China the People's Republic of China, is a country in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around 1.404 billion. Covering 9,600,000 square kilometers, it is the third- or fourth-largest country by total area. Governed by the Communist Party of China, the state exercises jurisdiction over 22 provinces, five autonomous regions, four direct-controlled municipalities, the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau. China emerged as one of the world's earliest civilizations, in the fertile basin of the Yellow River in the North China Plain. For millennia, China's political system was based on hereditary monarchies, or dynasties, beginning with the semi-legendary Xia dynasty in 21st century BCE. Since China has expanded, re-unified numerous times. In the 3rd century BCE, the Qin established the first Chinese empire; the succeeding Han dynasty, which ruled from 206 BC until 220 AD, saw some of the most advanced technology at that time, including papermaking and the compass, along with agricultural and medical improvements.
The invention of gunpowder and movable type in the Tang dynasty and Northern Song completed the Four Great Inventions. Tang culture spread in Asia, as the new Silk Route brought traders to as far as Mesopotamia and Horn of Africa. Dynastic rule ended in 1912 with the Xinhai Revolution; the Chinese Civil War resulted in a division of territory in 1949, when the Communist Party of China established the People's Republic of China, a unitary one-party sovereign state on Mainland China, while the Kuomintang-led government retreated to the island of Taiwan. The political status of Taiwan remains disputed. Since the introduction of economic reforms in 1978, China's economy has been one of the world's fastest-growing with annual growth rates above 6 percent. According to the World Bank, China's GDP grew from $150 billion in 1978 to $12.24 trillion by 2017. Since 2010, China has been the world's second-largest economy by nominal GDP and since 2014, the largest economy in the world by purchasing power parity.
China is the world's largest exporter and second-largest importer of goods. China is a recognized nuclear weapons state and has the world's largest standing army and second-largest defense budget; the PRC is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council as it replaced the ROC in 1971, as well as an active global partner of ASEAN Plus mechanism. China is a leading member of numerous formal and informal multilateral organizations, including the Shanghai Cooperation Organization, WTO, APEC, BRICS, the BCIM, the G20. In recent times, scholars have argued that it will soon be a world superpower, rivaling the United States; the word "China" has been used in English since the 16th century. It is not a word used by the Chinese themselves, it has been traced through Portuguese and Persian back to the Sanskrit word Cīna, used in ancient India."China" appears in Richard Eden's 1555 translation of the 1516 journal of the Portuguese explorer Duarte Barbosa. Barbosa's usage was derived from Persian Chīn, in turn derived from Sanskrit Cīna.
Cīna was first used including the Mahābhārata and the Laws of Manu. In 1655, Martino Martini suggested that the word China is derived from the name of the Qin dynasty. Although this derivation is still given in various sources, it is complicated by the fact that the Sanskrit word appears in pre-Qin literature; the word may have referred to a state such as Yelang. The meaning transferred to China as a whole; the origin of the Sanskrit word is still a matter of debate, according to the Oxford English Dictionary. The official name of the modern state is the "People's Republic of China"; the shorter form is "China" Zhōngguó, from zhōng and guó, a term which developed under the Western Zhou dynasty in reference to its royal demesne. It was applied to the area around Luoyi during the Eastern Zhou and to China's Central Plain before being used as an occasional synonym for the state under the Qing, it was used as a cultural concept to distinguish the Huaxia people from perceived "barbarians". The name Zhongguo is translated as "Middle Kingdom" in English.
Archaeological evidence suggests that early hominids inhabited China between 2.24 million and 250,000 years ago. The hominid fossils of Peking Man, a Homo erectus who used fire, were discovered in a cave at Zhoukoudian near Beijing; the fossilized teeth of Homo sapiens have been discovered in Fuyan Cave in Hunan. Chinese proto-writing existed in Jiahu around 7000 BCE, Damaidi around 6000 BCE, Dadiwan from 5800–5400 BCE, Banpo dating from the 5th millennium BCE; some scholars have suggested. According to Chinese tradition, the first dynasty was the Xia, which emerged around 2100 BCE; the dynasty was considered mythical by historians until scientific excavations found early Bronze Age sites at Erlitou, Henan in 1959. It remains unclear whether these sites are the remains of the Xia dynasty or of another culture from the same period; the succeeding Shang dynasty is the earliest to be confirmed by contemporary records. The Shang ruled the plain of the Yellow River in eastern China from the 17th to the 11th century BCE.
Their oracle bone script
1st Commonwealth Division
The 1st Commonwealth Division was the name given, after July 1951, to Commonwealth land forces in the Korean War. The division was a multinational unit, part of British Commonwealth Forces Korea, whilst British and Canadian Army units formed the bulk of the division, Australian infantry, New Zealand artillery and an Indian medical unit were a part of the division; as with the US "KATUSA" programme, numerous South Korean troops were seconded to the Commonwealth division to make up numbers under a programme known as "KATCOM". The unit was preceded by the 27th British Commonwealth Brigade, the initial parent formation of Commonwealth army units in Korea, which arrived in Korea in August 1950, its two British Infantry battalions were joined by the 3rd Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment in September, by the 2nd Battalion, Princess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry, in February 1951. The brigade was subsequently re-constituted as 28th Commonwealth Brigade in April 1951. In November 1950 the brigade was joined by 29th Independent Infantry Brigade, in May 1951 by 25th Canadian Infantry Brigade.
In July 1951 these units were combined to form 1st Commonwealth Division. The Division was made up of 58% British forces, 22% Canadian forces, 14% Australian forces, 5% New Zealander forces, 1% Indian forces; the 1st Commonwealth Division was part of the US I Corps, which included the US 1st Cavalry Division, the US 3rd and 25th Infantry Divisions, the ROK 1st Division. The division occupied the strategically important sector of front on the Jamestown Line, stretching from the Kimpo peninsula on the Yellow Sea coast to a point east of Kumhwa about 6.3 miles, just 30 miles from the South Korean capital, Seoul. It was deactivated in 1954 as part of the demobilisation of forces in Korea in the aftermath of the war, being reduced to a Commonwealth Brigade Group, from May 1956 until its final withdrawal in August 1957 to a Commonwealth Contingent of battalion strength. Commanding officers Major General James Cassels, 28 July 1951 – 7 September 1952 Major General Michael West, 7 September 1952 – 1953 Major General Horatius Murray, 1953 – 1954 Divisional Commander Royal Artillery Brigadier William Pike, July 1951 – 1952 Brigadier G. Gregson, 1952 Divisional Commander Royal Engineers Colonel ECW Myers, RE Divisional Commander Royal Signals Lt Col AC Atkinson, Royal Sigs Divisional Commander Royal Army Service Corps Lt Col MGM Crosby, RASC Assistant Director Medical Services Col G Anderton, RAMC Divisional Commander Royal Army Ordnance Corps Lt Col MR Maclean, RAOC Lt Col GJH Atkinson, RNZAOC Divisional Commander Royal Army Electrical and Mechanical Engineers Lt Col HG Good, REME Headquarters and Headquarters Company 1st Commonwealth Division Divisional troops Signals 1st Commonwealth Division Signals, July 1951 – July 1953 Artillery 45th Field Regiment, Royal Artillery, July–November 1951, 25 pdr 11th Battery, Royal Artillery, July–November 1951, 4.2 inch mortars 170th Light Battery, Royal Artillery, July–November 1951, 4.2 inch mortars 14th Field Regiment, Royal Artillery, November 1951 – December 1952, 25 pdr 120th Light AA Battery, Royal Artillery, October 1951 – December 1952, 4.2 inch mortars 42nd Light AA Battery, Royal Artillery, November 1951 – February 1952, 4.2 inch mortars 61st Light Field Regiment, January 1952 – July 1953, 4.2 inch mortars 20th Field Regiment, Royal Artillery, December 1952 – July 1953, 25 pdr 16th Field Regiment, Royal New Zealand Artillery, July 1951 – July 1953, 25 pdr 42nd Field Regiment, Royal Artillery, December 1953–, 25 pdr 2nd Regiment, Royal Canadian Horse Artillery, July 1951 – May 1952, 25 pdr 1st Regiment, Royal Canadian Horse Artillery, May 1952 – April 1953, 25 pdr 81st Field Regiment, Royal Canadian Artillery, April 1953 – July 1953, 25 pdr 74th Medium Battery, Royal Artillery, March–November 1953, 5.5 inch medium guns 1903 Independent Air Observation Post Flight, Royal Artillery, July 1951 – July 1953 Engineers 28th Field Engineer Regiment, Royal Engineers, July 1951 – July 1953 64th Field Park Squadron, Royal Engineers, July 1951 – July 1953 Armour 8th King's Royal Irish Hussars, July 1951 – December 1951, Centurion tank C Squadron, 7th Royal Tank Regiment, July 1951 – October 1951, Centurion tank 5th Royal Inniskilling Dragoon Guards, December 1951 – December 1952, Centurion tank 1st Royal Tank Regiment, December 1952 – December 1953, Centurion tank 5th Royal Tank Regiment, December 1953–, Centurion tank C Squadron, Lord Strathcona's Horse, May 1951 – June 1952, M4 Sherman tank B Squadron, Lord Strathcona's Horse, June 1952 – May 1953, M4 Sherman tank A Squadron, Lord Strathcona's Horse, December 1953–, M4 Sherman tank Medical 60th Indian Field Ambulance, November 1950 – August 1953 26th Field Ambulance, RAMC, December 1950– No 25 Field Ambulance, RCAMC, May 1951 – April 1952 No 25 Canadian Field Dressing Station, July 1951– No 37 Field Ambulance, RCAMC, April 1952 – May 1953 No 38 Field Ambulance, RCAMC, May 1953– LogisticsOrdnance No 25 Canadian Infantry Brigade Group Ordnance Company, May 1951 - Jan 1952 28th Commonwealth Infantry Brigade Ordnance Field Park, 24th British Infantry Brigade Group Ordnance Field Park, 1st Commonwealth Division, Stores Distribution Detachment.
Workshops 10th Infantry Workshops, REME 11th Infantry Workshops, REME 16th Infantry Workshops, REME 25 Canadian Support Workshop, RCEME, May 1951 – Jan 1952 191 Infantry Workshop, RCEME, May 1951 – Apr 1955 40 Canadian Infantry Workshop, RCEME, Apr 1953 – Dec 1953 42 Infantry Workshop, RCEME, Mar 1955 – Feb 1955 1st Commonwealth Division, Tank Workshop 1st Commonwealth Division, Signal
Korea is a region in East Asia. Since 1948, it has been divided between two distinct sovereign states: South Korea. Korea consists of the Korean Peninsula, Jeju Island, several minor islands near the peninsula. Korea is bordered by China to the northwest, Russia to the northeast, neighbours Japan to the east by the Korea Strait and the Sea of Japan. During the first half of the 1st millennium, Korea was divided between the three competing states of Baekje and Silla, together known as the "Three Kingdoms of Korea". In the second half of the 1st millennium and Goguryeo were conquered by Silla, leading to the "Unified Silla" period. Meanwhile, Balhae formed in the north following the collapse of Goguryeo. Unified Silla collapsed into three separate states due to civil war, ushering in the Later Three Kingdoms. Toward the end of the 1st millennium Goryeo, a revival of Goguryeo, defeated the two other states and unified the Korean Peninsula as one single state. Around the same time, Balhae collapsed and its last crown prince fled south to Goryeo.
Goryeo, whose name developed into the modern exonym "Korea", was a cultured state that created the world's first metal movable type in 1234. However, multiple invasions by the Mongol Empire during the 13th century weakened the nation, which agreed to become a vassal state after decades of fighting. Following military resistance under King Gongmin which ended Mongol political influence in Goryeo, severe political strife followed, Goryeo fell to a coup led by General Yi Seong-gye, who established Joseon in 1392; the first 200 years of Joseon were marked by relative peace. During this period, the Korean alphabet was created by Sejong the Great in the 15th century and there was increasing influence of Confucianism. During the part of the dynasty, Korea's isolationist policy earned it the Western nickname of the "Hermit Kingdom". By the late 19th century, the country became the object of imperial design by the Empire of Japan. After the First Sino-Japanese War, despite the Korean Empire's effort to modernize, it was annexed by Japan in 1910 and ruled by Imperial Japan until the end of World War II in August 1945.
In 1945, the Soviet Union and the United States agreed on the surrender of Japanese forces in Korea in the aftermath of World War II, leaving Korea partitioned along the 38th parallel. The North was under Soviet occupation and the South under U. S. occupation. These circumstances soon became the basis for the division of Korea by the two superpowers, exacerbated by their inability to agree on the terms of Korean independence; the Communist-inspired government in the North received backing from the Soviet Union in opposition to the pro-Western government in the South, leading to Korea's division into two political entities: North Korea, South Korea. Tensions between the two resulted in the outbreak of the Korean War in 1950. With involvement by foreign troops, the war ended in a stalemate in 1953, but without a formalized peace treaty; this status contributes to the high tensions. Both governments of the two Koreas claim to be the sole legitimate government of the region. "Korea" is the modern spelling of "Corea", a name attested in English as early as 1614.
Korea was transliterated as Cauli in The Travels of Marco Polo, of the Chinese 高麗. This was the Hanja for the Korean kingdom of Goryeo, which ruled most of the Korean peninsula during Marco Polo's time. Korea's introduction to the West resulted from trade and contact with merchants from Arabic lands, with some records dating back as far as the 9th century. Goryeo's name was a continuation of Goguryeo the northernmost of the Three Kingdoms of Korea, known as Goryeo beginning in the 5th century; the original name was a combination of the adjective go with the name of a local Yemaek tribe, whose original name is thought to have been either *Guru or *Gauri. With expanding British and American trade following the opening of Korea in the late 19th century, the spelling "Korea" appeared and grew in popularity; the name Korea is now used in English contexts by both North and South Korea. In South Korea, Korea as a whole is referred to as Hanguk; the name references Samhan, referring to the Three Kingdoms of Korea, not the ancient confederacies in the southern Korean Peninsula.
Although written in Hanja as 韓, 幹, or 刊, this Han has no relation to the Chinese place names or peoples who used those characters but was a phonetic transcription of a native Korean word that seems to have had the meaning "big" or "great" in reference to leaders. It has been tentatively linked with the title khan used by the nomads of Central Asia. In North Korea, China and Japan, Korea as a whole is referred to as. "Great Joseon" was the name of the kingdom ruled by the Joseon dynasty from 1393 until their declaration of the short-lived Great Korean Empire in 1897. King Taejo had named them for the earlier Kojoseon, who ruled northern Korea from its legendary prehistory until their conquest in 108 BC by China's Han Empire; this go is the Hanja 古 and
Battle of Chumonchin Chan
The Battle of Chumonchin Chan or the Action of 2 July 1950 was the battle fought between surface combatants during the main phase of the Korean War. It began. On 2 July 1950, USS Juneau, HMS Black Swan, HMS Jamaica were sailing along the coast of the Sea of Japan when they encountered four North Korean torpedo and gunboats that had just finished escorting a flotilla of ten ammunition ships up the coast; the North Korean torpedo boats began an attack on the allied ships. Before their torpedoes could be fired however, they were met with a salvo of gunfire from the United Nations ships which destroyed three of the torpedo boats; the surviving North Korean craft fled. In July, Juneau encountered the same ammunition ships and destroyed them. Naval Battles of the Korean War. Archived 2 November 2013 at the Wayback Machine
29th Infantry Brigade (United Kingdom)
The 29th Infantry Brigade was an infantry brigade unit of the British Army. It was raised in 1914 and saw service during the First and Second World Wars and the Korean War; the 29th Brigade was formed in August 1914 as part of the 10th Division, of the first wave of Kitchener's Army. The division and brigade transferred to Lemnos in July 1915 in preparation for the Gallipoli landings; the 29th Infantry Brigade landed at Anzac Cove on August 6/7 of the same year, participating in the Battle of Chunuk Bair. The 10th Division was withdrawn from Gallipoli to Salonika at the end of September 1915, elements of the division participating in actions at Karajakois and Kosturino. In early September 1917, the Division was withdrawn to Egypt and took part in the Palestine Campaign where it fought in the third Battle of Gaza; the division moved back to Cairo at the end of the war. In the Second World War, the Cairo Brigade was renamed as the 29th Infantry Brigade on 20 September 1939. In October 1939, it was redesignated as the 22nd Infantry Brigade.
On 14 July 1940, a new 29th Independent Infantry Brigade Group, under the command of Brigadier Oliver Leese, was formed in the United Kingdom from Regular Army infantry battalions. It was successively under command of XII Corps, the West Sussex County Division, IV Corps and South Eastern Command before passing to War Office Control in May 1941; the brigade, under the command of Brigadier Frank Festing, led the invasion of Madagascar by Force 121 on 5 May 1942. It left Madagascar for two weeks in East Africa in late August 1942 and departed on 16 October 1942 for South Africa. After two months, the brigade departed for India, arriving on 26 January 1943, came under the command of Frank Festing's 36th Indian Infantry Division, where it was trained in amphibious assault operations, it entered Burma on 12 February 1944. It remained in 36 Division, redesignated as the British 36th Infantry Division on 1 September 1944, for the rest of the Burma Campaign, returning to India in June 1944 before flying into North Burma in August 1944 and advancing south to Mandalay.
Throughout its time in the 36th Division, it was commanded by Brigadier Hugh Stockwell. The 29th Brigade returned to India in May 1945. Recognised battles: North Arakan 1 January – 12 June 1944 Mandalay 12/13 February – 21 March 1945 Rangoon Road 1 April – 6 May 1945 The 29th Brigade was back in existence by 1949, was re-mustered after the outbreak of the Korean War as 29th Independent Infantry Brigade to reinforce the United Nations war effort; when it arrived in Korea, in December 1950, it comprised the 1st Battalion, Royal Northumberland Fusiliers, 1st Battalion, the Gloucestershire Regiment, 1st Battalion, the Royal Ulster Rifles, 8th King's Royal Irish Hussars, C Squadron, 7th Royal Tank Regiment, 45 Field Regiment RA, 11 LAA Battery RA, 170 Mortar Battery RA, plus supporting units. It incorporated elements from non-British forces, including the Belgian United Nations Command; the brigade saw action during the third Battle for Seoul in late December 1950 and the Chinese Spring Offensive in April 1951.
In July 1951, it was re-organized as 29th British Infantry Brigade and absorbed into the 1st Commonwealth Division, the brigade finished its tour of duty in November 1951. 1914–19185th Battalion, Royal Irish Regiment 6th Battalion, Royal Irish Rifles 5th Battalion, Connaught Rangers 6th Battalion, Prince of Wales's Leinster Regiment 10th Battalion, Hampshire Regiment 1st Battalion, Prince of Wales' Leinster Regiment 29th Machine Gun Company 29th Trench Mortar Battery 1st Battalion, 54th Sikhs 1st Battalion, 101st Grenadiers 2nd Battalion, 151st Sikh Infantry 19391st Battalion, Buffs 2nd Battalion, Scots Guards1940–19451st Battalion, Royal Scots Fusiliers 2nd Battalion, East Lancashire Regiment 2nd Battalion, Royal Welch Fusiliers 2nd Battalion, South Lancashire Regiment 29th Independent Brigade Group Anti-tank Company 204th Anti-tank Battery, Royal Artillery 17th Field Regiment, Royal Artillery "E" Company, 5th Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders 16 August 1940 – 11 June 1941) 29th Independent Brigade Group Machine Gun Company Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders 29th Independent Brigade Group Reconnaissance Company 29th Independent Brigade Group Machine Gun Company Royal Northumberland Fusiliers "B" SS Squadron Royal Armoured Corps 455th Independent Light Battery, Royal Artillery "D" Company, 2nd Manchester Regiment 17 October 1943 – 16 June 1944) 236th Field Company, Royal Engineers 29th Independent Brigade Group Company, Royal Army Service Corps 1 August 1940 – 5 May 1941) 154th Field Ambulance, Royal Army Medical Corps 29th Independent Brigade Group Workshop, Royal Army Ordnance Corps 29th Independent Brigade Group Ordnance Field Park, Royal Army Ordnance Corps 29th Independent Brigade Group Provost Section, Royal Military Police (18 July 1940 – 15 January 194
First Battle of Naktong Bulge
The First Battle of Naktong Bulge was an engagement between United States and North Korean forces early in the Korean War from August 5–19, 1950 in the vicinity of Yongsan and the Naktong River in South Korea. It was a part of the Battle of Pusan Perimeter, was one of several large engagements fought simultaneously; the battle ended in a victory for the United Nation after large numbers of US reinforcements destroyed an attacking North Korean division. On August 5, 4th Infantry Division, North Korean People's Army, crossed the Naktong River in the vicinity of Yongsan, attempting to cut US supply lines to the north as well as gaining a bridgehead into the Pusan Perimeter. Opposing it was the 24th Infantry Division of the Eighth United States Army. Over the next two weeks and North Korean forces fought a bloody series of engagements inflicting heavy casualties on one another in a confusing series of attacks and counterattacks, but neither side was able to gain the upper hand. In the end, the US forces, aided by reinforcements, air support and heavy weapons, destroyed the invading North Korean force, hampered by lack of supply and high desertion rates.
The battle was a turning point in the war for North Korean forces, which had seen previous victories owing to superior numbers and equipment. The American forces now had a numerical superiority and more equipment, including tanks and weapons capable of defeating the North Korean T-34 tanks. Following the 25 June 1950 outbreak of the Korean War after the invasion of the Republic of Korea by its northern neighbor, the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, the United Nations decided to commit troops to the conflict on behalf of South Korea; the United States, a member of the UN, subsequently committed ground forces to the Korean peninsula with the goal of fighting back the North Korean invasion and to prevent South Korea from collapsing. However, US forces in the Far East had been decreasing since the end of World War II, five years earlier, at the time the closest forces were the 24th Infantry Division, headquartered in Japan; the division was understrength, most of its equipment was antiquated due to reductions in military spending.
Regardless, the 24th was ordered to South Korea. The 24th Infantry Division was the first US unit sent into Korea with the mission to take the initial "shock" of North Korean advances, delaying much larger North Korean units to buy time to allow reinforcements to arrive; the division was alone for several weeks as it attempted to delay the North Koreans, making time for the 1st Cavalry and the 7th and 25th Infantry Divisions, along with other Eighth Army supporting units, to move into position. Advance elements of the 24th Infantry were badly defeated in the Battle of Osan on July 5, the first encounter between American and North Korean forces. For the first month after the defeat of Task Force Smith, 24th Infantry was defeated and forced south by superior North Korean numbers and equipment; the regiments of the 24th Infantry were systematically pushed south in engagements around Chochiwon and Pyongtaek. The 24th made a final stand in the Battle of Taejon, where it was completely destroyed but delaying North Korean forces until July 20.
By that time, the Eighth Army's force of combat troops were equal to North Korean forces attacking the region, with new UN units arriving every day. With Taejon captured, North Korean forces began surrounding the Pusan Perimeter from all sides in an attempt to envelop it; the 4th and 6th North Korean Infantry Divisions advanced south in a wide flanking maneuver. The two divisions attempted to envelop the UN's left flank, but became spread out in the process, they advanced on UN positions with armor and superior numbers pushing back US and South Korean forces. American forces were pushed back before halting the North Korean advance in a series of engagements in the southern section of the country. Forces of the 3rd Battalion, 29th Infantry Regiment, newly arrived in the country, were wiped out at Hadong in a coordinated ambush by North Korean forces on July 27, opening a pass to the Pusan area. Soon after, North Korean forces took Chinju to the west, pushing back the US 19th Infantry Regiment and leaving routes to the Pusan open for more North Korean attacks.
US formations were subsequently able to defeat and push back the North Koreans on the flank in the Battle of the Notch on August 2. Suffering mounting losses, the KPA force in the west withdrew for several days to re-equip and receive reinforcements; this granted both sides a reprieve to prepare for the attack on the Pusan Perimeter. About 7 miles north of the point where it turns east and is joined by the Nam River, the Naktong River curves westward opposite Yongsan in a wide semicircular loop. For most of this span, the Naktong is around 400 metres wide and 6 feet deep, allowing infantry to wade across with some difficulty but preventing vehicles from crossing without assistance; this perimeter was defended by a network of observation posts on the high ground, manned by 24th Infantry. Forces in reserve would counterattack any attempted crossings by KPA. Artillery and mortar fire units were deployed so large amounts of fire could be delivered on any one spot; the division was dispersed. Understrength, it presented a thin line.
The 24th US Infantry Division, under the command of Major General John H. Church, occupied a region some 16 miles long along the Naktong River; the 34th US Infantry Regiment occupied the southern half, west of Yongsan while the 21st US Infantry Regiment occupied the northern half, west of Changyong. The 19th US Infantry Regiment, was re-equip
Battle of Taejon
The Battle of Taejon was an early battle of the Korean War, between American and North Korean forces. Forces of the United States Army attempted to defend the headquarters of the 24th Infantry Division; the 24th Infantry Division was overwhelmed by numerically superior forces of the Korean People's Army at the major city and transportation hub of Taejon. The 24th Infantry Division's regiments were exhausted from the previous two weeks of delaying actions to stem the advance of the KPA; the entire 24th Division gathered to make a final stand around Taejon, holding a line along the Kum River to the east of the city. Hampered by a lack of communication and equipment, a shortage of heavy weapons to match the KPA's firepower, the outnumbered, ill-equipped and untrained American forces were pushed back from the riverbank after several days before fighting an intense urban battle to defend the city. After a fierce three-day struggle, the Americans withdrew. Although they could not hold the city, the 24th Infantry Division achieved a strategic victory by delaying the North Koreans, providing time for other American divisions to establish a defensive perimeter around Pusan further south.
The delay imposed at Taejon prevented an American rout during the subsequent Battle of Pusan Perimeter. During the action, the KPA captured Major General William F. Dean, the commander of the 24th Infantry Division, highest ranking American prisoner during the Korean War. Following the invasion of the Republic of Korea by its northern neighbor, the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, the United Nations committed forces on behalf of South Korea; the United States subsequently sent ground forces to the Korean peninsula to contain the North Korean invasion and to prevent the collapse of the South Korean state. American forces in the Far East had decreased since the end of World War II, five years earlier; when forces were committed, the 24th Infantry Division of the Eighth United States Army, headquartered in Japan, was the closest US division. The division was under-strength, most of its equipment dated from 1945 and earlier due to defense cutbacks enacted in the first Truman administration.
The division was ordered into South Korea. The 24th Infantry Division was the first US unit sent into Korea to absorb the initial North Korean advances, disrupt the more numerous North Korean units; the 24th Division delayed the North Korean advance to allow the 7th Infantry Division, 25th Infantry Division, 1st Cavalry Division, other Eighth Army supporting units to establish a defensive line around Pusan. Preceding the Battle of Taejon, some of the Bodo League massacres took place around Taejon, where between 3,000 and 7,000 South Korean leftist political prisoners were shot and dumped into mass graves by South Korean troops recorded by a US Army photographer. Task Force Smith, an advance element of the 24th Infantry Division was badly defeated in the Battle of Osan on 5 July, during the first encounter between American and North Korean forces. Task Force Smith retreated from Osan to Pyongtaek, where US forces were again defeated in the Battle of Pyongtaek; the 24th Infantry Division was forced south by the North Korean force's superior numbers and equipment in engagements at Chochiwon, Chonan and Yechon.
American soldiers were untrained and unprepared at the outbreak of the war, this lack of training showed in engagements with North Korean units which were much more disciplined. Most of the Americans were out of shape, untrained and had no combat experience. On 12 July, the division's commander, Major General William F. Dean, ordered the division's three regiments, the 19th Infantry Regiment, 21st Infantry Regiment, the 34th Infantry Regiment, to cross the Kum River, destroying all bridges behind them, to establish defensive positions around Taejon. Taejon was a major South Korean city 100 miles south of Seoul and 130 miles northwest of Pusan, was the site of the 24th Infantry Division's headquarters. Dean formed a line with the 34th Infantry and 19th Infantry facing east, held the battered 21st Infantry in reserve to the southeast; the Kum River wrapped north and west around the city, providing a defensive line 10 to 15 miles from the outskirts of Taejon, surrounded to the south by the Sobaek Mountains.
With major railroad junctions and numerous roads leading into the countryside in all directions, Taejon was a major transportation hub between Seoul and Taegu, giving it great strategic value for both the American and North Korean forces. The division was attempting to make a last stand at Taejon, the last place it could conduct a delaying action before the North Korean forces would converge on the unfinished Pusan Perimeter; the 24th Infantry Division's three infantry regiments, which had a wartime strength of 3,000 each, were below strength on their deployment, heavy losses in the preceding two weeks had reduced their numbers further. The 21st Infantry had 1,100 men left; the 34th Infantry had only 2,020 men and the 19th had 2,276 men. Another 2,007 men stood in the 24th Infantry Division artillery formations; these counts placed the division's total strength at 11,400. This was reduced from the 15,965 men and 4,773 vehicles that had arrived in Korea at the beginning of the month; each of the regiments had only two battalions of infantry as opposed to the normal three.
Large numbers of men had to be pulled from the lines from combat fatigue. Morale was low for the soldiers, who were exhausted from days without sleep. Casualties among the division's commissioned officers were high, forcing younger officers