Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
Roman Catholic Diocese of Graz-Seckau
The Roman Catholic Diocese of Graz-Seckau is a diocese comprising the Austrian state of Styria. It is part of the ecclesiastical province of Salzburg; the See of Seckau was founded on 22 June 1218 the third suffragan of Salzburg after Gurk and Chiemsee, by Archbishop Eberhard von Regensberg with permission by Pope Honorius III. Emperor Frederick II gave his consent on 26 October 1218. A fourth suffragan diocese, followed in 1228; the first bishop was Provost Karl von Friesach. Most of the time, the Seckau bishops resided at Seggau Castle near Leibnitz and at Graz, they served as vicars in the Duchy of Styria. Under the Habsburg emperor Joseph II, the diocese was reorganised and its territory enlarged. However, the original intention of the emperor to establish an archbishopric at Graz, the capital of Styria, was frustrated by the opposition of the Archbishop of Salzburg. In 1786, the episcopal see was transferred from Seckau to Graz Cathedral, though the name of the diocese remained unchanged until 1963.
A new cathedral chapter was composed at first of three dignitaries and four canons. The see. After the death of the first and only Bishop of Leoben, the administration of this see was again entrusted in 1808 to the Bishops of Seckau at Graz; the limits of Seckau are due to a regulation of 1859, incorporating the Diocese of Leoben into that of Seckau, while Seckau ceded Lower Styria with its Slovene-speaking population to the Diocese of Lavant with its see at Maribor. Church of Göss Abbey the cathedral of the Diocese of Leoben: parish church; the currenct bishop, Wilhelm Krautwaschl was appointed by Pope Francis on Thursday, April 16, 2015. He was Rector of Vocations Director and Tribunal Judge. Bishops of Graz-Seckau: Bishop Wilhelm Krautwaschl Bishop Egon Kapellari Bishop Johann Weber Archbishop Josef Schoiswohl Bishops of Seckau: Archbishop Josef Schoiswohl Archbishop Ferdinand Stanislaus Pawlikowski Bishop Leopold Schuster Bishop Johann Baptist Zwerger Bishop Ottokar Maria Graf von Attems Cardinal Joseph Othmar von Rauscher Bishop Roman Sebastian Zängerle, O.
S. B. Fr. Simon Melchior de Petris Bishop Johann Friedrich Graf von Waldenstein-Wartenberg Archbishop Joseph Adam Graf Arco Bishop Joseph Philipp Franz Reichsgraf von Spaur Cardinal Leopold Ernest von Firmian Archbishop Jakob Ernst Graf von Liechtenstein-Kastelkorn Archbishop Leopold Anton Eleutherius Reichsfreiherr von Firmian Bishop Karl Joseph Reichsgraf von Kuenburg Cardinal Joseph Dominicus von Lamberg Bishop Franz Anton Adolph Graf von Wagensperg Bishop Rudolf Joseph Reichsgraf von Thun Archbishop Johann Ernst Reichsgraf von Thun Bishop Wenzel Wilhelm Reichsgraf von Hofkirchen Cardinal Maximilian Gandolph von Künburg Cardinal Maximilian Gandolph von Künburg Bishop Johannes Markus Freiherr von Aldringen Roman Catholicism in Austria GCatholic.org Catholic Hierarchy Diocese website Diocesan Museum Graz
In Austrian politics, a district is a second-level division of the executive arm of the country's government. District offices are the primary point of contact between resident and state for most acts of government that exceed municipal purview: marriage licenses, driver licenses, assembly permits, hunting permits, or dealings with public health officers for example all involve interaction with the district administrative authority. Austrian constitutional law distinguishes two types of district administrative authority: district commissions, district administrative authorities that exist as stand-alone bureaus; as of 2017, there are 94 districts, 79 districts headed by district commissions and 15 statutory cities. Many districts are geographically congruent with one of the country's 114 judicial venues. Statutory cities are not referred to as "districts" outside government publications and the legal literature. For brevity, government agencies will sometimes use the term "rural districts" for districts headed by district commissions, although the expression does not appear in any law and many "rural districts" are not rural.
A district headed by a district commission covers somewhere between ten and thirty municipalities. As a purely administrative unit, a district does not hold elections and therefore does not choose its own officials; the district governor is appointed by the provincial governor. In the provincial laws of Lower Austria and Vorarlberg, districts headed by district commissions are called administrative districts. In Burgenland, Salzburg, Upper Austria, Tyrol, the term used is political district. National law, including national constitutional law, uses all three variants interchangeably. A statutory city is a city vested with district administrative responsibility. Town hall personnel serves as district personnel. City management thus functions both as a regional government and a branch of the national government at the same time. Most of the 15 statutory cities are major regional population centers with residents numbering in the tens of thousands; the smallest statutory city is more than a village, but owes its status to a quirk of history: Rust, current population 1900, has enjoyed special autonomy since it was made a royal free city by the Kingdom of Hungary in 1681.
The constitution stipulates that a community with at least 20,000 residents can demand to be elevated to statutory city status by its respective province, unless the province can demonstrate this would jeopardize regional interests, or unless the national government objects. The last community to have invoked this right is Wels, a statutory city since 1964; as of 2014, ten other communities are eligible but not interested. The statutory city of Vienna, a community with well over 1.8 million residents, is divided into 23 municipal districts. Despite the similar name and the comparable role they fill, municipal districts have a different legal basis than districts; the statutory cities of Graz and Klagenfurt have subdivisions referred to as "municipal districts," but these are neighborhood-size divisions of the city administration. Austria speaking does not name districts but district administrative authorities; the German term for "district commission" and "city," Bezirkshauptmannschaft and Stadt is part of the official proper name of each such entity.
This means. Several such pairs do. There are, for example, two district administrative authorities sharing the toponym Innsbruck: the city of Innsbruck and the Innsbruck district commission. To avoid confusion, the names of the rural districts in these pairs are rendered with the suffix -Land, in this context meaning "region." The customary name for the city of Innsbruck is Innsbruck, the customary name for the district headed by the Innsbruck district commission is Innsbruck-Land. While this usage is nearly universal both in the media and in everyday spoken German and appears in the occasional government publication, the suffix -Land is not part of any official, legal designation. From the middle ages until the mid-eighteenth century, the Austrian Empire was an absolute monarchy with no written constitution and no modern concept of the rule of law. Provinces were ruled by the monarch the emperor himself or a vassal of the emperor, supported by their personal advisors and the estates of the realm.
The precise nature of the relationship between ruler and estates was different from region to region. Regional administrators were answerable to the monarch; the first step towards modern bureaucracy was taken by Empress Maria Theresa, who in 1753 imposed an empire-wide system of district offices. A major break with tradition, the system was unpopular at first; the district offices never became operational in the
Styria is a state, or Bundesland, located in the southeast of Austria. In area it is the second largest of the nine Austrian federated states, covering 16,401 km2, it borders Slovenia and the Austrian states of Upper Austria, Lower Austria, Salzburg and Carinthia. The capital city is Graz which had 276,526 inhabitants at the beginning of 2015; the March of Styria derived its name from the original seat of its ruling Otakar dynasty: Steyr, in today's Upper Austria. In German, the area is still called "Steiermark"; the ancient link between Steyr and Styria is apparent in their nearly identical coats of arms, a white Panther on a green background. The term "Upper Styria" used by an Austrian refers to the northern and northwestern parts of the federal-state; the term "West Styria" is used for the districts to the west of Graz. The western and eastern parts of the district Graz-Umgebung may or may not be considered parts of West and East Styria, respectively; the southern parts of the Duchy of Styria, which have formed part of Yugoslavia and Slovenia since 1918, were referred to as "Lower Styria".
During early Roman times, Styria was inhabited by Celtic tribes. After its conquest by the Romans, the eastern part of what is now Styria was part of Pannonia, while the western one was included in Noricum. During the Barbarian invasions, it was conquered or crossed by the Visigoths, the Huns, the Ostrogoths, the Rugii, the Lombards. Slavs, who first were under the domination of the Avars, settled in the valleys of this country. At the same time Bavarian people began to expand their area to the south and east and absorbed the Slavic population. In 1180 Styria became a Duchy of its own. Styria formed the central part of Inner Austria. Styria developed culturally and economically under Archduke John of Austria between 1809 and 1859. In 1918, after World War I, it was divided into a northern section, a southern one, called Lower Styria, inhabited by ethnic Slovenians, and, annexed to Yugoslavia, in Slovenia; as elsewhere in the developed world, there has been a shift away from the manufacturing sector towards the service sector in Styria.
This has had negative consequences for the industrial regions of upper Styria which have suffered a steady decline in population in recent years. In 2004 Styria had the strongest economic growth rate in Austria at 3.8%—mainly due to the Graz area which saw strong economic growth that year and has continued to grow in economic and population terms since then. Styria is home to more than 150 clean technology companies, of which one dozen are world technology leaders in their field; the revenue of Styrian cleantech companies totals €2.7 billion. This equals to 8 percent of the Gross Regional Product, is one of the highest concentrations of leading clean technology companies in Europe; the companies have an average growth rate of 22 percent per year—well above the worldwide cleantech market growth of 18 percent per year. The region created 2,000 additional green jobs in 2008 alone; the state is divided into one of them a statutory city. Graz Bruck-Mürzzuschlag Deutschlandsberg Graz-Umgebung Hartberg-Fürstenfeld Leibnitz Leoben Liezen Murau Murtal Südoststeiermark Voitsberg Weiz The state had been a stronghold of the Austrian People's Party since 1945.
Graz however is a stronghold of the far left Communist Party. The governor has been an ÖVP member. In the 2005 elections for state parliament the Social Democrats under their regional chairman Franz Voves won the majority after the ÖVP had damaged its credibility through scandals and the secession of a high-ranking party member who took part in the 2005 elections after setting up his own party. In these elections, the KPÖ received many votes after it had gained much popularity through its role in local politics in Graz during the preceding few years; the two right-wing populist parties, the Freedom Party of Austria and the Alliance for the Future of Austria, failed to win seats. In subsequent elections in 2010 and 2015, the Social Democrats, the Austrian People's Party, the Communist Party each lost between one fourth and one third of their shares of the vote relative to 2005; the Freedom Party grew from 4.6 percent to 26.8 percent. The current government of Styria is a coalition of Social Democrats and People's Party, with each party holding 4 seats of the 8 seats available.
The governor, Hermann Schützenhöfer, is a representative of the People's Party. His deputy, Michael Schickhofer, is a Social Democrat. Palman and mercenary commander of the Serbian Empire Johann Joseph Fux and music theorist, wrote Gradus ad Parnassum – a composition manual used by Beethoven and Mozart Archduke John of Austria Jo
Austria the Republic of Austria, is a country in Central Europe comprising 9 federated states. Its capital, largest city and one of nine states is Vienna. Austria has an area of 83,879 km2, a population of nearly 9 million people and a nominal GDP of $477 billion, it is bordered by the Czech Republic and Germany to the north and Slovakia to the east and Italy to the south, Switzerland and Liechtenstein to the west. The terrain is mountainous, lying within the Alps; the majority of the population speaks local Bavarian dialects as their native language, German in its standard form is the country's official language. Other regional languages are Hungarian, Burgenland Croatian, Slovene. Austria played a central role in European History from the late 18th to the early 20th century, it emerged as a margraviate around 976 and developed into a duchy and archduchy. In the 16th century, Austria started serving as the heart of the Habsburg Monarchy and the junior branch of the House of Habsburg – one of the most influential royal houses in history.
As archduchy, it was a major component and administrative centre of the Holy Roman Empire. Following the Holy Roman Empire's dissolution, Austria founded its own empire in the 19th century, which became a great power and the leading force of the German Confederation. Subsequent to the Austro-Prussian War and the establishment of a union with Hungary, the Austro-Hungarian Empire was created. Austria was involved in both world wars. Austria is a parliamentary representative democracy with a President as head of state and a Chancellor as head of government. Major urban areas of Austria include Graz, Linz and Innsbruck. Austria is ranked as one of the richest countries in the world by per capita GDP terms; the country has developed a high standard of living and in 2018 was ranked 20th in the world for its Human Development Index. The republic declared its perpetual neutrality in foreign political affairs in 1955. Austria has been a member of the United Nations since 1955 and joined the European Union in 1995.
It is a founding member of the OECD and Interpol. Austria signed the Schengen Agreement in 1995, adopted the euro currency in 1999; the German name for Austria, Österreich, derives from the Old High German Ostarrîchi, which meant "eastern realm" and which first appeared in the "Ostarrîchi document" of 996. This word is a translation of Medieval Latin Marchia orientalis into a local dialect. Another theory says that this name comes from the local name of the mountain whose original Slovenian name is "Ostravica" - because it is steep on both sides. Austria was a prefecture of Bavaria created in 976; the word "Austria" was first recorded in the 12th century. At the time, the Danube basin of Austria was the easternmost extent of Bavaria; the Central European land, now Austria was settled in pre-Roman times by various Celtic tribes. The Celtic kingdom of Noricum was claimed by the Roman Empire and made a province. Present-day Petronell-Carnuntum in eastern Austria was an important army camp turned capital city in what became known as the Upper Pannonia province.
Carnuntum was home for 50,000 people for nearly 400 years. After the fall of the Roman Empire, the area was invaded by Bavarians and Avars. Charlemagne, King of the Franks, conquered the area in AD 788, encouraged colonization, introduced Christianity; as part of Eastern Francia, the core areas that now encompass Austria were bequeathed to the house of Babenberg. The area was known as the marchia Orientalis and was given to Leopold of Babenberg in 976; the first record showing the name Austria is from 996, where it is written as Ostarrîchi, referring to the territory of the Babenberg March. In 1156, the Privilegium Minus elevated Austria to the status of a duchy. In 1192, the Babenbergs acquired the Duchy of Styria. With the death of Frederick II in 1246, the line of the Babenbergs was extinguished; as a result, Ottokar II of Bohemia assumed control of the duchies of Austria and Carinthia. His reign came to an end with his defeat at Dürnkrut at the hands of Rudolph I of Germany in 1278. Thereafter, until World War I, Austria's history was that of its ruling dynasty, the Habsburgs.
In the 14th and 15th centuries, the Habsburgs began to accumulate other provinces in the vicinity of the Duchy of Austria. In 1438, Duke Albert V of Austria was chosen as the successor to his father-in-law, Emperor Sigismund. Although Albert himself only reigned for a year, henceforth every emperor of the Holy Roman Empire was a Habsburg, with only one exception; the Habsburgs began to accumulate territory far from the hereditary lands. In 1477, Archduke Maximilian, only son of Emperor Frederick III, married the heiress Maria of Burgundy, thus acquiring most of the Netherlands for the family. In 1496, his son Philip the Fair married Joanna the Mad, the heiress of Castile and Aragon, thus acquiring Spain and its Italian and New World appendages for the Habsburgs. In 1526, following the Battle of Mohács, Bohemia and the part of Hungary not occupied by the Ottomans came under Austrian rule. Ottoman expansion into Hungary led to frequent conflicts between the two empires evident in the Long War of 1593 to 1606.
The Turks made incursions into Styria nearly 20 times, of which some are c
Vehicle registration plates of Austria
Austrian car number plates are mandatory vehicle registration plates displaying the registration mark of motor vehicles in Austria. They are used to verify street legality, proof of a valid liability insurance and to identify and recognise the vehicle; the license plates are made of metal. Since November 1, 2002 the common design comprises a blue section on the left with the EU circle of stars and the country code like other vehicle registration plates of the European Union. On the top and bottom, there are the national colors of Austria. Two plates have to be present on each car. Dealer plates show white letters on a green background, temporary plates show white letters on a cyan background, foreign trailers show white letters on a red background. For motorbikes and cars with smaller areas for plates, smaller license plates are available with two lines of text. Moped plates are in different appearance and shape, they show white letters on a red background; the alphanumeric format for registration plates is "XX ∇=provincial emblem number+letter" or "XX ∇=provincial emblem personalised letters+number".
As a general rule, State capitals have one letter. Heraldic emblem of the federal state the district belongs to. A three to six-letter/number sequence which uniquely distinguishes each of the vehicles displaying the same initial area code; the letter Q is excluded from all sequences. There are several lettering schemes: The letter/number sequence must contain at least three characters. In countryside districts, the maximum is five characters. Regular plates start with a end with a letter. Personalized plates, which can be obtained by paying an extra fee, are ordered vice versa; the letter/number sequence of state capitals contains up to six characters. Until the year 2000 the plates were issued by the district administrations, who used a variety of lettering schemes, e.g. one digit and three letters, two digits and two letters or three digits and one letter. Since 2000 the vehicle registration have been carried out by car insurance companies on behalf of the government; the branch offices of these companies issue the plates, which show three digits and two letters in each district or four digits and two letters in state capitals respectively.
Army, police etc. have a number up to five digits only There are standardized abbreviations for special types of cars. But most of them are in use in Vienna only: BB Bundesbahnen, only with Index "W", e.g. W ∇ 1234 BB BE Bestattung EW E-Werk FF Freiwillige Feuerwehr FW Feuerwehr GW Gaswerk GT Gütertransport KT Kleintransport LO Linienomnibus LR Landesregierung LV Landesregierung MA Magistrat Wien MW Mietwagen RD Rettungsdienst RK Rotes Kreuz TX Taxi In Austria, it is possible to obtain a customized registration plate by payment of 245 Euros; the alphanumeric format is XX ∇ ABC 1, which makes them distinguishable from standard plates From 1906 until 1919, the plates always composed one letter followed by Roman numerals and three numbers. Temporary admission plates always followed by prefix; the prefixes are G= Bosnia and Herzegovina, U= Hungary, Z= All other countries. From 1919 until 1930, the plates format became authority supplied. From 1930 until 1939, the plates comprised one letters followed by five digits.
The thousands of digits encoded the districts. From 1939 until 1945, the plates comprised two letters followed by seven digits; this followed the Nazi German system. From 1945 until 1946, the plates comprised by a state coat of arms followed by maximum six numbers, they were only issued in the USSR-occupied zone. From 1947 until 1989, the plates comprised one or two letters to indicate the state or federal code followed by up to six digits, the first number block was reserved for vehicles, the second one was the serial, when they run out of serials they began to issue XX 999. A99; the background is black with white characters for private vehicles. One or two letters are the prefixes set by state and federals, they are: B Burgenland BH Bundesheer G Graz K Carinthia L Linz N Lower Austria O- Upper Austria PT Post & Telekom Austria S Salzburg St Styria T Tirol V Vorarlberg W Vienna Media related to License plates of Austria at Wikimedia Commons Information with images about license plates With a lot of examples
Lobmingtal is a municipality with 1,825 residents in the Murtal District and Judenburg judicial district of Styria, Austria. The municipality has an area of 54.38 km2. As part of the Styria municipal structural reform, in 2015, the towns of Großlobming and Kleinlobming were merged, called "Großlobming". After a council decision, the municipality since 2016 has held the name "Lobmingtal"; the main section, Großlobming lies at a height of 641 metres about 3 kilometres south of the town center of Knittelfeld am Murboden, at the entrance of Lobmingbachtal valley. The municipality territory borders the north of the Mur River; the municipality territory includes the following three sections and like-named Katastralgemeinden: Großlobming Kleinlobming Mitterlobming In the Styria municipal structural reform, the town Großlobming in 2015 merged with the town Kleinlobming. The municipality formed, together with Gaal, Seckau, Spielberg, St. Marein-Feistritz and Zeltweg, the tourism agency "Tourismus am Spielberg".
The base is in the town Spielberg. In 927 the first mention of the territory of Lobming was in a document of the Archbishop of Salzburg. Since the middle of the twelfth century, the members of the clan always called themselves one of the defensive buildings belonging to them, but after their tribe seat; the first knight who called themselves "of Lobming" were, in May 1149 to Friesach called. The Knights of Lobming were located in the castle of Altlobming. Numerous legends and tales are ruling around the Knights of Lobming, which had a dominant position in the first half of the fifteenth century. After the extinction of the knights of Lobming, King Friedrich II handed over the rule of Großlobming to Wolfgang Zach. Afterwards the Knights of Praunfalk owned the castle Großlobming for a time; the second defensive structure remained with the Welzern and was sold in 1499 to the cousins Hans and Erasmus of Saurau. On 14 September 1730 the area Großlobming was sold to Siegmund Count Welfersheim; the next resale was on April 23, 1755 to Spital am Pyhrn, which sold the rule to Count Franz Josef Wurmbrand.
In 1827, Josef Sessler bought the Großlobming estate from Wurmbrand's bankruptcy. On September 1, 1866 knighthood. By his marriage to Helen Freiin von Herzinger, the barony went over to him, Viktor wrote from on Sessler-Herzinger. Through the childless marriage of Viktor Felix and Margarete Sessler-Herzinger her nephews Dr. phil. Adalbert Maria Franz Curt August, patron of Wimpffen and Oberleutnant a. D. and Hans Maria Carl Alfons Gustav, patron of Wimpffen Gut and Schloss Großlobming. The castle, owned by the Wimpffen family, was sold to the Styrian Provincial Government in 1979 for the purpose of establishing an agricultural college. Parallel to the events of the family Sessler-Herzinger 1898 the estate Murhof, which up to was in peasant hands, was converted into a domicile seat; the Gestüt Murhof under Baron Gustav Hanstein became famous. A series of national and international trophies testify to the successful English thoroughbred. Due to the demise of Gustav Hanstein, the breeding at the Murhof was put an end.
In 2014, Red Bull owner Mateschitz negotiated with the municipality, as he wanted to buy the castle and convert it into a luxury polo square with hotel. See: Kleinlobming#History Lobmingtal is a residential community; this means that most residents commute to the surrounding towns, such as Knittelfeld, Zeltweg or Judenburg. The traffic is reached via the provincial roads Lobmingerstraße L 504 und Möbersdorferstraße L 543. "Municipal data for Lobmingtal". Statistik Austria. Www.lobmingtal.at Gemeinde Lobmingtal