Gothic Revival architecture
Gothic Revival is an architectural movement popular in the Western world that began in the late 1740s in England. Its popularity grew in the early 19th century, when serious and learned admirers of neo-Gothic styles sought to revive medieval Gothic architecture, in contrast to the neoclassical styles prevalent at the time. Gothic Revival draws features from the original Gothic style, including decorative patterns, lancet windows, hood moulds and label stops; the Gothic Revival movement emerged in 18th-century England. Its roots were intertwined with philosophical movements associated with Catholicism and a re-awakening of High Church or Anglo-Catholic belief concerned by the growth of religious nonconformism; the "Anglo-Catholicism" tradition of religious belief and style became widespread for its intrinsic appeal in the third quarter of the 19th century. Gothic Revival architecture varied in its faithfulness to both the ornamental style and principles of construction of its medieval original, sometimes amounting to little more than pointed window frames and a few touches of Gothic decoration on a building otherwise on a wholly 19th-century plan and using contemporary materials and construction methods.
In parallel to the ascendancy of neo-Gothic styles in 19th-century England, interest spread to the continent of Europe, in Australia, Sierra Leone, South Africa and to the Americas. The influence of the Revival had peaked by the 1870s. New architectural movements, sometimes related as in the Arts and Crafts movement, sometimes in outright opposition, such as Modernism, gained ground, by the 1930s the architecture of the Victorian era was condemned or ignored; the 20th century saw a revival of interest, manifested in the United Kingdom by the establishment of the Victorian Society in 1958. The rise of Evangelicalism in the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries saw in England a reaction in the High church movement which sought to emphasise the continuity between the established church and the pre-Reformation Catholic church. Architecture, in the form of the Gothic Revival, became one of the main weapons in the High church's armoury; the Gothic Revival was paralleled and supported by "medievalism", which had its roots in antiquarian concerns with survivals and curiosities.
As "industrialisation" progressed, a reaction against machine production and the appearance of factories grew. Proponents of the picturesque such as Thomas Carlyle and Augustus Pugin took a critical view of industrial society and portrayed pre-industrial medieval society as a golden age. To Pugin, Gothic architecture was infused with the Christian values, supplanted by classicism and were being destroyed by industrialisation. Gothic Revival took on political connotations. In English literature, the architectural Gothic Revival and classical Romanticism gave rise to the Gothic novel genre, beginning with The Castle of Otranto by Horace Walpole, 4th Earl of Orford, inspired a 19th-century genre of medieval poetry that stems from the pseudo-bardic poetry of "Ossian". Poems such as "Idylls of the King" by Alfred Tennyson, 1st Baron Tennyson recast modern themes in medieval settings of Arthurian romance. In German literature, the Gothic Revival had a grounding in literary fashions. Gothic architecture began at the Basilica of Saint Denis near Paris, the Cathedral of Sens in 1140 and ended with a last flourish in the early 16th century with buildings like Henry VII's Chapel at Westminster.
However, Gothic architecture did not die out in the 16th century but instead lingered in on-going cathedral-building projects. In Bologna, in 1646, the Baroque architect Carlo Rainaldi constructed Gothic vaults for the Basilica of San Petronio in Bologna, under construction since 1390. Guarino Guarini, a 17th-century Theatine monk active in Turin, recognized the "Gothic order" as one of the primary systems of architecture and made use of it in his practice. Gothic architecture survived in an urban setting during the 17th century, as shown in Oxford and Cambridge, where some additions and repairs to Gothic buildings were considered to be more in keeping with the style of the original structures than contemporary Baroque. Sir Christopher Wren's Tom Tower for Christ Church, University of Oxford, Nicholas Hawksmoor's west towers of Westminster Abbey, blur the boundaries between what is called "Gothic survival" and the Gothic Revival. Throughout France in the 16th and 17th centuries, churches such as St-Eustache continued to be built following gothic forms cloaked in classical details, until the arrival of Baroque architecture.
In the mid-18th century, with the rise of Romanticism, an increased in
Art Deco, sometimes referred to as Deco, is a style of visual arts and design that first appeared in France just before World War I. Art Deco influenced the design of buildings, jewelry, cars, movie theatres, ocean liners, everyday objects such as radios and vacuum cleaners, it took its name, short for Arts Décoratifs, from the Exposition internationale des arts décoratifs et industriels modernes held in Paris in 1925. It combined modern styles with rich materials. During its heyday, Art Deco represented luxury, glamour and faith in social and technological progress. Art Deco was a pastiche of many different styles, sometimes contradictory, united by a desire to be modern. From its outset, Art Deco was influenced by the bold geometric forms of Cubism, it featured rare and expensive materials, such as ebony and ivory, exquisite craftsmanship. The Chrysler Building and other skyscrapers of New York built during the 1920s and 1930s are monuments of the Art Deco style. In the 1930s, during the Great Depression, the Art Deco style became more subdued.
New materials arrived, including chrome plating, stainless steel, plastic. A sleeker form of the style, called Streamline Moderne, appeared in the 1930s. Art Deco is one of the first international styles, but its dominance ended with the beginning of World War II and the rise of the functional and unadorned styles of modern architecture and the International Style of architecture that followed. Art Deco took its name, short for Arts Décoratifs, from the Exposition Internationale des Arts Décoratifs et Industriels Modernes held in Paris in 1925, though the diverse styles that characterize Art Deco had appeared in Paris and Brussels before World War I; the term arts décoratifs was first used in France in 1858. In 1868, Le Figaro newspaper used the term objets d'art décoratifs with respect to objects for stage scenery created for the Théâtre de l'Opéra. In 1875, furniture designers, textile and glass designers, other craftsmen were given the status of artists by the French government. In response to this, the École royale gratuite de dessin founded in 1766 under King Louis XVI to train artists and artisans in crafts relating to the fine arts, was renamed the National School of Decorative Arts.
It took its present name of ENSAD in 1927. During the 1925 Exposition the architect Le Corbusier wrote a series of articles about the exhibition for his magazine L'Esprit Nouveau under the title, "1925 EXPO. ARTS. DÉCO." which were combined into a book, "L'art décoratif d'aujourd'hui". The book was a spirited attack on the excesses of the lavish objects at the Exposition; the actual phrase "Art déco" did not appear in print until 1966, when it featured in the title of the first modern exhibit on the subject, called Les Années 25: Art déco, Stijl, Esprit nouveau, which covered the variety of major styles in the 1920s and 1930s. The term Art déco was used in a 1966 newspaper article by Hillary Gelson in the Times, describing the different styles at the exhibit. Art Deco gained currency as a broadly applied stylistic label in 1968 when historian Bevis Hillier published the first major academic book on the style: Art Deco of the 20s and 30s. Hillier noted that the term was being used by art dealers and cites The Times and an essay named "Les Arts Déco" in Elle magazine as examples of prior usage.
In 1971, Hillier organized an exhibition at the Minneapolis Institute of Arts, which he details in his book about it, The World of Art Deco. The emergence of Art Deco was connected with the rise in status of decorative artists, who until late in the 19th century had been considered as artisans; the term "arts décoratifs" had been invented in 1875, giving the designers of furniture and other decoration official status. The Société des artistes décorateurs, or SAD, was founded in 1901, decorative artists were given the same rights of authorship as painters and sculptors. A similar movement developed in Italy; the first international exhibition devoted to the decorative arts, the Esposizione international d'Arte decorative moderna, was held in Turin in 1902. Several new magazines devoted to decorative arts were founded in Paris, including Arts et décoration and L'Art décoratif moderne. Decorative arts sections were introduced into the annual salons of the Sociéte des artistes français, in the Salon d'automne.
French nationalism played a part in the resurgence of decorative arts. In 1911, the SAD proposed the holding of a major new international exposition of decorative arts in 1912. No copies of old styles were to be permitted; the exhibit was postponed until 1914 because of the war, postponed until 1925, when it gave its name to the whole family of styles known as Déco. Parisian department stores and fashion designers played an important
Carpenter Gothic sometimes called Carpenter's Gothic or Rural Gothic, is a North American architectural style-designation for an application of Gothic Revival architectural detailing and picturesque massing applied to wooden structures built by house-carpenters. The abundance of North American timber and the carpenter-built vernacular architectures based upon it made a picturesque improvisation upon Gothic a natural evolution. Carpenter Gothic improvises upon features that were carved in stone in authentic Gothic architecture, whether original or in more scholarly revival styles; the genre received its impetus from the publication by Alexander Jackson Davis of Rural Residences and from detailed plans and elevations in publications by Andrew Jackson Downing. Carpenter Gothic houses and small churches became common in North America in the late nineteenth century; these structures adapted Gothic elements such as pointed arches, steep gables, towers to traditional American light-frame construction.
The invention of the scroll saw and mass-produced wood moldings allowed a few of these structures to mimic the florid fenestration of the High Gothic. But in most cases, Carpenter Gothic buildings were unadorned, retaining only the basic elements of pointed-arch windows and steep gables; the best known example of Carpenter Gothic is the house in Eldon, that Grant Wood used for the background of his famous painting American Gothic. Carpenter Gothic is confined to small domestic buildings and outbuildings and small churches, it is characterized by its profusion of jig-sawn details, whose craftsmen-designers were freed to experiment with elaborate forms by the invention of the steam-powered scroll saw. A common but not necessary feature is batten siding. A less common feature is buttressing on churches and larger houses. Carpenter Gothic ornamentation is not limited to use on wooden structures but has been used on other structures Gothic Revival brick houses such as the Warren House in a historic district in Newburgh, New York, said to epitomize the work of Andrew Jackson Downing, but was done by his one-time partner, Calvert Vaux.
Carpenter Gothic structures are found in most states of the United States, except Arizona and New Mexico. There is one Carpenter Gothic in the Huning Highlands Historical District in downtown Albuquerque circa 1882 built by the Seth family who lived there until 2002. Many Carpenter Gothic houses still exist. In Canada, carpenter Gothic places of worship are found in all provinces and the Northwest Territories, while Carpenter Gothic houses seem to be limited to Ontario and the Maritime Provinces. Many American Carpenter Gothic structures are listed on the National Register of Historic Places, which may help to ensure their preservation. Many, are not listed and those in urban areas are endangered by the increased value of the land they occupy. A current example of this is St. Saviour's Episcopal Church, New York, built in 1847 by Richard Upjohn, it was sold to a developer in 2006. Its rectory had been demolished and a deal with the City of New York to preserve the church in exchange for higher density on the remaining vacant land fell through and the parcel went on the market for $10 million.
After a number of postponements, in March 2008, just hours before the final deadline to demolish the church, a deal was struck with a local community group, whereby they were allowed time to raise money to move the structure. At a cost of some $2 million, the building was reduced to its original appearance and dismantled into pieces, so it could be transported through the narrow, winding streets of the neighborhood, it was reconstructed on the grounds of a cemetery in the nearby neighborhood of Middle Village, where it is now used for community activities. Some Carpenter Gothic buildings have been relocated for reasons ranging from historic preservation to aesthetics. Some, such as All Saints, Jensen Beach, have been moved only a few hundred feet on the same property in order to get a better view and to allow for expansion, while others such as Holy Apostles, Satellite Beach, have been barged many miles in order to be preserved. Others such as All Saints, DeQuicy, have been dismantled, transported long distances and reassembled in order to be preserved and reused.
Some structures have been moved many times. St. Luke's, Alabama, has had an interesting history of moves. In 1876, due to the danger of flooding in Cahaba, it was dismantled and moved from its original location 25 miles or so to Browns where it was reassembled. In 2006–2007, it was dismantled by students from Auburn University and moved back to Cahaba, where it is now being reassembled by the students on the Cahaba State Historic Site not too far from its original location; some Carpenter Gothic structures such as St. Stephen's in Ridgeway, South Carolina, have had their exteriors altered by stuccoing, brick veneering, etc. so that their original style is no longer apparent. "American Gothic" is a painting by Grant Wood from 1930. Wood's inspiration came from a cottage designed in the Carpenter Gothic style with a distinctive upper window and a decision by the artist to paint the house along with "the kind of people I fancied should live in that house." Steamboat Gothic architecture, a term popularized by Frances Parkinson Keyes's novel of that name, is sometimes confused with Carpenter Gothic architecture, but Steamboat Goth
Mayan Revival architecture
The Mayan Revival is a modern architectural style of the 1920s and 1930s in the Americas, that drew inspiration from the architecture and iconography of pre-Columbian Mesoamerican cultures. Though the term refers to the Maya civilization of southern Mexico and Central America, in practice this revivalist style blends Maya architectural and artistic motifs, a "playful pilferings of the architectural and decorative elements" with those of other Mesoamerican cultures the Central Mexican Aztec architecture styling from the pre-contact period as exhibited by the Mexica and other Nahua groups. Although there were mutual influences between these original and otherwise distinct and richly varied pre-Columbian artistic traditions, the syncretism of these modern reproductions is an ahistorical one. Historian Marjorie Ingle traces the history of this style to the Pan American Union Building by Paul Philippe Cret, which incorporates numerous motifs drawn from the indigenous traditions of the Americas.
Maya and Mexica elements in the Pan American Union Building include the floor mosaics surrounding a central fountain and figures on lights flanking the entrance to the building. In the Pan American Union Building's Art Museum of the Americas there are numerous stoneware architectural details that are copied from Maya and Mexica art. Several prominent architects worked including Frank Lloyd Wright. Wright's Hollyhock House on Olive Hill in Los Angeles copied the shape of temples from Palenque and the Imperial Hotel in Tokyo was in the shape of a Mesoamerican pyramid, his Ennis House, Millard House, Storer House, Freeman House in Los Angeles are built in his concrete textile block system, with bas reliefs and modular unit construction evoking the geometric patterning on the façades of Uxmal buildings. Wright's son, landscape architect and architect Lloyd Wright, served as construction manager for three of his father's four textile block houses, he independently designed the iconic Mayan-modernist John Sowden House in 1926 in the Los Feliz District of Hollywood.
Wright's disciple Arata Endo constructed the Kōshien Hotel in the 1930s influenced by the architecture of the Imperial Hotel in Tokyo. Commissioned much in 1953, the massive pyramid of Beth Sholom Synagogue with its geometric roof detailing is the most direct Wright evocation of Maya form; the most publicized example of Mayan revival was Robert Stacy-Judd's Aztec Hotel of 1924-1925. Its façade and furniture incorporated abstract patterns inspired by the Maya script with Art Deco influences, it was built on the original U. S. Route 66 in Monrovia, California. Stacy-Judd was directly influenced by John Lloyd Stephens writings, even more so by the illustrations by Frederick Catherwood as presented in their book Incidents of Travel in Central America and Yucatan, a work that introduced many to the wondrous ruins of Central America. In it Stacy-Judd explains the choice of the name of the hotel: "When the hotel project was first announced, the word Maya was unknown to the layman; the subject of Maya culture was only of archaeological importance, a, at that, concerned but a few exponents.
As a word Aztec was well known, I baptized the hotel with that name, although all the decorative motifs are Maya." Although the buildings use of reinforced concrete to create the intricate designs on the exterior one opinionated observer wrote: "The bizarre Aztec forms may create the atmosphere desired, will serve the legitimate publicity interests of the establishment, but it would be deplorable if an'Aztec Movement' set in and the style copyists were diverted from noble examples to the forms of a semi-barbaric people."Other prominent buildings in this style include: the Aurora Elks Lodge in Aurora, Illinois, 1926 the Mayan Theater in Los Angeles by Stiles O. Clements, 1927 the Petroleum Building, Houston, by the Anglo-American architect Alfred Bossom, a notable proponent of Mayan Revival, 1927 and the Fisher Theater by Albert Kahn in Detroit, where the great scholar of the Maya, Sylvanus G. Morley was involved in the design, 1928 the Guardian Building by Wirt C. Rowland of Smith Hinchman & Grylls, 1928–1929 450 Sutter Street in San Francisco by Timothy L. Pflueger, 1929 United Office Building in Niagara Falls, New York by James A. Johnson of Esenwein & Johnson, 1929 the Mayan Theater in Denver by Montana Fallis, 1929–1930 The Lincoln Theater in Marion, Virginia.
1929 The Berkeley Public Library, 1934 The Paradise Village in Puerto Vallarta, Mexico. Architecturally designed upon the old and rich Mayan culture. 1984 Art and History Museums—Maitland, Maitland, FL, 1938. Winter artist colony designed by J. Andre Smith. National Historic Landmark Art Deco of the 20s and 30s Art Deco Architecture: Design and Detail from the Twenties and Thirties Cultural appropriation Mesoamerican architecture Maya art México City México Temple Barrett, John. "The Pan American Union: Peace, Commerce." Washington, D. C.: Pan American Union. 1911 Braun, Barbara. Pre-Columbian Art and the Post-Columbian World: Ancient American Sources of Modern Art. New York. Harry N. Abrams. 1993. Gebhard and Peres, Anthony. Robert Stacy-Judd: Maya Architecture and the Creation of a New Style. Capra Press. 1993. Ingle, Marjorie I; the Mayan Revival Style: Art Deco Mayan Fantasy. University of New Mexico Press. 1989. ---. Atlantis: Mother of Empires. Los Angeles. De Vorse & Co. 1939 ---. The Ancient Mayas. Los Angeles.
Haskell-Travers, Inc. 1934 ---. A Maya Manusc
Palazzo style architecture
Palazzo style refers to an architectural style of the 19th and 20th centuries based upon the palazzi built by wealthy families of the Italian Renaissance. The term refers to the general shape, proportion and a cluster of characteristics, rather than a specific design. "Palazzo style" buildings of the 19th century are sometimes referred to as being of Italianate architecture but this term is applied to a much more ornate style of residences and public buildings. While early Palazzo style buildings followed the forms and scale of the Italian originals by the late 19th century, the style was more loosely adapted and applied to commercial buildings many times larger than the originals; the architects of these buildings sometimes drew their details from sources other than the Italian Renaissance, such as Romanesque and Gothic architecture. In the 20th century, the style was superficially applied, like the Gothic revival style, to multi-storey buildings. In the late 20th and 21st century some Postmodern architects have again drawn on the palazzo style for city buildings.
The Palazzo style began in the early 19th century as a revival style which drew, like Classical revival and Gothic revival, upon archaeological styles of architecture, in this case the palaces of the Italian Renaissance. Italian palazzi, as against villas which were set in the countryside, were part of the architecture of cities, being built as town houses, the ground floor serving as commercial premises. Early palazzi exist from the Romanesque and Gothic periods, but the definitive style dates from a period beginning in the 15th century, when many noble families had become rich on trade. Famous examples include the Palazzo Medici-Riccardi built by Michelozzo in Florence, the Palazzo Farnese built by Antonio da Sangallo the Younger and completed by Michelangelo in Rome, the Ca' Vendramin Calergi by Mauro Codussi and Ca'Grande by Jacopo Sansovino on the Grand Canal in Venice; the earliest true Renaissance Revival "Palazzo style" buildings in Europe were built by the German architect Leo von Klenze who worked in the Greek Neo-Classical style.
The Palais Leuchtenberg, is the first of several such buildings on the new Ludwigstrasse and has a rusticated half-basement and quoins, three storeys of windows with those of the second floor being pedimented, a large cornice and a shallow columned portico around the main door. The walls are painted like the Palazzo Farnese. In England, the earliest 19th-century application of the Palazzo style was to a number of London gentlemen's clubs, it was applied to residences, both as town and, less country houses and to banks and commercial premises. In the late 19th century, the Palazzo style was adapted and expanded to serve as a major architectural form for department stores and warehouses. In England, the Palazzo style was at its purest in the second quarter of the 19th century, it was in competition with the Classical Revival style, which incorporated large pediments and giant orders, lending a grandeur to public buildings as seen at the British Museum, the more romantic Italianate and French Empire styles in which much domestic architecture was built.
Early examples are the London clubs, The Athenaeum Club by Decimus Burton and The United Service Club by John Nash and Decimus Burton on Waterloo Place and Pall Mall. In 1829 Barry initiated Renaissance Revival architecture in England with his Palazzo style design for The Travellers' Club, Pall Mall. While Burton and Nash's designs draw on English Renaissance models such as Inigo Jones' Banqueting House and the Queen's House, Barry's designs are conscientiously archaeological in reproducing the proportions and forms of their Italian Renaissance models, they are Florentine in style, rather than Palladian. Barry built a second palazzo on The Reform Club, as well as The Athenaeum, Manchester. Barry's other major essays in this style are the townhouse Bridgewater House and the countryhouse Cliveden in Buckinghamshire. After Charles Barry, the Palazzo style was adopted for different purposes banking; the Belfast Bank had its premises remodelled by Sir Charles Lanyon in 1845. No. 15 Kensington Palace Gardens by James Thomas Knowles adapts features of the palazzo.
A major 19th-century architect to work extensively in the "Palazzo style" was Edmund Blacket. Blacket arrived in Sydney, just a few years before the discovery of gold in NSW and Victoria in 1851. Within the next decade he built the head premises of six different banking companies in Sydney, as well as branches in country towns. In Sydney, these rare examples of Blacket's early Palazzo style architecture, all constructed from the local yellow Sydney sandstone were all demolished in the period from 1965–80, to make way for taller buildings. From the 1850s, a number of buildings were designed that expand the palazzo style with its rustications, rows of windows, large cornice, over long buildings such as Grosvenor Terrace in Glasgow by J. T. Rochead and Watts Warehouse, Manchester, by Travis and Magnall, a "virtuoso performance" in palazzo design. From the 1870s, many city buildings were designed to resemble Venetian rather than Florentine palazzi, were more ornately decorated having arcaded loggia at street level, like James Barnet's General Post Office Building in Sydney.
The Palazzo style was popular in Manchester in the United Kingdom the work of
Arts and Crafts movement
The Arts and Crafts movement was an international trend in the decorative and fine arts that began in Britain and flourished in Europe and America between about 1880 and 1920, emerging in Japan in the 1920s as the Mingei movement. It stood for traditional craftsmanship using simple forms, used medieval, romantic, or folk styles of decoration, it advocated economic and social reform and was anti-industrial. It had a strong influence on the arts in Europe until it was displaced by Modernism in the 1930s, its influence continued among craft makers and town planners long afterwards; the term was first used by T. J. Cobden-Sanderson at a meeting of the Arts and Crafts Exhibition Society in 1887, although the principles and style on which it was based had been developing in England for at least 20 years, it was inspired by the ideas of architect Augustus Pugin, writer John Ruskin, designer William Morris. The movement developed earliest and most in the British Isles and spread across the British Empire and to the rest of Europe and America.
It was a reaction against the perceived impoverishment of the decorative arts at the time and the conditions in which they were produced. The Arts and Crafts movement emerged from the attempt to reform design and decoration in mid-19th century Britain, it was a reaction against a perceived decline in standards that the reformers associated with machinery and factory production. Their critique was sharpened by the items that they saw in the Great Exhibition of 1851 which they considered to be excessively ornate and ignorant of the qualities of the materials used. Art historian Nikolaus Pevsner writes that the exhibits showed "ignorance of that basic need in creating patterns, the integrity of the surface", as well as displaying "vulgarity in detail". Design reform began with Exhibition organizers Henry Cole, Owen Jones, Matthew Digby Wyatt, Richard Redgrave, all of whom deprecated excessive ornament and impractical or badly made things; the organizers were "unanimous in their condemnation of the exhibits."
Owen Jones, for example, complained that "the architect, the upholsterer, the paper-stainer, the weaver, the calico-printer, the potter" produced "novelty without beauty, or beauty without intelligence." From these criticisms of manufactured goods emerged several publications which set out what the writers considered to be the correct principles of design. Richard Redgrave's Supplementary Report on Design analyzed the principles of design and ornament and pleaded for "more logic in the application of decoration." Other works followed in a similar vein, such as Wyatt's Industrial Arts of the Nineteenth Century, Gottfried Semper's Wissenschaft, Industrie und Kunst, Ralph Wornum's Analysis of Ornament, Redgrave's Manual of Design, Jones's Grammar of Ornament. The Grammar of Ornament was influential, liberally distributed as a student prize and running into nine reprints by 1910. Jones declared that ornament "must be secondary to the thing decorated", that there must be "fitness in the ornament to the thing ornamented", that wallpapers and carpets must not have any patterns "suggestive of anything but a level or plain".
A fabric or wallpaper in the Great Exhibition might be decorated with a natural motif made to look as real as possible, whereas these writers advocated flat and simplified natural motifs. Redgrave insisted that "style" demanded sound construction before ornamentation, a proper awareness of the quality of materials used. "Utility must have precedence over ornamentation." However, the design reformers of the mid 19th century did not go as far as the designers of the Arts and Crafts Movement. They were more concerned with ornamentation than construction, they had an incomplete understanding of methods of manufacture, they did not criticize industrial methods as such. By contrast, the Arts and Crafts movement was as much a movement of social reform as design reform, its leading practitioners did not separate the two; some of the ideas of the movement were anticipated by A. W. N. Pugin, a leader in the Gothic revival in architecture. For example, he advocated truth to material and function, as did the Arts and Crafts artists.
Pugin articulated the tendency of social critics to compare the faults of modern society with the Middle Ages, such as the sprawling growth of cities and the treatment of the poor—a tendency that became routine with Ruskin and the Arts and Crafts movement. His book Contrasts drew examples of bad modern buildings and town planning in contrast with good medieval examples, his biographer Rosemary Hill notes that he "reached conclusions in passing, about the importance of craftsmanship and tradition in architecture that it would take the rest of the century and the combined efforts of Ruskin and Morris to work out in detail." She describes the spare furnishings which he specified for a building in 1841, "rush chairs, oak tables", as "the Arts and Crafts interior in embryo." The Arts and Crafts philosophy was derived in large measure from John Ruskin's social criticism, which related the moral and social health of a nation to the qualities of its architecture and to the nature of work. Ruskin considered the sort of mechanized production and division of labour, created in the industrial revolution to be "servile labour", he thought that a healthy and moral society required independent workers who designed the things that they made.
He believed factory-made works to be "dishonest," and that handwork and craftsmanship merged dignity with labor. His followers favoured craft production over industrial manufacture and were concerned about the loss
Renaissance Revival architecture
Renaissance Revival architecture is a group of 19th century architectural revival styles which were neither Greek Revival nor Gothic Revival but which instead drew inspiration from a wide range of classicizing Italian modes. Under the broad designation "Renaissance architecture" nineteenth-century architects and critics went beyond the architectural style which began in Florence and central Italy in the early 15th century as an expression of Humanism. Self-applied style designations were rife in the mid- and nineteenth century: "Neo-Renaissance" might be applied by contemporaries to structures that others called "Italianate", or when many French Baroque features are present; the divergent forms of Renaissance architecture in different parts of Europe in France and Italy, has added to the difficulty of defining and recognizing Neo-Renaissance architecture. A comparison between the breadth of its source material, such as the English Wollaton Hall, Italian Palazzo Pitti, the French Château de Chambord, the Russian Palace of Facets—all deemed "Renaissance"—illustrates the variety of appearances the same architectural label can take.
The origin of Renaissance architecture is accredited to Filippo Brunelleschi Brunelleschi and his contemporaries wished to bring greater "order" to architecture, resulting in strong symmetry and careful proportion. The movement grew in particular human anatomy. Neo-Renaissance architecture is formed by not only the original Italian architecture but by the form in which Renaissance architecture developed in France during the 16th century. During the early years of the 16th century the French were involved in wars in northern Italy, bringing back to France not just the Renaissance art treasures as their war booty, but stylistic ideas. In the Loire valley a wave of chateau building was carried out using traditional French Gothic styles but with ornament in the forms of pediments, shallow pilasters and entablatures from the Italian Renaissance. In England the Renaissance tended to manifest itself in large square tall houses such as Longleat House; these buildings had symmetrical towers which hint at the evolution from medieval fortified architecture.
This is evident at Hatfield House built between 1607 and 1611, where medieval towers jostle with a large Italian cupola. This is why so many buildings of the early English Neo-Renaissance style have more of a "castle air" than their European contemporaries, which can add again to the confusion with the Gothic revival style; when in the 19th century Renaissance style architecture came into vogue, it materialized not just in its original form according to geography, but as a hybrid of all its earlier forms according to the whims of architects and patrons rather than geography and culture. If this were not confusing enough, the new Neo-Renaissance frequently borrowed architectural elements from the succeeding Mannerist period, in many cases the later Baroque period. Mannerism and Baroque being two opposing styles of architecture. Mannerism was exemplified by Baroque by the Wurzburg Residenz, thus Italian and Flemish Renaissance coupled with the amount of borrowing from these periods can cause great difficulty and argument in identifying various forms of 19th-century architecture.
Differentiating some forms of French Neo-Renaissance buildings from those of the Gothic revival can at times be tricky, as both styles were popular during the 19th century. John Ruskin's panegyrics to architectural wonders of Venice and Florence contributed to shifting "the attention of scholars and designers, with their awareness heightened by debate and restoration work" from Late Neoclassicism and Gothic Revival to the Italian Renaissance; as a consequence, a self-consciously "Neo-Renaissance" manner first began to appear circa 1840. By 1890 this movement was in decline; the Hague's Peace Palace completed in 1913, in a heavy French Neo-Renaissance manner was one of the last notable buildings in this style. Charles Barry introduced the Neo-Renaissance to England with his design of the Travellers Club, Pall Mall. Other early but typical, domestic examples of the Neo-Renaissance include Mentmore Towers and the Château de Ferrières, both designed in the 1850s by Joseph Paxton for members of the Rothschild banking family.
The style is characterized by original Renaissance motifs, taken from such Quattrocento architects as Alberti. These motifs included rusticated masonry and quoins, windows framed by architraves and doors crowned by pediments and entablatures. If a building were of several floors, the uppermost floor had small square windows representing the minor mezzanine floor of the original Renaissance designs. However, the Neo-renaissance style came to incorporate Romanesque and Baroque features not found in the original Renaissance architecture, more severe in its design. Like all architectural styles, the Neo-Renaissance did not appear overnight formed but evolved slowly. One of the first signs of its emergence was the Würzburg Women's Prison, erected in 1809 designed by Peter Speeth, it included a rusticated ground floor, alleviated by one semicircular arch, with a curious Egyptian style miniature portico above, high above this were a sequence of six tall arched windows and above these just beneath the projecting roof were the small windows of the upper floor.
This building foreshadows similar effects in the work of the American architect Henry Hobson Richardson whose work in the Neo-Renaissance style was popu