Rome is the capital city and a special comune of Italy. Rome serves as the capital of the Lazio region. With 2,872,800 residents in 1,285 km2, it is the country's most populated comune, it is the fourth most populous city in the European Union by population within city limits. It is the centre of the Metropolitan City of Rome, which has a population of 4,355,725 residents, thus making it the most populous metropolitan city in Italy. Rome is located in the central-western portion of the Italian Peninsula, within Lazio, along the shores of the Tiber; the Vatican City is an independent country inside the city boundaries of Rome, the only existing example of a country within a city: for this reason Rome has been defined as capital of two states. Rome's history spans 28 centuries. While Roman mythology dates the founding of Rome at around 753 BC, the site has been inhabited for much longer, making it one of the oldest continuously occupied sites in Europe; the city's early population originated from a mix of Latins and Sabines.
The city successively became the capital of the Roman Kingdom, the Roman Republic and the Roman Empire, is regarded by some as the first metropolis. It was first called The Eternal City by the Roman poet Tibullus in the 1st century BC, the expression was taken up by Ovid and Livy. Rome is called the "Caput Mundi". After the fall of the Western Empire, which marked the beginning of the Middle Ages, Rome fell under the political control of the Papacy, in the 8th century it became the capital of the Papal States, which lasted until 1870. Beginning with the Renaissance all the popes since Nicholas V pursued over four hundred years a coherent architectural and urban programme aimed at making the city the artistic and cultural centre of the world. In this way, Rome became first one of the major centres of the Italian Renaissance, the birthplace of both the Baroque style and Neoclassicism. Famous artists, painters and architects made Rome the centre of their activity, creating masterpieces throughout the city.
In 1871, Rome became the capital of the Kingdom of Italy, which, in 1946, became the Italian Republic. Rome has the status of a global city. In 2016, Rome ranked as the 14th-most-visited city in the world, 3rd most visited in the European Union, the most popular tourist attraction in Italy, its historic centre is listed by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site. The famous Vatican Museums are among the world's most visited museums while the Colosseum was the most popular tourist attraction in world with 7.4 million visitors in 2018. Host city for the 1960 Summer Olympics, Rome is the seat of several specialized agencies of the United Nations, such as the Food and Agriculture Organization, the World Food Programme and the International Fund for Agricultural Development; the city hosts the Secretariat of the Parliamentary Assembly of the Union for the Mediterranean as well as the headquarters of many international business companies such as Eni, Enel, TIM, Leonardo S.p. A. and national and international banks such as Unicredit and BNL.
Its business district, called EUR, is the base of many companies involved in the oil industry, the pharmaceutical industry, financial services. Rome is an important fashion and design centre thanks to renowned international brands centered in the city. Rome's Cinecittà Studios have been the set of many Academy Award–winning movies. According to the founding myth of the city by the Ancient Romans themselves, the long-held tradition of the origin of the name Roma is believed to have come from the city's founder and first king, Romulus. However, it is a possibility that the name Romulus was derived from Rome itself; as early as the 4th century, there have been alternative theories proposed on the origin of the name Roma. Several hypotheses have been advanced focusing on its linguistic roots which however remain uncertain: from Rumon or Rumen, archaic name of the Tiber, which in turn has the same root as the Greek verb ῥέω and the Latin verb ruo, which both mean "flow". There is archaeological evidence of human occupation of the Rome area from 14,000 years ago, but the dense layer of much younger debris obscures Palaeolithic and Neolithic sites.
Evidence of stone tools and stone weapons attest to about 10,000 years of human presence. Several excavations support the view that Rome grew from pastoral settlements on the Palatine Hill built above the area of the future Roman Forum. Between the end of the bronze age and the beginning of the Iron age, each hill between the sea and the Capitol was topped by a village. However, none of them had yet an urban quality. Nowadays, there is a wide consensus that the city developed through the aggregation of several villages around the largest one, placed above the Palatine; this aggregation was facilitated by the increase of agricultural productivity above the subsistence level, which allowed the establishment of secondary and tertiary activities. These in turn boosted the development of trade with the Greek colonies of southern Italy; these developments, which according to archaeological ev
Trajan's Bridge called Bridge of Apollodorus over the Danube, was a Roman segmental arch bridge, the first bridge to be built over the lower Danube and one of the greatest achievements in Roman architecture. Though it was only functional for a few decades, for more than 1,000 years it was the longest arch bridge in both total and span length; the bridge was constructed in 105 AD by instruction of Emperor Trajan by Greek architect Apollodorus of Damascus before his Second Dacian War to allow Roman troops to cross the river. The bridge was situated east of the Iron Gates, near the present-day cities of Drobeta-Turnu Severin in Romania and Kladovo in Serbia, its construction was ordered by the Emperor Trajan as a supply route for the Roman legions fighting in Dacia. The structure was 1,135 m long, 15 m wide, 19 m high, measured from the surface of the river. At each end was a Roman castrum, each built around an entrance, so that crossing the bridge was possible only by walking through the camps.
The castra were called Drobeta. On the right bank, at the modern village of Kostol near Kladovo, a castrum Pontes with a civilian settlement was built in 103, it was built concurrently with the bridge. Remnants of the 40 m long castrum with thick ramparts are still visible today. Fragments of ceramics, bricks with Roman markings and coins have been excavated. A bronze head of Emperor Trajan has been discovered in Pontes, it was part of a statue, erected at the bridge entrance and is today kept in the National Museum in Belgrade. On the left bank there was a Drobeta castrum. There was a bronze statue of Trajan on that side of the bridge; the bridge's engineer, Apollodorus of Damascus, used wooden arches, each spanning 38 m, set on twenty masonry pillars made of bricks and pozzolana cement. It was built unusually employing the construction of a wooden caisson for each pier. Apollodorus applied the technique of river flow relocation, using the principles set by Thales of Miletus some six centuries beforehand.
Engineers waited for a low water level to dig west of the modern downtown of Kladovo. The water was redirected 2 km downstream from the construction site, through the lowland of Ključ region, to the location of the modern village of Mala Vrbica. Wooden pillars were driven into the river bed in a rectangular layout, which served as the foundation for the supporting piers, which were coated with clay; the hollow piers were filled with stones held together by mortar, while from the outside they were built around with Roman bricks. The bricks can still be found around the village of Kostol, retaining the same physical properties that they had 2 millennia ago; the piers were 17.78 m wide and 50.38 m apart. It is considered today that the bridge construction was assembled on the land and installed on the pillars. A mitigating circumstance was that the year the relocating canals were dig was dry and the water level was quite low; the river bed was completely drained when the foundation of the pillars began.
There were 20 pillars in total in an interval of 50 m. Oak wood was used and the bridge was high enough to allow ship transport on the Danube; the bricks have a historical value, as the members of the Roman legions and cohorts which participated in the construction of the bridge carved the names of their units into the bricks. Thus, it is known that work was done by the legions of IV Flavia Felix, VII Claudia, V Macedonica and XIII Gemina and the cohorts of I Cretum, II Hispanorum, III Brittonum and I Antiochensium. Construction of the bridge was part of a wider project, which included the digging of sideway canals so that whitewater rapids could be avoided in order to make the Danube safer for navigation, building of a powerful river fleet and defense posts, development of the intelligence service on the border; the Iron Gate Cataract was problematic, as navigation was not possible during low waters, when the rocky and lumpy river bed would block the passage of ships on the entire width of the Danube.
As the heavy equipment necessary for lifting major boulders from the river bed and dragging them onto the bank wasn't available at the time, the Roman engineers decided to cut the canal through the stone slopes on the west bank. It began from the Iron Gate, going upstream to the point where the rapids start, a bit downstream from the modern village of Novi Sip; the remains of the embankment which protected the area during the construction of the canal show the magnitude of the works. The 3.2 km long canal bypassed the problematic section of the river in an arch-like style. Former canals were filled with sand, empty shells are found in the ground. All these works the bridge, served the purpose of preparing for the Roman invasion of Dacia, which ended with Roman victory in 106 AD; the effect of defeating the Dacians and acquiring their ore-rich land was so great that Roman theatrical shows celebrating the conquest lasted for 123 days, with 10,000 gladiators engaging in fights and 11,000 wild animals being killed during that period.
A Roman memorial plaque, 4 metres wide and 1.75 metres high, commemorating the completion of Trajan's military road is located on the Serbian side facing Romania near Ogradina. In 1972, when the Iron Gate I Hydroelectric Power Station was built, the plaque was moved from its original location, lifted to the present place, it reads: IMP. CAESAR. DIVI. NERVAE. FNERVA TRAIAN
The Getae, or Gets were several Thracian tribes that once inhabited the regions to either side of the Lower Danube, in what is today northern Bulgaria and southern Romania. Both the singular form Get and plural Getae may be derived from a Greek exonym: the area was the hinterland of Greek colonies on the Black Sea coast, bringing the Getae into contact with the ancient Greeks from an early date. Several scholars in the Romanian historiography, posit the identity between the Getae and their westward neighbours, the Dacians; the ethnonym Getae was first used by Herodotus. The root was used for the Tyragetae, Thyssagetae and others. Strabo, one of the first ancient sources to mention Getae and Dacians, stated in his Geographica that the Dacians lived in the western parts of Dacia, "towards Germania and the sources of the Danube", while the Getae lived in the eastern parts, towards the Black Sea, both south and north of the Danube; the ancient geographer wrote that the Dacians and Getae spoke the same language, after stating the same about Getae and Thracians.
Pliny the Elder, in his Naturalis Historia, c. 77–79 AD, states something similar: "... though various races have occupied the adjacent shores. Appian, who began writing his Roman History under Antoninus Pius, Roman Emperor from 138 to 161, noted: "ut going beyond these rivers in places they rule some of the Celts over the Rhine and the Getae over the Danube, whom they call Dacians". Justin, the 3rd century AD Latin historian, wrote in his Epitome of Pompeius Trogus that Dacians are spoken of as descendants of the Getae: "Daci quoque suboles Getarum sunt". In his Roman History, Cassius Dio adds: "I call the people Dacians, the name used by the natives themselves as well as by the Romans, though I am not ignorant that some Greek writers refer to them as Getae, whether, the right term or not...". He shows the Dacians to live on both sides of the Lower Danube, he argues that the Dacians are "Getae or Thracians of Dacian race": In ancient times, it is true and Getae occupied all the land between Haemus and the Ister.
Two of the many tribes found among them are those called the Triballi, the Dardani, who still retain their old name. There is a dispute among scholars about the relations between the Getae and Dacians, this dispute covers the interpretation of ancient sources; some historians such as Ronald Arthur Crossland state that Ancient Greeks used the two designations "interchangeable or with some confusion". Thus, it is considered that the two groups were related to a certain degree, the exact relation is a matter of controversy. Strabo, as well as other ancient sources, led some modern historians to consider that, if the Thracian ethnic group should be divided, one of this divisions should be the "Daco-Getae"; the linguist Ivan Duridanov identified a "Dacian linguistic area" in Dacia, Scythia Minor, Lower Moesia, Upper Moesia. Romanian scholars went further with the identification, historian Constantin C. Giurescu claiming the two were identical; the archaeologist Mircea Babeș spoke of a "veritable ethno-cultural unity" between the Getae and the Dacians.
According to Glanville Price, the account of the Greek geographer Strabo shows that the Getae and the Dacians were one and the same people. Others who support the identity between Getae and Dacians with ancient sources include freelance writer James Minahan and Catherine B Avery, who claim the people whom the Greek called Getae were called Daci by the Romans; this same belief is stated by some British historians such as David Sandler Berkowitz and Philip Matyszak. The Bulgarian historian and thracologist Alexander Fol considers that the Getae became known as "Dacians" in Greek and Latin in the writings of Caesar and Pliny the Elder, as Roman observers adopted the name of the Dacian tribe to refer to all the unconquered inhabitants north of the Danube. Edward Bunbury believed the name of Getae, by which they were known to the Greeks on the Euxine, was always retained by the latter in common usage: while that of Dacians, whatever be its origin, was that by which the more western tribes, adjoining the Pannonians, first became known to the Romans.
Some scholars consider the Getae and Dacians to be the same people at different stages of their history and discuss their culture as Geto-Dacian. Historian and archaeologist Alexandru Vulpe found a remarkable uniformity of the Geto-Dacian culture, however he is one of the few Romanian archaeologists to make a clear distinction between the Getae and Dacians, arguing against the traditional position of the Romanian historiography that considered the two people the same, he chose to use the term "Geto-Dacians" as a conventional concept for the Thracian tribes inhabiting the future territory of Romania, not meaning an "absolute ethnic, linguistic or historical unity". Ronald Arthur Crossland suggested the two designations may refer to two groups of a "linguistically homogeneous people" that had come to historical prominence at two distinct periods of time, he compared the probable linguistic situation with the relation between modern Norwegian and Danish languages. Paul Lachlan MacKendrick considered the t
First Dacian War
The First Roman–Dacian War took place from 101 to 102 AD. The Kingdom of Dacia, under King Decebalus, had become a threat to the Roman Empire, defeated several of Rome's armies during Domitian's reign; the Emperor Trajan was set on ridding this threat to Rome's power and in 101 set out determined to defeat Dacia. After a year of heavy fighting, King Decebalus accepted an unfavorable peace; when he broke these terms in 105, the Second Dacian War began. After gaining support from the Roman Senate, by 101, Trajan was ready to advance on Dacia; the Roman offensive was spearheaded by two legionary columns, marching right to the heart of Dacia, burning towns and villages in the process. In 101, the Dacians led massive assaults on the Roman legions. In 102 Trajan moved his army down the Danube to Oescus. There the Roman armies converged for a final assault and defeated the Dacian army at the Battle of Tapae. After the battle, plus some additional conflicts, worried by the upcoming cold winter, decided to make peace.
The war, spanning months, had concluded with a peace treaty with harsh terms for Decebalus. Once Dacia was secured, Decebalus received technical and military reinforcement from Trajan in order to create a powerful allied zone against the dangerous possible expeditions from the northern and eastern territories by the moving migrator people; the resources were instead used to make the Dacian Kingdom a great independent power that would rebel against Roman rule. Trajan's Dacian Wars Second Dacian War Trajan Decebalus Second Battle of Tapae Trajan's Bridge Scarre, The Penguin Historical Atlas of Ancient Rome
The Carpi or Carpiani were an ancient people that resided in the eastern parts of modern Romania in the historical region of Moldavia from no than c. AD 140 and until at least AD 318; the ethnic affiliation of the Carpi remains disputed, as there is no direct evidence in the surviving ancient literary sources. A strong body of modern scholarly opinion considers that the Carpi were a tribe of the Dacian nation. Other scholars have linked the Carpi to a variety of ethnic groups, including Sarmatians, Slavs and Celts. About a century after their earliest mention by Ptolemy, during which time their relations with Rome appear to have been peaceful, the Carpi emerged in c. 238 as among Rome's most persistent enemies. In the period AD 250-270, the Carpi were an important component of a loose coalition of transdanubian barbarian tribes that included Germanic and Sarmatian elements; these were responsible for a series of large and devastating invasions of the Balkan regions of the empire which nearly caused its disintegration in the "Crisis of the Third Century".
In the period 270-318, the Roman "military emperors" acted to remove the Carpi threat to the empire's borders. Multiple crushing defeats were inflicted on the Carpi in 273, 297, 298-308 and in 317. After each, massive numbers of Carpi were forcibly transferred by the Roman military to the Roman province of Pannonia as part of the emperors' policy of repopulating the devastated Danubian provinces with surrendered barbarian tribes. Since the Carpi are no longer mentioned in known documents after 318, it is possible that the Carpi were removed from the Carpathian region by c. 318 or, if any remained, it is possible that they mingled with other peoples resident or immigrating into Moldavia, such as the Sarmatians or Goths. The Greco-Romans called this people the Carpiani; the earliest mention of them, under the name Καρπιανοί is in the Geographia of the 2nd-century Greek geographer Ptolemy, composed c. AD 140; the name Carpi or Carpiani may derive from the same root as the name of the Carpathian mountain range that they occupied first mentioned by Ptolemy under the name Καρπάτης - Karpátes.
The root may be the putative Proto-Indo-European word *ker/sker, meaning "peak" or "cliff". Scholars who support this derivation are divided between those who believe the Carpi gave their name to the mountain range and those who claim the reverse. In the latter case, Carpiani could mean "people of the Carpathians", but the similarity between the two names may be coincidence, they may derive from different roots. For example, it has been suggested that the name may derive from the Slavic root-word krepu meaning "strong" or "brave", it had been suggested that Carpathian Mountains may derive from the Sanskrit root "kar"'cut' that would give the meaning of'rugged mountains'. Some scholars consider that the following peoples recorded in ancient sources correspond to Ptolemy's Karpiani: the Kallipidai mentioned in the Histories of Herodotus as residing in the region of the river Borysthenes the Karpídai around the mouth of the river Tyras recorded in a fragment of Pseudo-Scymnus the Harpii, located near the Danube delta, mentioned by Ptolemy himself.
If so, their locations could imply that the Carpi had gradually migrated westwards in the period 400 BC - AD 140, a view championed by Kahrstedt. These names' common element carp- appears in Dacian and Thracian placenames and personal names, but there is no consensus. Bichir suggests. According to Ptolemy's Geographia, the Carpi occupied a region between the river Hierasus and the river Porata; this was as defined by Ptolemy, whose eastern border was the Hierasus. East of this river lay what Ptolemy termed Sarmatia Europaea, a vast region stretching as far as the Crimea, but by no means populated by Sarmatian tribes. According to Ptolemy, the Carpi's neighbours were: to the North, the Costoboci to the South, in the Wallachian plain, the Roxolani Sarmatians to the East of the Prut, the Bastarnae which had migrated into the region between the rivers Prut and Dniester around 200 BC)To the West, the Eastern Carpathian mountains between the Siret and the border of the Roman province were populated by the "Free Dacians" i.e. ethnic Dacians residing outside Roman Dacia.
However, it is not possible to reliably define the territories of these groups due to the imprecision of the ancient geographical sources. It is that in many areas, ethnic groups overlapped and the ethnic map was a patchwork of dispersed sub-groups; the Sarmatians and Bastarnae are attested, in both literature and archaeology, all over Wallachia and Bessarabia. It is that, when Greco-Roman sources refer to conflicts with the Costoboci, Carpi or Goths, they are referring to coalitions of different groups under the hegemonic tribe. Given the Carpi's repeated raids South of the Danube and clashes with the Romans during the 3rd century, it is by ca. 230, the Carpi had extended their hegemony over eastern Wallachia dominated by the Roxolani. There is no dispute among scholars that some Decebalic-era Dacian settlements in Moldavia (mostly west of the Siret, with a few on the east bank, were abandoned b
Trajan was Roman emperor from 98 to 117. Declared by the Senate optimus princeps, Trajan is remembered as a successful soldier-emperor who presided over the greatest military expansion in Roman history, leading the empire to attain its maximum territorial extent by the time of his death, he is known for his philanthropic rule, overseeing extensive public building programs and implementing social welfare policies, which earned him his enduring reputation as the second of the Five Good Emperors who presided over an era of peace and prosperity in the Mediterranean world. Trajan was born in the city of an Italic settlement in the province of Hispania Baetica. Although misleadingly designated by some writers as a provincial, his family came from Umbria and he was born a Roman citizen. Trajan rose to prominence during the reign of emperor Domitian. Serving as a legatus legionis in Hispania Tarraconensis, in 89 Trajan supported Domitian against a revolt on the Rhine led by Antonius Saturninus. In September 96, Domitian was succeeded by Marcus Cocceius Nerva, an old and childless senator who proved to be unpopular with the army.
After a brief and tumultuous year in power, culminating in a revolt by members of the Praetorian Guard, Nerva was compelled to adopt the more popular Trajan as his heir and successor. He was succeeded by his adopted son without incident; as a civilian administrator, Trajan is best known for his extensive public building program, which reshaped the city of Rome and left numerous enduring landmarks such as Trajan's Forum, Trajan's Market and Trajan's Column. Early in his reign, he annexed the Nabataean Kingdom, his conquest of Dacia enriched the empire as the new province possessed many valuable gold mines. Trajan's war against the Parthian Empire ended with the sack of the capital Ctesiphon and the annexation of Armenia and Mesopotamia, his campaigns expanded the Roman Empire to its greatest territorial extent. In late 117, while sailing back to Rome, Trajan fell ill and died of a stroke in the city of Selinus, he was deified by the Senate and his ashes were laid to rest under Trajan's Column. He was succeeded by his adopted son Hadrian.
As an emperor, Trajan's reputation has endured – he is one of the few rulers whose reputation has survived nineteen centuries. Every new emperor after him was honoured by the Senate with the wish felicior Augusto, melior Traiano. Among medieval Christian theologians, Trajan was considered a virtuous pagan. In the Renaissance, speaking on the advantages of adoptive succession over heredity, mentioned the five successive good emperors "from Nerva to Marcus" – a trope out of which the 18th-century historian Edward Gibbon popularized the notion of the Five Good Emperors, of whom Trajan was the second; as far as ancient literary sources are concerned, an extant continuous account of Trajan's reign does not exist. An account of the Dacian Wars, the Commentarii de bellis Dacicis, written by Trajan himself or a ghostwriter and modelled after Caesar's Commentarii de Bello Gallico, is lost with the exception of one sentence. Only fragments remain of a book by Trajan's personal physician Titos Statilios Kriton.
The Parthiká, a 17-volume account of the Parthian Wars written by Arrian, has met a similar fate. Book 68 in Cassius Dio's Roman History, which survives as Byzantine abridgments and epitomes, is the main source for the political history of Trajan's rule. Besides this, Pliny the Younger's Panegyricus and Dio of Prusa's orations are the best surviving contemporary sources. Both are adulatory perorations, typical of the late Roman era, that describe an idealized monarch and an idealized view of Trajan's rule, concern themselves more with ideology than with actual fact; the tenth volume of Pliny's letters contains his correspondence with Trajan, which deals with various aspects of imperial Roman government, but this correspondence is neither intimate nor candid: it is an exchange of official mail, in which Pliny's stance borders on the servile. It is certain that much of the text of the letters that appear in this collection over Trajan's signature was written and/or edited by Trajan's Imperial secretary, his ab epistulis.
Therefore, discussion of Trajan and his rule in modern historiography cannot avoid speculation, as well as recourse to non-literary sources such as archaeology and epigraphy. Marcus Ulpius Traianus was born on 18 September 53 AD in the Roman province of Hispania Baetica, in the city of Italica. Although designated the first provincial emperor, dismissed by writers such as Cassius Dio as "an Iberian, neither an Italian nor an Italiot", Trajan appears to have hailed on his father's side from the area of Tuder in Umbria, at the border with Etruria, on his mother's side from the Gens Marcia, of an Italic family of Sabine origin. Trajan's birthplace of Italica was founded as a Roman military colony of Italian settlers in 206 BC, though it is unknown when the Ulpii arrived there, it is possible, but cannot be substantiated, that Trajan's ancestors married local women and lost their citizenship at some point, but they recovered their status when the city became a municipium with Latin citizenship in the mid-1st century BC.
Trajan was the son of Marcia, a Roman noblewoman and sister-in-law of the second Flavian Emperor Titus, Marcus Ulpius Traianus, a prominent senator and general f
Legio IV Flavia Felix
Legio quarta Flavia Felix, was a legion of the Imperial Roman army founded in AD 70 by the emperor Vespasian from the cadre of the disbanded Legio IV Macedonica. The legion was active in Moesia Superior in the first half of the 5th century; the legion symbol was a lion. During the Batavian rebellion, the IV Macedonica fought for Vespasian, but the emperor distrusted his men because they had supported Vitellius two years before; therefore IV Macedonica was disbanded, a new Fourth legion, called Flavian Felix was levied by the emperor, who gave the legio his nomen, Flavia. Since the symbol of the legion is a lion, it was levied in July/August 70. IV Flavia Felix was camped in Burnum, where it replaced XI Claudia. After the Dacian invasion of 86, Domitian moved the legion to Moesia Superior, in Singidunum, although there is some evidence of the presence of this legion, of one of its vexillationes in Viminacium, base of VII Claudia. In 88 the Fourth participated to the retaliation invasion of Dacia.
It participated in the Dacian Wars of Trajan, being victorious at the Second Battle of Tapae. The legion participated at the final and decisive battle against the Dacians, conquering their capital, Sarmisegetusa. Monuments of IV Flavia Felix have been found at Aquincum; this suggests that a subunit replaced II Adiutrix during its absence during the wars of Lucius Verus against the Parthian empire. In the Marcomannic Wars, the fourth fought on the Danube against the Germanic tribes. After the death of Pertinax, the IV Flavia Felix supported Septimius Severus against usurpers Pescennius Niger and Clodius Albinus; the legion may have fought in one of the several wars against the Sassanids, but stayed in Moesia Superior until the first half of the 5th century. This Roman Legion was featured in the beginning of the movie Gladiator where Maximus Decimus Meridius was the Legion general, leading the campaign in Germania against the Marcomanni. List of Roman legions Roman legion Legio IIII Macedonica livius.org account of Legio IIII Flavia Felix Reenactment Legion based in Southern Ontario, Canada portraying IIII Flavia Felix