1996 Gangneung submarine infiltration incident
The 1996 Gangneung submarine infiltration incident occurred on September 18, 1996, near the South Korean town of Gangneung. The incident was one of the more serious instances of North Korean espionage involving naval forces. In 1996 on September 15, a North Korean Sang-O-class submarine landed a three-person special operations reconnaissance team on the east coast of South Korea near Jeongdongjin, 20 kilometres south-east of Gangneung, Gangwon-do, their mission was to spy on the naval installations in the area and return. The submarine made a failed attempt to return the following day; the submarine, ran aground in the attempt, all efforts to try to make her free were in vain. The crew decided to destroy the sensitive equipment in the submarine and try to make it to the DMZ; the crew split up in several groups but one was soon spotted by a civilian who became suspicious and alerted the authorities, who mobilized. A 49-day-long manhunt ensued, from 18 September through 5 November, resulting in the capture or elimination of all the crew and members of the reconnaissance team, except one, believed to have made it back to North Korea.
Four civilians and 12 South Korean soldiers died. Of the 25 North Korean infiltrators, one was captured, 11 were killed by the other members for failure in responsibility of running aground of the submarine, 13 were killed in firefights with the South Korean army; some analysts suspected that the motivation behind the assassination of Choe Deok-geun, South Korean consul for the Russian Far East, was North Korean retaliation for the loss of their men. The infiltrators possessed among their arsenal, M16A1 rifles and mock South Korean-style military uniforms. Nestlé Crunch chocolate bars were recovered; some of the dead spies' corpses were displayed to the media. The submarine was towed to a naval base for investigation. One captured crewmember, the submarine's helmsman, Lee Kwang Soo, gave in after much interrogation and revealed much of the plans, he became an instructor in the South Korean navy. North Korea was at first reluctant to take responsibility, claiming that the submarine had suffered an engine failure and had drifted aground.
By 29 December, the North issued an official statement expressing "deep regret" over the submarine incident. In return, the South Korean government returned the cremated remains of the infiltrators to the North via Panmunjom on 30 December. September 18, 16:40 – 1 captured by local policemen September 18, 17:00 – 11 bodies of executed submarine crew members were found September 19, 10:00 – 3 killed by the South Korean army commandos September 19, 14:00 – 3 killed by the South Korean army special forces September 19, 16:00 – 1 killed by the South Korean army September 21, 20:00 – 1 killed by the South Korean army September 22, 06:00 – 1 killed by the South Korean army September 28, 06:30 – 1 killed by the South Korean army September 30, 16:00 – 1 killed by South Korean special forces November 5, 10:00 – 2 killed by South Korean special forces The Sang-O class submarine is on display at Tongil Park near Gangneung. 1998 Sokcho submarine incident Harry P. Dies, Jr.: North Korean Special Operations Forces: 1996 Kangnung submarine infiltration, Military Intelligence Professional Bulletin, Oct-Dec 2004.
Pictures and information regarding the display
The Korean War was a war between North Korea and South Korea. The war began on 25 June 1950 when North Korea invaded South Korea following a series of clashes along the border; as a product of the Cold War between the Soviet Union and the United States, Korea had been split into two sovereign states in 1948. A socialist state was established in the north under the communist leadership of Kim Il-sung and a capitalist state in the south under the anti-communist leadership of Syngman Rhee. Both governments of the two new Korean states claimed to be the sole legitimate government of all of Korea, neither accepted the border as permanent; the conflict escalated into warfare when North Korean military forces—supported by the Soviet Union and China—crossed the border and advanced south into South Korea on 25 June 1950. The United Nations Security Council authorized the formation and dispatch of UN forces to Korea to repel what was recognized as a North Korean invasion. Twenty-one countries of the United Nations contributed to the UN force, with the United States providing around 90% of the military personnel.
After the first two months of war, South Korean and U. S. forces dispatched to Korea were on the point of defeat, forced back to a small area in the south known as the Pusan Perimeter. In September 1950, an amphibious UN counter-offensive was launched at Incheon, cut off many North Korean troops; those who escaped envelopment and capture were forced back north. UN forces approached the Yalu River—the border with China—but in October 1950, mass Chinese forces crossed the Yalu and entered the war; the surprise Chinese intervention triggered a retreat of UN forces which continued until mid-1951. In these reversals of fortune, Seoul changed hands four times, the last two years of fighting became a war of attrition, with the front line close to the 38th parallel; the war in the air, was never a stalemate. North Korea was subject to a massive bombing campaign. Jet fighters confronted each other in air-to-air combat for the first time in history, Soviet pilots covertly flew in defense of their communist allies.
The fighting ended on 27 July 1953. The agreement created the Korean Demilitarized Zone to separate North and South Korea, allowed the return of prisoners. However, no peace treaty was signed, according to some sources the two Koreas are technically still at war, engaged in a frozen conflict. In April 2018, the leaders of North and South Korea met at the demilitarized zone and agreed to work towards a treaty to formally end the Korean War. In South Korea, the war is referred to as "625" or the "6–2–5 Upheaval", reflecting the date of its commencement on June 25. In North Korea, the war is referred to as the "Fatherland Liberation War" or alternatively the "Chosǒn War". In China, the war is called the "War to Resist America and Aid Korea", although the term "Chaoxian War" is used in unofficial contexts, along with the term "Hán War" more used in regions such as Hong Kong and Macau. In the U. S. the war was described by President Harry S. Truman as a "police action" as the United States never formally declared war on its opponents and the operation was conducted under the auspices of the United Nations.
It has been referred to in the English-speaking world as "The Forgotten War" or "The Unknown War" because of the lack of public attention it received both during and after the war, in relation to the global scale of World War II, which preceded it, the subsequent angst of the Vietnam War, which succeeded it. Imperial Japan destroyed the influence of China over Korea in the First Sino-Japanese War, ushering in the short-lived Korean Empire. A decade after defeating Imperial Russia in the Russo-Japanese War, Japan made Korea its protectorate with the Eulsa Treaty in 1905 annexed it with the Japan–Korea Annexation Treaty in 1910. Many Korean nationalists fled the country; the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea was founded in 1919 in Nationalist China. It failed to achieve international recognition, failed to unite nationalist groups, had a fractious relationship with its U. S.-based founding president, Syngman Rhee. From 1919 to 1925 and beyond, Korean communists led internal and external warfare against the Japanese.
In China, the Nationalist National Revolutionary Army and the communist People's Liberation Army helped organize Korean refugees against the Japanese military, which had occupied parts of China. The Nationalist-backed Koreans, led by Yi Pom-Sok, fought in the Burma Campaign; the communists, led by Kim Il-sung among others, fought the Japanese in Manchuria. At the Cairo Conference in November 1943, the United Kingdom, the United States all decided that "in due course Korea shall become free and independent". At the Tehran Conference in November 1943 and the Yalta Conference in February 1945, the Soviet Union promised to join its allies in the Pacific War within three months of the victory in Europe. Accordingly, it declared war o
Jung District, Incheon
Jung District is the historic central ward of the city of Incheon, South Korea, one of the eight wards into which Incheon is divided. Its name means "central" in Korean, it was founded in 1883 on the opening of the Jemulpo Port and contains several historical and cultural heritage monuments, such as Dap-dong Cathedral, Hongyemun Gate, The First Anglican Church, Jayu Park, Korea's first modern park. Incheon is the gateway to the capital of South Korea. In modern times it became a trading port growing to become the second-largest port in South Korea, it is contains Incheon International Airport. Sinpo-dong Yeonan-dong Bukseong-dong Sinheung-dong Yulmok-dong Dong Incheon-dong Yeongjong-dong, Yeongjong Island Unseo-dong, Yeongjong Island Yongyu-dong, Yongyu Island Songwol-dong 1 to 3 Ga Dowon-dong International schools: Overseas Chinese Primary and Middle/High School, Incheon Jajangmyeon Museum is a museum about Jajangmyeon noodle. Jung-gu homepage
Daecheong Island or Daecheongdo is a 12.63 km2, 7 km long and 6.3 km wide island in Ongjin County, South Korea, near the Northern Limit Line. The 1953 Korean Armistice Agreement which ended the Korean War specified that the five islands including Daecheong Island would remain under U. N. and South Korea control. This agreement was signed by United Nations Command. Since it serves as a maritime demarcation between North and South Korea in the Yellow Sea; the island is 19 km from the coast of South Hwanghae Province in North Korea. Daecheongdo Island is estimated to be first inhabited during the Neolithic Age, but there are signs of culture from the Goryeo Dynasty, during which time the island was used as a place of exile for criminals; the Chinese Emperor Togon-temur exiled there by the Mongol Yuan Dynasty for conspiring in a plot arranged by his stepmother. Legends say he arrived at the island with a court and 100 relatives built a palace; the island was general uninhabited until 1793, when King Jeongjo, of the Joseon Dynasty, imported farmers to cultivate the island.
During the Japanese occupation of Korea between 1910 and 1945, there were as many as 10,000 people living thanks to its large port. Today, the island only inhabits 1,500 people who sustain a living from tourism and fishing. Fishing is popular on the island; until the late 1980s, skate fishing was a growing industry. The island is at the northernmost natural range of the Camellia japonica. Two islands nearby are the much smaller Socheong Island. On 10 November 2009, the waters near the island were the scene of a skirmish between the South Korean and North Korean navies. A patrol boat from North Korea was damaged while the navy of South Korea sustained no casualties. Official website Official website
Battle of Inchon
The Battle of Inchon was an amphibious invasion and battle of the Korean War that resulted in a decisive victory and strategic reversal in favor of the United Nations. The operation involved some 75,000 troops and 261 naval vessels, led to the recapture of the South Korean capital of Seoul two weeks later; the code name for the operation was Operation Chromite. The battle ended on 19 September. Through a surprise amphibious assault far from the Pusan Perimeter that UN and South Korean forces were defending, the undefended city of Incheon was secured after being bombed by UN forces; the battle ended a string of victories over the Korean People's Army. The subsequent UN recapture of Seoul severed the KPA's supply lines in South Korea; the UN and South Korean forces were commanded by General of the Army Douglas MacArthur of the United States Army. MacArthur was the driving force behind the operation, overcoming the strong misgivings of more cautious generals to a risky assault over unfavorable terrain.
The battle was followed by a rapid collapse of the North Korean army. From the outbreak of the Korean War following the invasion of South Korea by North Korea on 25 June 1950, the Korean People's Army, had enjoyed superiority in both manpower and ground combat equipment over the South Korean Army and United Nations forces dispatched to South Korea to prevent it from collapsing; the North Korean strategy was to aggressively pursue UN and South Korean forces on all avenues of approach south and to engage them, attacking from the front and initiating a double envelopment of both flanks of the defending units, which allowed the North Koreans to surround and cut off the opposing force, forcing it to retreat in disarray. From their initial 25 June offensive to fighting in July and early August, the North Koreans used this tactic to defeat the UN forces they encountered and push it south. However, with the establishment of the Pusan Perimeter in August, UN forces held a continuous line which the North Koreans could not flank.
The KPA advantages in numbers decreased daily as the superior UN logistical system brought in more troops and supplies to the UN forces. When the North Koreans approached the Busan Perimeter on 5 August, they attempted the same frontal assault technique on the four main avenues of approach into the perimeter. Throughout August, they conducted direct assaults resulting in the Battle of Masan, the Battle of Battle Mountain, the First Battle of Naktong Bulge, the Battle of Taegu, the Battle of the Bowling Alley. On the east coast of the Korean Peninsula, the South Koreans repulsed three North Korean divisions at the Battle of P'ohang-dong; the North Korean attacks stalled. All along the front, the North Korean troops reeled from these defeats, the first time in the war North Korean tactics had failed. By the end of August the North Korean troops had been pushed beyond their limits and many of the original units were at far reduced strength and effectiveness. Logistic problems wracked the KPA, shortages of food, weapons and replacement soldiers proved devastating for North Korean units.
However, the North Korean force retained high morale and enough supply to allow for another large-scale offensive. On 1 September the North Koreans threw their entire military into one final bid to break the Pusan Perimeter, the Great Naktong Offensive, a five-pronged simultaneous attack across the entire perimeter; the attack caught UN forces by surprise and overwhelmed them. North Korean troops attacked Kyongju, surrounded Taegu and Ka-san, recrossed the Naktong Bulge, threatened Yongsan, continued their attack at Masan, focusing on Nam River and Haman. However, despite their efforts, in one of the most brutal fights of the Korean War, the North Koreans were unsuccessful. Unable to hold their gains, the KPA retreated from the offensive a much weaker force, vulnerable to counterattack. Days after the beginning of the war, General of the Army Douglas MacArthur, the US Army officer in command of all UN forces in Korea, envisioned an amphibious assault to retake the Seoul area; the city had fallen in the first days of the war in the First Battle of Seoul.
MacArthur wrote that he thought the North Korean army would push the Republic of Korea Army back far past Seoul. He said he decided days after the war began that the battered and under-equipped South Koreans, many of whom did not support the South Korean government put in power by the United States, could not hold off the North Korean forces with American support. MacArthur felt that he could turn the tide if he made a decisive troop movement behind North Korean lines, preferred Inchon, now known as Incheon, over Chumunjin-up or Kunsan as the landing site, he had envisioned such a landing, code named Operation Bluehearts, for 22 July, with the US Army's 1st Cavalry Division landing at Incheon. However, by 10 July the plan was abandoned as it was clear the 1st Cavalry Division would be needed on the Pusan Perimeter. On 23 July, MacArthur formulated a new plan, code-named Operation Chromite, calling for an amphibious assault by the US Army's 2nd Infantry Division and the United States Marine Corps' 5th Marine Regiment in mid-September 1950.
This, too fell through. MacArthur decided instead to use the US Army's 7th Infantry Division, his last reserve unit in East Asia, to conduct the operation as soon as it could be raised to wartime strength. In preparation for the invasion, MacArthur activated the US Army's X Corps to act as the command for the landin
Northern Limit Line
The Northern Limit Line or North Limit Line – 북방한계선 – is a disputed maritime demarcation line in the Yellow Sea between the Democratic People's Republic of Korea on the north, the Republic of Korea on the south. This line of military control acts as the de facto maritime boundary between South Korea; the line runs between the mainland portion of Gyeonggi-do province, part of Hwanghae before 1945, the adjacent offshore islands, including Yeonpyeong and Baengnyeongdo. Because of the conditions of the armistice, the mainland portion reverted to North Korean control, while the islands remained a part of South Korea despite their close proximity; the line extends into the sea from the Military Demarcation Line, consists of straight line segments between 12 approximate channel midpoints, extended in an arc to prevent egress between both sides. On its western end the line extends out along the 38th parallel to the median line between Korea and China; the 1953 Armistice Agreement, signed by both North Korea and the United Nations Command, ended the Korean War and specified that the five islands including Yeonpyeong Island and Baengnyeong Island would remain under the control of the UNC and South Korea.
However, they did not agree on a maritime demarcation line because the UNC wanted to base it on 3 nautical miles of territorial waters, while North Korea wanted to use 12 nautical miles. In August 1953, shortly after the entry into force of the armistice agreement, the South Korean Syngman Rhee Provisional government, which opposed the armistice agreement, attempted to attack the DPRK on the west coast, ignoring the agreement. Accordingly, the United Nations Command set up the "Northern Limit Line" of the West Sea so that the ROK Armed Forces would not attack Hwanghae Island, this is the starting point of the Northern Limit Line. After the United Nations Command and North Korea failed to reach an agreement, it is believed that the line was set by the UNC as a practical operational control measure a month after the armistice was signed, on August 30, 1953; however original documentation recording this has not been found. The line was drawn to prevent South Korean incursions into the north that threatened the armistice.
However, its role has since been transformed to prevent North Korean ships heading south. A 1974 Central Intelligence Agency research report investigating the origins of the NLL and its significance, declassified in 2000, found that the NLL was established in an order made on 14 January 1965 by the U. S. Commander Naval Forces, Korea. An antecedent line, under a different name, had been established in 1961 by the same commander. No documentation about the line earlier than 1960 could be located by the CIA, casting doubt on the belief that the NLL was created after the armistice; the sole purpose of the NLL in this original order was to forbid UNC vessels from sailing north of it without special permission. The report noted, that in at least two places the NLL crosses into waters presumed to be under uncontested North Korean sovereignty. No evidence was found that North Korea had recognised the NLL. While the NLL was drawn up at a time when a territorial waters limit of 3 nautical miles was the norm, by the 1970s a limit of 12 nautical miles had become internationally accepted, the enforcement of the NLL prevented North Korea, in areas, from accessing significant territorial waters.
In 1973, North Korea began disputing the NLL. After the 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, the NLL prevented North Korea from establishing an effective Exclusive Economic Zone to control fishing in the area, it is unclear when North Korea was informed of the existence of the NLL. Many sources suggest this was done promptly, but in 1973 Deputy Secretary of State Kenneth Rush stated, in a now declassified, "Joint State-Defense Message" to the U. S. Embassy in Seoul that "We are aware of no evidence that NLL has been presented to North Korea." However, South Korea argues that until the 1970s North Korea tacitly recognized the line as a sea demarcation line. North Korea recorded in their 1959 Central Almanac a partial demarcation line close to the UNC controlled islands, at about three nautical miles distance, which South Korea argues shows North Korean acceptance of the NLL as a whole; the border is not recognized by North Korea. The North Korean and South Korean navies patrol the area around the NLL.
As North Korea does not recognise the line, its fishing boats work close to or over the limit line, escorted by North Korean naval boats. On 27 April 2018, North Korea and South Korea adopted the Panmunjom Declaration for Peace and Unification of the Korean Peninsula, which agreed that areas around the Northern Limit Line would be converted into a maritime peace zone in order to prevent accidental military clashes and guarantee safe fishing activities; the UNC emphasized its position on the border issue on 23 August 1999, stating that the NLL issue was non-negotiable, because the demarcation line had been recognized as the de facto maritime border for long years by both Koreas. "The NLL has served as an effective means of preventing military tension between North and South Korean military forces for 46 years. It serves as a practical demarcation line, which has contributed to the separation of forces." The UNC insisted that the NLL must be maintained until a new maritime MDL could be established through the Joint Military Commission on the armistice agreement.
However, in a 1973 U. S. diplomatic cable, now declassified, noted that UNC protested North Korean intrusions within 3 nautical miles of UNC controlled