, the old route through Thirsk is now the A170 the A61; the bypass meets the A168 at a junction near South Kilvington. North of Thirsk, the A19 takes over from the A168 as the link from the A1 to Teesside and becomes a fast dual carriageway with grade separated interchanges; the five-mile £4.4 million Thirsk By-pass was opened on 5 September 1972 by Robin Turton, Baron Tranmire, the local MP, with a flypast by f
Fire services in the United Kingdom
The fire services in the United Kingdom operate under separate legislative and administrative arrangements in England and Wales, Northern Ireland, Scotland. Emergency cover is provided by over fifty agencies; these are known as a fire and rescue service, the term used in modern legislation and by government departments. The older terms of fire brigade and fire service survive in informal usage and in the names of a few organisations. England and Wales have local fire services which are each overseen by a fire authority, made up of representatives of local governments. Fire authorities have the power to raise a Council Tax levy for funding, with the remainder coming from the government. Scotland and Northern Ireland have centralised fire services, so their authorities are committees of the devolved parliaments; the total budget for fire services in 2014-15 was £2.9 billion. Central government maintains national standards and a body of independent advisers through the Chief Fire and Rescue Adviser, created in 2007, while Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Constabulary and Fire & Rescue Services provides direct oversight.
The devolved government in Scotland has HMFSI Scotland. Firefighters in the United Kingdom are allowed to join unions, the main one being the Fire Brigades Union, while chief fire officers are members of the National Fire Chiefs Council, which has some role in national co-ordination; the fire services have undergone significant changes since the beginning of the 21st century, a process, propelled by a devolution of central government powers, new legislation and a change to operational procedures in the light of terrorism attacks and threats. See separate article History of fire safety legislation in the United Kingdom Comprehensive list of recent UK fire and rescue service legislation: Fire services are established and granted their powers under new legislation which has replaced a number of Acts of Parliament dating back more than 60 years, but is still undergoing change. 1938: Fire Brigades Act 1938. This Act provided for centralised co-ordination of fire brigades in Great Britain and made it mandatory for local authorities to arrange an effective fire service.
1947: Fire Services Act 1947 This Act transferred the functions of the National Fire Service to local authorities. Now repealed in England and Wales by Schedule 2 of the Fire and Rescue Services Act 2004. 1959: Fire Services Act 1959 This Act amended the 1947 Act. It was repealed in Wales along with the 1947 Act. 1999: Greater London Authority Act 1999 This act was necessary to allow for the formation of the Greater London Authority and in turn the London Fire and Emergency Planning Authority. In 2002, there was a series of national fire strikes, with much of the discontent caused by the aforementioned report into the fire service conducted by Prof Sir George Bain. In December 2002, the Independent Review of the Fire Service was published with the industrial action still ongoing. Bain's report led to a change in the laws relating to firefighting. 2002: Independent Review of the Fire Service published 2004: Fire and Rescue Services Act 2004 only applying to England and Wales. 2006: The Regulatory Reform Order 2005 This piece of secondary legislation or statutory instrument replaces several other acts that dealt with fire precautions and fire safety in premises, including the now defunct process of issuing fire certificates.
It came into force on 1 October 2006. The DfCLG has published a set of guides for non-domestic premises: 2006: The Government of Wales Act 2006 gave the National Assembly for Wales powers to pass laws on "Fire and rescue services. Promotion of fire safety otherwise than by prohibition or regulation." But does not prevent future legislation being passed by the UK government which applies to two or more constituent countries. There are further plans to modernise the fire service according to the Local Government Association, its website outlines future changes, specific projects: "The aim of the Fire Modernisation Programme is to adopt modern work practices within the Fire & Rescue Service to become more efficient and effective, while strengthening the contingency and resilience of the Service to react to incidents. " The fire service in England and Wales is scrutinised by a House of Commons select committee. In June 2006, the fire and rescue service select committee, under the auspices of the Communities and Local Government Committee, published its latest report.
Committee report The committee's brief is described on its website: The Communities and Local Government Committee is appointed by the House of Commons to examine the expenditure and policy of the Department for Communities and Local Government and its associated bodies. Government response This document, the subsequent government response in September 2006, are important as they outlined progress on the FiReControl, efforts to address diversity and the planned closure of HMFSI in 2007 among many issues. Both documents are interesting as they refer back to Professor Bain's report and the many recommendations it made and continue to put forward the notion that there is an ongoing need to modernise FRSs. For example, where FRSs were inspected by HMFSI, much of this work is now carried out by the National Audit Office. Fire Control On 8 February 2010 the House of Commons Communities and Local Governm
Birtley, Tyne and Wear
Birtley is a town in the Metropolitan Borough of Gateshead, in Tyne and Wear, England. It is situated to the south of Gateshead and is physically linked to Chester-le-Street across the county boundary; until 1974, Birtley and the adjoining areas of Barley Mow and Portobello were part of the old Chester-le-Street Rural District in County Durham. Since 1974, these neighbouring areas have been considered part of'greater' Birtley. Birtley was a civil parish with a parish council until 1 April 2006, after a local referendum agreed to abolish it; the former parish had a population of 11,377 in 2001. The ward of Birtley in the Gateshead MBC had a population of 8,367 in the 2011 Census. Birtley is the home of the Royal Ordnance Factory, ROF Birtley and the Komatsu Heavy Engineering Company, which operates from the previous premises of Birtley Iron Works. A'CarCraft Hypermarket' was built on the site of an old factory in southwest Birtley, reclaiming much wasted brown field site, it is the home of the new Morrisons opened in 2015.
The Royal Ordnance Factory was a major target of the German Luftwaffe in World War Two. Thanks to its reputation as a'misty valley', Birtley and the factory survived many hits; the phrase ` misty valley' was coined by a worker at the ROF in the 1970s. The ROF factory, operated by BAE, was replaced in late 2011 by a new purpose-built 350,000 sq ft factory in nearby Washington, on the site of the old Dunlop Tyre factory; the entire Birtley workforce moved to this site The Japanese heavy engineering firm Komatsu is now the town's main employer, with 400 staff. Danish supermarket operator Netto had a premises in Birtley until October 2011, but it was bought out by rival supermarket The Co-operative Food, which opened soon after. In 2011, it was announced that the supermarket Morrisons was to build a 25,000 sq. ft. new supermarket development in the town, which would create hundreds of jobs. In July 2013, Watkin Jones, a Welsh firm, were appointed contractors. After lengthy delays, construction began in autumn of 2013.
Following problems with laying foundations and other construction difficulties it opened in the summer of 2015. Just near the site of the old station is the former well-known Birtley Brick Works was located. Once employing most of the town's workforce, it is a shadow of its former self. Mining was a important industry in Birtley. Birtley Iron Company had 10 pits in the area surrounding Birtley, employing 3,736 below ground and 960 people above ground. There was a lot of coal mining in the area, with the earliest recorded instance was in 1351; this continued until the 1960s. Elisabethville was a sovereign Belgian area of Birtley housing Belgian refugees, who worked at the Royal Ordnance Factory during World War One, it was a community of 6000 residents who were accommodated in a mixture of cottages. When the war ended and the inhabitants were repatriated, it was occupied by people of British and other nationalities before its demolition and replacement with more permanent housing, its history is told in the book The Birtley Belgians.
Antony Gormley's famous Angel of the North, completed in February 1998, is on high ground at the site of the baths of the old'Betty Ann Pit' at Eighton Lodge, Gateshead, to the north of Birtley. Overlooking the area, it is seen by around 90,000 people per day by people on the A1 and on the East Coast Main Line. In summer 2011, a landscaped car park, near the Angel, was laid to accommodate the increased number of cars and coaches visiting the site. There are altogether three mainstream churches in Birtley, which has a large cemetery with a chapel and crematorium: St Joseph's St John the Evangelist Birtley Methodist Church The main road through Birtley is the non-primary A167, which runs from Topcliffe, North Yorkshire through to the north of Newcastle upon Tyne and is the same road which runs across the Tyne Bridge; this was an original route for the A1 until a bypass was built. The main East Coast railway line is used as a county border to the west of the town. Mainline trains used to stop at the town's long dismantled station.
Birtley railway station was closed on 5 December 1955. The Station Hotel was closed in 1971, having been opened in earlier; the bus operator in the town operates local services to nearby Washington. Birtley is one of the main stopping areas on'The Angel' route, which travels from Newcastle to Durham up to every 15 minutes
Blaydon is a town in the North East of England in the Metropolitan Borough of Gateshead - in County Durham. Blaydon, neighbouring Winlaton, which Blaydon is now contiguous with, form the postal town of Blaydon-on-Tyne; the Blaydon/Winlaton resident population in 2011 was 13,896. Between 1894 and 1974, Blaydon was an urban district which extended inland from the Tyne along the River Derwent for ten miles, included the mining communities of Chopwell and High Spen, the villages of Rowlands Gill, Blackhall Mill, Winlaton Mill and Stella, as well as Blaydon and Winlaton. During its existence, the Urban District's fourteen and a half square miles constituted the second largest administrative district by area, on Tyneside, after Newcastle upon Tyne; the town of Blaydon is an industrial area and is not more than two centuries old. Indeed, in the 1760s there was little here but a few cottages. In the latter part of the same century a smelting works was set up from which sprang the industrial growth of the area.
Though the town itself has a short history there has been activity in the area for many centuries. The earliest recorded evidence of human activity at Blaydon is a Neolithic polished stone axe found in the early 20th century. Finds and structures from prehistoric periods include a bronze spearhead and log-boat, both recovered from the River Tyne in the 19th century. A number of Bronze Age cists are recorded from several others from Bewes Hill. Little is recorded of medieval Blaydon, which appears to have been based upon the modern farm sites of High and Low Shibdon; the Blaydon Burn Belts Corn Mill, part of a row of 5 or 6 water corn mills stretching from Brockwell Wood to the River Tyne is known to have been present by the early 17th century, suggesting a healthy population at that time. It is that, as well as farming, many industrial activities such as mining and quarrying had begun in the medieval and post-medieval periods, well before the industrial period of the 18th to 20th centuries when Blaydon became an important industrial centre.
Known as the Battle of Newburn or Newburn Ford, this unknown battle has been elevated in importance by English Heritage. On 28 August 1640, 20,000 Scots defeated 5,500 English soldiers who were defending the ford over the Tyne four miles west of Newcastle; the Scots had been provoked by Charles I, who had imposed bishops and a foreign prayer book on their church. The Scots army, led by Alexander Leslie, fought its way to Newcastle and occupied the city for a year before Charles I paid it £200,000 to depart; the battle brought to an end the so-called'Eleven Years of Tyranny' by forcing Charles to recall Parliament. This was the last battle in Britain to feature the use of archers; the stimulus for industry at Blaydon and Blaydon burn, as elsewhere in the region, was the growth in coal mining and the coal trade from the early 18th century, when the Hazard and Speculation pits were established at Low Shibdon linked to the Tyne by wagonways. The 18th century Blaydon Main Colliery was reopened in the mid-19th century and worked until 1921.
Other pits and associated features included Blaydon Burn Colliery, Freehold pit and the Blaydonburn wagonway. Industries supported by the coal trade included chemical works, bottle works, sanitary pipe works, lampblack works, an ironworks, a smithy and brickworks - Cowen's Upper and Lower Brickworks were established in 1730 and were associated with a variety of features including a clay drift mine and coal/clay drops; the Lower works remains in operation. Blaydon Burn Coke Ovens of 19th-century origin, were replaced in the 1930s by Priestman Ottovale Coke and Tar Works, the first in the world to produce petrol from coal known as Blaydon Benzole. In addition to the workers’ housing developments associated with industrialisation, a number of grand residences were constructed for industrialists in the area, such as Blaydon Burn House, home of Joseph Cowen, owner of the brickworks; the remains of Old Dockendale Hall, an earlier grand residence of 17th century or earlier construction, was destroyed when the coke and tar works was built at Blaydon Burn.
In the 1930s, pupils at the now demolished Blaydon Intermediate School, under the leadership of English teacher Mr Elliott and art teacher Mr Boyce developed a technique for producing hardback books. Their productions were respected and favourably compared to other successful private printing presses of the time. In one volume produced by the school in 1935, entitled "Songs of Enchantment", the pupils were successful in convincing the famous poet Walter de la Mare to write a foreword in which he praised their enterprise and efforts; the post war era of the late 40s and 50s saw a rapid rise in demand for electricity and, in the North East, the extension of existing and construction of a number of new power stations was seen as a key part of the solution. For the Blaydon area, this meant the arrival of a new power station at Stella Haugh, known as the South Stella Power Station, which helped to meet the energy demands of the North East until its closure in 1991, it was demolished in 1992. The House of Commons constituency seat of Blaydon is held by MP Liz Twist.
The area has traditionally been a Labour stronghold and has been held by the Labour Party since 1935. The Labour candidate David Anderson received 51.5% of the vote in 2005, with the Liberal Democrat candidate, Peter Maughan, second at 37.9%. Blaydon ward elects three councillors to Gateshead Council; as of the May 2007 election, they are Kathryn Ferdinand and Steve Ronchetti. Modern Blaydon stands close to the Tyne with the A695, a key road from Gateshead to Hexham, passi
A1 road (Great Britain)
The A1 is the longest numbered road in the UK, at 410 miles. It connects London, the capital of England, with Edinburgh, the capital of Scotland, it passes through or near North London, Welwyn Garden City, Baldock, Letchworth Garden City, Peterborough, Grantham, Newark-on-Trent, Doncaster, Ripon, Durham, Gateshead, Newcastle upon Tyne and Berwick-upon-Tweed. It was designated by the Ministry of Transport in 1921, for much of its route it followed various branches of the historic Great North Road, the main deviation being between Boroughbridge and Darlington; the course of the A1 has changed where towns or villages have been bypassed, where new alignments have taken a different route. Several sections of the route have been upgraded to motorway standard and designated A1. Between the M25 and the A696 the road has been designated as part of the unsigned Euroroute E15 from Inverness to Algeciras; the A1 is the latest in a series of routes north from London to York and beyond. It was designated in 1921 by the Ministry of Transport under the Great Britain road numbering scheme.
The earliest documented northern routes are the roads created by the Romans during the period from AD 43 to AD 410, which consisted of several itinera recorded in the Antonine Itinerary. A combination of these were used by the Anglo-Saxons as the route from London to York, together became known as Ermine Street. Ermine Street became known as the Old North Road. Part of this route in London is followed by the current A10. By the 12th century, because of flooding and damage by traffic, an alternative route out of London was found through Muswell Hill, became part of the Great North Road. A turnpike road, New North Road and Canonbury Road, was constructed in 1812 linking the start of the Old North Road around Shoreditch with the Great North Road at Highbury Corner. While the route of the A1 outside London follows the Great North Road route used by mail coaches between London and Edinburgh, within London the coaching route is only followed through Islington. Bypasses were built around Barnet and Hatfield in 1927, but it was not until c.1954 that they were renumbered A1.
In the 1930s bypasses were added around Chester-le-Street and Durham and the Ferryhill Cut was dug. In 1960 Stamford and Doncaster were bypassed, as were Retford in 1961 and St Neots in 1971. Baldock was bypassed in July 1967. During the early 1970s plans to widen the A1 along Archway Road in London were abandoned after considerable opposition and four public inquiries during which road protesters disrupted proceedings; the scheme was dropped in 1990. The Hatfield cut-and-cover was opened in 1986. A proposal to upgrade the whole of the A1 to motorway status was investigated by the Government in 1989 but was dropped in 1995, along with many other schemes, in response to road protests against other road schemes; the inns on the road, many of which still survive, were staging posts on the coach routes, providing accommodation, stabling for the horses and replacement mounts. Few of the surviving coaching inns can be seen while driving on the A1, because the modern route now bypasses the towns with the inns.
The A1 runs from New Change in the City of London at St. Paul's Cathedral to the centre of Edinburgh; the road skirts the remains of Sherwood Forest, passes Catterick Garrison. It shares its London terminus in the City area of Central London, it runs out of London via St. Martin's Le Grand and Aldersgate Street, through Islington, up Holloway Road, through Highgate, Potters Bar, Welwyn, Baldock, Sandy and St Neots. Continuing north, the A1 runs on modern bypasses around Stamford, Newark-on-Trent, Bawtry, Knottingley, Wetherby, Boroughbridge, Scotch Corner, Newton Aycliffe and Chester-le-Street, past the Angel of the North sculpture and the Metrocentre in Gateshead, through the western suburbs of Newcastle upon Tyne, Alnwick, Berwick-upon-Tweed, into Scotland at Marshall Meadows, past Haddington and Musselburgh before arriving in Edinburgh at the East End of Princes Street near Waverley Station, at the junction of the A7, A8 and A900 roads. Scotch Corner, in North Yorkshire, marks the point where before the M6 was built the traffic for Glasgow and the west of Scotland diverged from that for Edinburgh.
As well as a hotel there have been a variety of sites for the transport café, now subsumed as a motorway services. Most of the English section of the A1 is a series of alternating sections of primary route, dual carriageway and motorway. From Newcastle upon Tyne to Edinburgh it is a trunk road with alternating sections of dual and single carriageway; the table below summarises the road as non-motorway sections. The non-motorway sections do not have junction numbers. A 13-mile section of the road in North Yorkshire, from Walshford to Dishforth, was upgraded to motorway standard in 1995. Neolithic remains and a Roman fort were discovered. A 13-mile section of the road from Alconbury to Peterborough was upgraded to motorway standard at a cost of £128 million, which opened in 1998 requiring moving the memorial to Napoleonic prisoners buried at Norman Cross. A number of sections between Newcastle and Edinburgh were dualled between 1999 and 2004, including a 1.9-mile section from Spott Wood to Oswald Dean in 1999, 1.2-mile sections from Bowerhouse to Spott Road and from Howburn to Houndwood in 2002–200