click links in text for more info


The second is the base unit of time in the International System of Units understood and defined as ​1⁄86400 of a day – this factor derived from the division of the day first into 24 hours to 60 minutes and to 60 seconds each. Analog clocks and watches have sixty tick marks on their faces, representing seconds, a "second hand" to mark the passage of time in seconds. Digital clocks and watches have a two-digit seconds counter; the second is part of several other units of measurement like meters per second for velocity, meters per second per second for acceleration, cycles per second for frequency. Although the historical definition of the unit was based on this division of the Earth's rotation cycle, the formal definition in the International System of Units is a much steadier timekeeper: it is defined by taking the fixed numerical value of the caesium frequency ∆νCs, the unperturbed ground-state hyperfine transition frequency of the caesium-133 atom, to be 9192631770 when expressed in the unit Hz, equal to s−1.

Because the Earth's rotation varies and is slowing so a leap second is periodically added to clock time to keep clocks in sync with Earth's rotation. Multiples of seconds are counted in hours and minutes. Fractions of a second are counted in tenths or hundredths. In scientific work, small fractions of a second are counted in milliseconds, microseconds and sometimes smaller units of a second. An everyday experience with small fractions of a second is a 1-gigahertz microprocessor which has a cycle time of 1 nanosecond. Camera shutter speeds are expressed in fractions of a second, such as ​1⁄30 second or ​1⁄1000 second. Sexagesimal divisions of the day from a calendar based on astronomical observation have existed since the third millennium BC, though they were not seconds as we know them today. Small divisions of time could not be measured back so such divisions were mathematically derived; the first timekeepers that could count seconds were pendulum clocks invented in the 17th century. Starting in the 1950s, atomic clocks became better timekeepers than earth's rotation, they continue to set the standard today.

A mechanical clock, one which does not depend on measuring the relative rotational position of the earth, keeps uniform time called mean time, within whatever accuracy is intrinsic to it. That means that every second and every other division of time counted by the clock will be the same duration as any other identical division of time, but a sundial which measures the relative position of the sun in the sky called apparent time, does not keep uniform time. The time kept by a sundial varies by time of year, meaning that seconds and every other division of time is a different duration at different times of the year; the time of day measured with mean time versus apparent time may differ by as much as 15 minutes, but a single day will differ from the next by only a small amount. The effect is due chiefly to the obliqueness of earth's axis with respect to its orbit around the sun; the difference between apparent solar time and mean time was recognized by astronomers since antiquity, but prior to the invention of accurate mechanical clocks in the mid-17th century, sundials were the only reliable timepieces, apparent solar time was the accepted standard.

Fractions of a second are denoted in decimal notation, for example 2.01 seconds, or two and one hundredth seconds. Multiples of seconds are expressed as minutes and seconds, or hours and seconds of clock time, separated by colons, such as 11:23:24, or 45:23, it makes sense to express longer periods of time like hours or days in seconds, because they are awkwardly large numbers. For the metric unit of second, there are decimal prefixes representing 10−24 to 1024 seconds; some common units of time in seconds are: a minute. Some common events in seconds are: a stone falls about 4.9 meters from rest in one second. A second is part of other units, such as frequency measured in hertz and acceleration; the metric system unit becquerel, a measure of radioactive decay, is measured in inverse seconds. The meter is defined in terms of the speed of the second; the only base unit whose definition does not depend on the second is the mole. Of the 22 named derived units of the SI, only two, do not depend on the second.

Many derivative units for everyday things are reported in terms of larger units of time, not seconds, such as clock time in hours and minutes, velocity of a car in kilometers per hour or miles per hour, kilowatt hours of electricity usage, speed of a turntable in rotations per minute


A thiosulfoxide is a chemical compound containing a sulfur to sulfur double bond of the type RR'S=S with R and R' both alkyl or aryl residues. The thiosulfoxide has a molecular shape known as trigonal pyramidal, its coordination is trigonal pyramidal. The point group of the thiosulfoxide is Cs. A 1982 review concluded that there was as yet no definitive evidence for the existence of stable thiosulfoxides which can be attributed to the double bond rule which states that elements of period 3 and beyond do not form multiple bonds; the related sulfoxides of the type RR'S=O are common. Many compounds containing a sulfur-sulfur double bond have been reported in the past although only a few verified classes of stable compounds exist related to thiosulfoxides. Sulfur sulfur double bonds can be stabilized with electron-withdrawing groups in so-called thionosulfites of the type ROS=S; these compounds can be prepared by reaction of diols with disulfur dichloride. Sulfur halides such as disulfur dichloride Cl-S-S-Cl can convert to the branched isomer Cl2S=S.

The related disulfur difluoride exists as an equilibrium mixture with thiothionyl fluoride F2S=S thermodynamically more stable. These disulfide isomerizations are studied in silico. N-amines of the type R-N=S=S are another group of stable compounds containing a S=S bond; the first such compound was prepared in 1974 reaction of the nitroso compound N,N-dimethyl-p-nitrosoaniline with tetraphosphorus decasulfide. Heating to 200 °C forms the corresponding azo compound. Disulfur monoxide S=S=O is stable at 20 °C for several days. Thiosulfates are depicted as having a S=S unit but the sulfur-sulfur bond in it is in fact a single bond

Palais Schaumburg (band)

Palais Schaumburg was a new wave band from Hamburg. The style was classified as Neue Deutsche Welle, characterized by their avant garde music and dadaistic attitude; the band was formed in 1980, featuring Timo Blunck, Holger Hiller, Thomas Fehlmann, percussionist F. M. Einheit; the group's name stands for Das Palais Schaumburg in Bonn, the Cold War era residence of the German chancellor. Einheit left the group to join Einstürzende Neubauten and was replaced by Ralf Hertwig prior to Palais Schaumburg's first full-length album Palais Schaumburg, produced by David Cunningham and released in 1981. Shortly after it was released, Hiller started his solo career, he was replaced with vocalist Walther Thielsch. The group made several singles and albums throughout early 1980s, when their avant garde sounds were influenced by funk in albums Lupa and Parlez-Vous Schaumburg, they split up in 1984. All the members have been working on their solo careers. On Thursday 21 November 2013 Palais Schaumburg appeared at the Saint Ghetto Festival in Bern, Switzerland.

Das Single Kabinett Palais Schaumburg Lupa Parlez-Vous Schaumburg? Rote Lichter Telefon Wir bauen eine neue Stadt Hockey Palais Schaumburg biography Palais Schaumburg discography

Complex differential form

In mathematics, a complex differential form is a differential form on a manifold, permitted to have complex coefficients. Complex forms have broad applications in differential geometry. On complex manifolds, they are fundamental and serve as the basis for much of algebraic geometry, Kähler geometry, Hodge theory. Over non-complex manifolds, they play a role in the study of complex structures, the theory of spinors, CR structures. Complex forms are considered because of some desirable decomposition that the forms admit. On a complex manifold, for instance, any complex k-form can be decomposed uniquely into a sum of so-called -forms: wedges of p differentials of the holomorphic coordinates with q differentials of their complex conjugates; the ensemble of -forms becomes the primitive object of study, determines a finer geometrical structure on the manifold than the k-forms. Finer structures exist, for example, in cases where Hodge theory applies. Suppose that M is a complex manifold. There is a local coordinate system consisting of n complex-valued functions z1...zn such that the coordinate transitions from one patch to another are holomorphic functions of these variables.

The space of complex forms carries a rich structure, depending fundamentally on the fact that these transition functions are holomorphic, rather than just smooth. We begin with the case of one-forms. First decompose the complex coordinates into their real and imaginary parts: zj=xj+iyj for each j. Letting d z j = d x j + i d y j, d z ¯ j = d x j − i d y j, one sees that any differential form with complex coefficients can be written uniquely as a sum ∑ j = 1 n. Let Ω1,0 be the space of complex differential forms containing only d z's and Ω0,1 be the space of forms containing only d z ¯'s. One can show, by the Cauchy–Riemann equations, that the spaces Ω1,0 and Ω0,1 are stable under holomorphic coordinate changes. In other words, if one makes a different choice wi of holomorphic coordinate system elements of Ω1,0 transform tensorially, as do elements of Ω0,1, thus the spaces Ω0,1 and Ω1,0 determine complex vector bundles on the complex manifold. The wedge product of complex differential forms is defined in the same way as with real forms.

Let p and q be a pair of non-negative integers ≤ n. The space Ωp,q of -forms is defined by taking linear combinations of the wedge products of p elements from Ω1,0 and q elements from Ω0,1. Symbolically, Ω p, q = Ω 1, 0 ∧ ⋯ ∧ Ω 1, 0 ∧ Ω 0, 1 ∧ ⋯ ∧ Ω 0, 1 where there are p factors of Ω1,0 and q factors of Ω0,1. Just as with the two spaces of 1-forms, these are stable under holomorphic changes of coordinates, so determine vector bundles. If Ek is the space of all complex differential forms of total degree k each element of Ek can be expressed in a unique way as a linear combination of elements from among the spaces Ωp,q with p+q=k. More succinctly, there is a direct sum decomposition E k = Ω k, 0 ⊕ Ω k − 1, 1 ⊕ ⋯ ⊕ Ω 1, k − 1 ⊕ Ω 0, k = ⨁ p + q = k Ω p, q; because this direct sum decomposition is stable under holomorphic coordinate changes, it determines a vector bundle decomposition. In particular, for each k and each p and q with p+q=k, there is a canonical projection of vector bundles π p, q: E k → Ω p, q.

The usual exterior derivative defines a mapping of sections d: Ω r → Ω r + 1 via d ⊆ ⨁ r + s = p + q + 1 Ω r

Eddie Hutchinson

Edward Stephen Hutchinson is an English retired professional footballer who made over 110 appearances in the Football League for Brentford. He was a energetic central midfield player. Hutchinson started out at non-League Sutton United, before leaving to join Brentford as an 18-year-old; the player spent six years at Griffin Park, clocking up in excess of a century of league appearances. Hutchinson was not a regular scorer during his time at Brentford, but did score in a fifth-round FA Cup replay against Premier League Southampton in March 2005. Despite opening the scoring, Brentford went on to lose the match 3–1. Upon being released by Brentford, the player attracted interest from various clubs. Hutchinson signed up with Oxford United, spending three years at the Kassam Stadium. Whilst at Oxford, Hutchinson made 72 league appearances, thirty of which were from the substitutes bench; the midfielder fell out of the favour during his last season at Oxford, being placed on the transfer list midway through the campaign.

Hutchinson was inadvertently embroiled in controversy during his final season at Oxford. The club were deducted five points for playing Hutchinson although the player had not been adequately registered. Upon leaving Oxford United, Hutchinson signed for Crawley Town, he was a mainstay in the first-team throughout his first season at Crawley, appearing in 39 league games, scoring his first goal for the Red Devils on only his second appearance for the club against Forest Green Rovers. He joined Eastbourne Borough on 1 January 2011, moving to Havant & Waterlooville just over a year in February 2012. In the summer of 2014, Hutchinson joined Maidenhead United, staying for one season before moving to Hampton & Richmond Borough, he won the Isthmian League Premier Division title in his only season with the'Beavers'. He is the twin brother of Kingstonian centre back Tom Hutchinson. Hampton & Richmond Borough Isthmian League Premier Division: 2015–16 Eddie Hutchinson at Soccerbase Eddie Hutchinson at Soccerway

Sex and the City: Original Motion Picture Soundtrack

The film score for Sex and the City was composed by Aaron Zigman and recorded with a large ensemble of the Hollywood Studio Symphony at the Newman Stage at 20th Century Fox in April 2008. The soundtrack to the film features original and traditional songs and compositions. Two soundtracks were released in 2008; the first soundtrack to Sex and the City was released on May 26, 2008, in the United Kingdom and on May 27 in the United States. The soundtrack debuted at number two on the Billboard 200 with 66,000 copies sold in its first week, the highest debut for a multi-artist theatrical film soundtrack since 2005's Get Rich or Die Tryin'. Notes ^a signifies a vocal producer ^b signifies a main and vocal producer ^c signifies a remixer ^d signifies an additional producer "Mercy" does not appear on the US release of the soundtrack. Sample credits "Labels or Love" contains an interpolation of "Sex and the City Theme" by Douglas Cuomo. Sex and the City: Volume 2 is the follow-up album to Sex and the City: Original Motion Picture Soundtrack soundtrack.

It was released on September 22, 2008, in the United Kingdom and on September 23, 2008, in the United States, followed by a worldwide release the following weeks. Notes ^e signifies a vocal producerSample credits "Real Girl" contains excerpts from "It Ain't Over'til It's Over" by Lenny Kravitz