1804 Haiti massacre
The 1804 Haiti massacre was carried out against the remaining white population of native French people and French Creoles in Haiti by Haitian soldiers under orders from Jean-Jacques Dessalines. He had decreed that all suspected of conspiring in the acts of the expelled army should be put to death; the massacre, which took place throughout Haiti, occurred from early January 1804 until 22 April 1804, resulted in the death of 3,000 to 5,000 men and children. Squads of soldiers moved from house to house and killing entire families. Whites, friendly and sympathetic to the black population were imprisoned and killed. A second wave of massacres targeted white children. Throughout the early-to-mid nineteenth century, these events were well known in the United States, where they were called "the horrors of Santo Domingo". In addition, many refugees had come to the U. S. from Saint-Domingue, settling in New Orleans, New York and other coastal cities. These events polarized Southern U. S. public opinion on the question of the abolition of slavery.
Henri Christophe's personal secretary, a slave for much of his life, said about the treatment of slaves in Saint-Domingue: Have they not hung up men with heads downward, drowned them in sacks, crucified them on planks, buried them alive, crushed them in mortars? Have they not forced them to consume faeces? And, having flayed them with the lash, have they not cast them alive to be devoured by worms, or onto anthills, or lashed them to stakes in the swamp to be devoured by mosquitoes? Have they not thrown them into boiling cauldrons of cane syrup? Have they not put men and women inside barrels studded with spikes and rolled them down mountainsides into the abyss? Have they not consigned these miserable blacks to man eating-dogs until the latter, sated by human flesh, left the mangled victims to be finished off with bayonet and poniard? These stories most arose from terror visited on the Haitian rebels by Charles Leclerc in the 1801–1803 war. In 1791, a man of Jamaican origin named Boukman became the leader of the enslaved Africans held on a large plantation in Cap-Français.
In the wake of the revolution in France, he planned to massacre all the whites living in Cap-Français. On 22 August 1791, the blacks descended to Le Cap, where they destroyed the plantations and executed all the whites who lived in the region. King Louis XVI was accused of indifference to the massacre, while the slaves seemed to think the king was on their side. In July 1793, the whites in Les Cayes were massacred. Despite the French proclamation of emancipation, the blacks sided with the Spanish who came to occupy the region. In July 1794, Spanish forces stood by while the black troops of Jean-François massacred the French whites in Fort-Dauphin. Philippe Girard, author of Caribbean genocide: racial war in Haiti, 1802–4, wrote that the population of Haiti was more interested in committing massacres as they had experienced war for a period of time. In addition, the French white population of Haiti had killed many blacks in the course of the war, but they could not remove the blacks since the French soldiers left.
After the defeat of France and the evacuation of the French army from the former French colony of Saint-Domingue, Dessalines came to power. In November 1803, three days after the French forces under Rochambeau surrendered, he caused the execution by drowning of 800 French soldiers, left behind due to illness when the French army evacuated the island, he did guarantee the safety of the remaining white civilian population. However, his statements, such as: "There are still French on the island, still you considered yourselves free," spoke of a hostile attitude toward the remaining white minority. Rumors about the white population suggested that they would try to leave the country to convince foreign powers to invade and reintroduce slavery. Discussions between Dessalines and his advisers suggested that the white population should be put to death for the sake of national security. Whites trying to leave Haiti were prevented from doing so. On 1 January 1804, Dessalines proclaimed Haiti an independent nation.
Dessalines gave the order to all cities on Haiti that all white men should be put to death. The weapons used should be silent weapons such as knives and bayonets rather than gunfire, so that the killing could be done more and avoid warning intended victims by the sound of gunfire and thereby giving them the opportunity to escape. Girard wrote that since black generals took the property belonging to the white ex-slaveholders, "economic interest" prompted the massacres. During February and March, Dessalines traveled among the cities of Haiti to assure himself that his orders were carried out. Despite his orders, the massacres were not carried out until he visited the cities in person; the course of the massacre showed an identical pattern in every city he visited. Before his arrival, there were only a few killings, despite his orders; when Dessalines arrived, he first spoke about the atrocities committed by former white authorities, such as Rochambeau and Leclerc, after which he demanded that his orders about mass killings of the area's white population should be put into effect.
He ordered the unwilling to take part in the killings men of mixed race, so that the blame should not be placed on the black population. Mass killings took place on places outside the cities. In parallel to the killings and rape occurred. Women and children were killed last. White women were "often raped or pushed into forced marriages under threat of death."Dessalines did not mention that the white women should be killed, the soldiers were reported
Unification of Hispaniola
The Unification of Hispaniola was the annexation and merger of then-independent Republic of Spanish Haiti into the Republic of Haiti, that lasted twenty-two years, from 9 February 1822 to 27 February 1844. The territory functioned as a self-governing entity with Dominican soldiers as overseers. Dominican citizens had more rights than the Haitians who were under Jean-Pierre Boyer's code rural. Black Haitian slaves expelled by force the French from French Saint Domingue. For more information see: Haitian Revolution Self-declared Emperor Jean-Jacques Dessalines decrees that all Haitian whites should be eliminated without exceptions; this was a separate action from French military whites and was aimed at the remaining local white civilian population. The act was carried out between February and April 1804. Fears of a genocide similar to the Haitian Massacre of 1804 were explicitly referred in the Confederate discourse during the American Civil War. For further reading see: 1804 Haiti massacre In February 1805, Haitian forces, under Jean-Jacques Dessalines, invaded from the southern route in opposition of French-led approved slave raiding.
Unable to overpower the Spanish-French defense, intimidated by the arrival of a French fleet in support of Borgella in Santo Domingo, the army of Dessalines along with Henri Christophe raided through the interior Dominican towns Santiago and Moca, while Alexandre Pétion invaded Azua. On his retreat from Santo Domingo, Dessalines arrived in Santiago on 12 April 1805. While in Santiago, Haitian forces set fire including churches and convents; the army killed 400 inhabitants including some priests and took prisoners to Haiti. More people were killed on Dessalines's orders in the French-held portions of the island, including the towns of Monte Plata, Cotuí and La Vega and 500 people of the northern town of Moca; the barrister Gaspar de Arredondo y Pichardo wrote, "40 children had their throats cut at the Moca's church, the bodies found at the presbytery, the space that encircles the church's altar..." Survivors from the raids fled to western locations including Higüey through Cotuí as well as to other territories of the Spanish Antilles.
Dessalines was assassinated, an act, instigated by his own generals Henri Christophe and Alexandre Pétion. Afterward, both Christophe and Pétion failed to agree to on, going to be the next leader-for-life, so they went separate ways: Christophe took the North of Haiti, while Pétion got for himself the South part of Haiti; the internal military conflicts lasted until 1820 when Haitian president Jean-Pierre Boyer unified both the South and North of Haiti. After this, Boyer aimed his sights on the struggling Spanish-side of the island. For further reading see: The struggle for unity Upon unification of both French-side and Spanish-side nations under the Haitian flag, Boyer divided the island into six departments, that were subdivided into arrondissements and communes; the departments established in the west were, Ouest and Artibonite, while the east was divided into Ozama and Cibao. This period led to large-scale land expropriations and failed efforts to force production of export crops, impose military services, restrict the use of the Spanish language, suppress traditional customs.
There was a resurgence of the decades-old rivalries between the governing Haitian elite and the masses of the black population, most notably throughout the western end. By the late 18th century, the island of Hispaniola had been divided into two European colonies: Saint-Domingue, in the west, governed by France. During the second half of the eighteenth century the French side of the island developed into the most prosperous plantation colony of the New World. French Saint-Domingue was dubbed the Pearl of the Antilles, as a result of the sugar plantations worked by African slaves. By the Peace of Basel of 22 July 1795, Spain ceded its two-third of the island to France in exchange for the return of the province of Guipuzcoa occupied by the French since 1793. Although Hispaniola was now unified under a single administration, it proved difficult for the French to consolidate their rule since their part of the island had been experiencing uprisings by elite mulattos and black freedman since 1791, in 1804 the leader of the Haitian revolution, Jean-Jacques Dessalines, declared Haiti's independence.
Independence did not come given the fact that Haiti had been France's most profitable colony. By 1795, the eastern side, what was once the headquarters of Spanish colonial power in the New World had long fallen into decline; the economy was stalled, the land unexploited and used for sustenance farming and cattle ranching, the population was much lower than in Haiti. The accounts by the Dominican essayist and politician José Núñez de Cáceres cite the Spanish colony's population at around 80,000 composed of European descendants, freedmen, a few black slaves. Haiti, on the other hand, was nearing a million former slaves. While the French had lost their former colony of Saint-Domingue by 1804, the French commander of the former Spanish side had been able to repulse the attacks of Jean-Jacques Dessalines, but in 1808 the people revolted
The Haitian Revolution was a successful anti-slavery and anti-colonial insurrection by self-liberated slaves against French colonial rule in Saint-Domingue, now the sovereign nation of Haiti. It began on 22 August 1791, ended in 1804 with the former colony's independence, it involved blacks, French and British participants—with the ex-slave Toussaint L'Ouverture emerging as Haiti's most charismatic hero. It was the only slave uprising that led to the founding of a state, both free from slavery, ruled by non-whites and former captives, it is now seen as a defining moment in the history of racism in the Atlantic World. Its effects on the institution of slavery were felt throughout the Americas; the end of French rule and the abolition of slavery in the former colony was followed by a successful defense of the freedoms they won, with the collaboration of free persons of color, their independence from white Europeans. It represents the largest slave uprising since Spartacus's unsuccessful revolt against the Roman Republic nearly 1,900 years earlier.
It challenged long-held European beliefs about alleged black inferiority and about enslaved persons' capacity to achieve and maintain their own freedom. The rebels' organizational capacity and tenacity under pressure inspired stories that shocked and frightened slave owners in the hemisphere. While acknowledging the cross-influences, most contemporary historians distinguish the Haitian Revolution from the French Revolution; some separate it from the earlier armed conflicts by free men of color who were seeking expansion of political rights for themselves, but not the abolition of slavery. These scholars show that if the agency of the enslaved blacks becomes the focus of studies, the Revolution's opening and closing dates are certain. From this premise, the narrative began with the enslaved blacks' bid for freedom through armed struggle and concluded with their victory over slavery powers and the creation of an independent state. In April 1791, a massive black insurgency in the north of the island rose violently against the plantation system, setting a precedent of resistance to racial slavery.
In cooperation with their former mulatto rivals, blacks ended the Revolution in November 1803 when they decidedly defeated the French army at the Battle of Vertières. The French had lost a high proportion of their troops to yellow fever and other diseases. After acknowledging defeat in Saint-Domingue, Napoleon withdrew from North America, agreeing to the Louisiana Purchase by the United States. Although the series of events during these years is known under the name of "Haitian Revolution", alternative views suggest that the entire affair was an assorted number of coincidental conflicts that ended with a fragile truce between free men of color and blacks. Historians debate whether the victorious Haitians were "intrinsically revolutionary force". One thing is certain: Haiti became an independent country on January 1, 1804, when the council of generals chose Jean-Jacques Dessalines to assume the office of governor-general. One of the state's first significant documents was Dessaliness' "Liberty or Death" speech, which circulated broadly in the foreign press.
In it, the new head of state made the case for the new nation's objective: the permanent abolition of slavery in Haiti. An independent government was created in Haiti, but the country's society remained affected by patterns established under French colonial rule; as in other French colonial societies, a class of free people of color had developed after centuries of French rule here. Many planters or young unmarried men had relations with African or Afro-Caribbean women, sometimes providing for their freedom and that of their children, as well as providing for education of the mixed-race children the boys; some were sent to France for education and training, which sometimes provided entree into the French military. The mulattoes who returned to Saint-Domingue became the elite of the people of color; as an educated class used to the French political system, they became the elite of Haitian society after the war's end. Many of them had used their social capital to acquire wealth, some owned land.
Some had identified more with the French colonists than the slaves. Many of the free people of color, by contrast, were raised in French culture, had certain rights within colonial society, spoke French and practiced Catholicism Mulatto domination of politics and economics, urban life after the revolution, created a different kind of two-caste society, as most Haitians were rural subsistence farmers; the nascent state's future was hobbled in 1825 when France forced it to pay 150 million gold francs in reparations to French ex-slaveholders—as a condition of French political recognition and to end the nation's political and economic isolation. Though the amount of the reparations was reduced in 1838, Haiti was unable to finish paying off its debt until 1947; the payments left the country's government impoverished, causing long-term instability. Much of Caribbean economic development was contingent on Europeans' demand for sugar. Plantation owners produced sugar as a commodity crop from cultivation of sugar cane, which required extensive labor.
Saint Domingue had extensive coffee and indigo plantations, but these were smaller and less profitable than the sugar plantations. The commodity crops were traded for European goods. Starting in the 1730s, French engineers constructed complex irrigation systems to increase sugarcane production. By the 1740s Saint-Domingue, together with the British colony of Jamaica, had become the main supplier of the world's sugar. Sugar production depended o
Captaincy General of Santo Domingo
Santo Domingo Captaincy General of Santo Domingo or alternatively Kingdom of Santo Domingo was the first colony established in the New World under Spain. The island was named "La Española" by Christopher Columbus. In 1511, the courts of the colony were placed under the jurisdiction of the Real Audiencia of Santo Domingo. French buccaneers took over part of the west coast in 1625 and French settlers arrived soon thereafter. After decades of conflicts Spain ceded the western third of Hispaniola to France in the Treaty of Ryswick in 1697, thus establishing the basis for the national divisions between the Dominican Republic and Haiti; the Captaincy General of Santo Domingo had an important role in the establishment of Spanish colonies in the New World. It was the headquarters for Spanish conquistadors on their way to the conquest of the Americas. Prior to the arrival of Christopher Columbus in 1492, the native Taíno people populated the island which they called Quisqueya and Ayiti, which Columbus named Hispaniola.
At the time, the island's territory consisted of five chiefdoms: Marién, Maguá, Maguana and Higüey. These were ruled by caciques Guacanagarix, Caonabo, Bohechío, Cayacoa. In 1493, Columbus came back to the island on his second voyage and founded the first Spanish colony in the New World, the city of Isabella. In 1496, his brother Bartholomew Columbus established the settlement of Santo Domingo de Guzmán on the southern coast, which became the new capital. An estimated 400,000 Tainos living on the island were soon enslaved to work in gold mines. By 1508, their numbers had decreased to around 60,000 because of forced labor, hunger and mass killings. By 1535, only a few dozen were still alive. Dating from 1496, when the Spanish settled on the island, from 5 August 1498, Santo Domingo became the first European city in the Americas. Bartholomew Columbus founded the settlement and named it La Nueva Isabela, after an earlier settlement in the north named after the Queen of Spain Isabella I. In 1495 it was renamed "Santo Domingo", in honor of Saint Dominic.
Santo Domingo came to be known as the "Gateway to the Caribbean" and the chief town in Hispaniola from on. Expeditions which led to Ponce de León's colonization of Puerto Rico, Diego Velázquez de Cuéllar's colonization of Cuba, Hernando Cortes' conquest of Mexico, Vasco Núñez de Balboa's sighting of the Pacific Ocean were all launched from Santo Domingo. In June 1502, Santo Domingo was destroyed by a major hurricane, the new Governor Nicolás de Ovando had it rebuilt on a different site on the other side of the Ozama River; the original layout of the city and a large portion of its defensive wall can still be appreciated today throughout the Colonial Zone, declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO. Diego Colon arrived in 1509, assuming the powers of admiral. In 1512, Ferdinand established a Real Audiencia with Juan Ortiz de Matienzo, Marcelo de Villalobos, Lucas Vazquez de Ayllon appointed as judges of appeal. In 1514, Pedro Ibanez de Ibarra arrived with the Laws of Burgos. Rodrigo de Alburquerque was named repartidor de indios and soon named visitadores to enforce the laws.
In 1586, Francis Drake held it for ransom. Drake's invasion signaled the decline of Spanish dominion over Hispaniola, accentuated in the early 17th century by policies that resulted in the depopulation of most of the island outside of the capital. An expedition sent by Oliver Cromwell in 1655 was defeated; the English troops took the less guarded colony of Jamaica, instead. In 1697, the Treaty of Ryswick included the acknowledgement by Spain of France's dominion over the Western third of the island, now Haiti. During this period, the colony's Spanish leadership changed several times; when Columbus departed on another exploration, Francisco de Bobadilla became governor. Settlers' allegations of mismanagement by Columbus helped create a tumultuous political situation. In 1502, Nicolás de Ovando replaced de Bobadilla as governor, with an ambitious plan to expand Spanish influence in the region, it was he. One rebel, however fought back. Enriquillo led a group who fled to the mountains and attacked the Spanish for fourteen years.
The Spanish offered him a peace treaty and gave Enriquillo and his followers their own city in 1534. The city lasted only a few years. Rebellious slaves killed all who stayed behind. In 1501, the Spanish monarchs, Ferdinand I and Isabella, first granted permission to the colonists of the Caribbean to import African slaves, which began arriving to the island in 1503. In 1510, the first sizable shipment, consisting of 250 Black Ladinos, arrived in Hispaniola from Spain. Eight years African-born slaves arrived in the West Indies. Sugar cane was introduced to Hispaniola from the Canary Islands, the first sugar mill in the New World was established in 1516; the need for a labor force to meet the growing demands of sugar cane cultivation led to an exponential increase in the importation of slaves over the following two decades. The sugar mill owners soon formed a new colonial elite, convinced the Spanish king to allow them to elect the members of the Real Audiencia from their ranks. Poorer colonists subsisted by hunting the herds of wild cattle that roamed throughout the island and selling their hides.
The enslaved population numbered between 20,000 and 30,000 in the mid-sixteenth century and included mine, cat
Politics of Haiti
The Politics of Haiti take place in the framework of a unitary semi-presidential republic, where the president is the head of state and the prime minister is the head of government. The politics of the country are considered unstable due to various coup d'états, regime changes, military juntas and internal conflicts. After the deposition of Jean-Bertrand Aristide, Haitian politics entered a period of relative democratic stability; the Economist Intelligence Unit has rated Haiti as "hybrid regime" in 2016. On February 29, 2004, a coup d'état led by the Group of 184 ousted the popularly elected president, Jean-Bertrand Aristide with the assistance of the French and United States governments. S. and French soldiers were on the ground in Haiti at the time arrived. The first elections since the overthrow were held on February 2006 to elect a new President. René Préval was declared to have won with over 50 percent of the vote. In 2008, Parliament voted to dismiss President Preval's Prime Minister following severe rioting over food prices.
His selected replacement for the post was rejected by Parliament, throwing the country into a prolonged period without a government. Yvon Neptune was appointed Prime Minister on March 4, 2002, but following the overthrow of the government in February 2004, he was replaced by an interim Prime Minister, Gérard Latortue; the constitutional Prime Minister, Yvon Neptune languished in jail for over a year, accused of complicity in an alleged massacre in Saint-Marc. United Nations officials, expressing skepticism towards the evidence, called for either due process or his release. Having entered custody in June 2004, Neptune was formally charged on September 20, 2005, but was never sent to trial, he was released on 28 July 2006. The last Prime Minister, Jacques-Édouard Alexis, entered office in 2006 and was removed in April 2008. Michèle Pierre-Louis received approval to become the next Prime Minister from both houses in July. In 2011, singer Michel Martelly was elected the president of Haiti and sworn into office after René Préval completed his term.
His regime is rated by some as authoritarian. He is expected to complete his term in 2016. In 2013, Haiti ranked; the election was censured by the Haitian public and Medias as "not-free" and "controlled". According to an exit poll conducted by Haitian Sentinel, only 6% of the voters voted for Jovenel Moïse; the other presidential runoff candidate, Jude Célestin, expressed his disapproval towards the lack of transparency of the CEP, Conseil Electoral Provisoire, Provisional Electoral Council. 30 other candidates commented the election as controlled disregarding public trust. The lack of voter turnout has been a major issue for Haitian elections, as only 15% of eligible voters will vote in an election. CEP does not release data about turnout in elections, according to unofficial population clocks, official census data and electoral data, only 15.94% of all Haitians voted in this election. Proper rejection of votes had been a problem as 7.71% of all votes are rejected according to CEP. Political corruption is a common problem in Haiti.
The country has ranked as one of the most corrupt nations according to the Corruption Perceptions Index, a measure of perceived political corruption. In 2006, Haiti was ranked as the most corrupt nation out of the 163 that were surveyed for the Index. In 2012, Haiti was #165 out of #176; the International Red Cross reported that Haiti was 155th out of 159 countries in a similar survey of corrupt countries. French has been the major language in Haitian politics since the colonial era. Scholars have since referred to Haitian Creole, the other language of Haiti as linguistically inferior. Creole grammar is said to be simplified and lacking sophistication compared to its European ancestors; this original demotion of the language created a subordinate sociopolitical and biological status for the country's majority, relocated by slavery. Today, Creole is spoken by 90-95% of the country; the remaining speak both French and Creole. Per the 1987 Constitution, both Creole and French are official languages of Haiti.
However, French is still the main language used in politics. With only 2-5% speaking the language of the politics, Creole speakers are politically disenfranchised. Haitian Creole and French are mutually unintelligible, so the vast majority of citizens cannot communicate with leaders in the language of their choice; this disenfranchisement is further aggravated by the lack of a systematic educational system. Literacy programs failed in the 1980s, French is still the language being used to instruct students. Haitian linguist, Yves Dejean, recalls warnings posted in the principal's office forbidding the use of Creole. In the 1970s, only one percent of the children who entered kindergarten stayed on track to obtain state certificate at the end of the sixth grade. After the literacy programs of the 1980s, 90% of the teachers ten years after the decree were still not able to integrate the Creole language into the education system; the language handicap makes education and furthermore, political enfranchisement impossible.
Government of Haiti
Guillaume Fabre Nicolas Geffrard was a mulatto general in the Haitian army and President of Haiti from 1859 until his deposition in 1867. After collaborating in a coup to remove Faustin Soulouque from power in order to return Haiti back to the social and political control of the colored elite, Geffrard was made president in 1859. To placate the peasants he renewed the practice of selling state-owned lands and ended a schism with the Roman Catholic Church which took on an important role in improving education. After surviving several rebellions, he was overthrown by Major Sylvain Salnave in 1867, his first act as president was to cut the army in half from 30,000 to 15,000. He formed his own presidential guards called Les Tirailleurs de la Garde, who were trained under him personally. In June 1859, Geffrard founded the National Law School and reinstituted the Medical School that Boyer began, his ministers of Education, Jean Simon Elie-Dubois and François Elie-Dubois and established many lycea in Jacmel, Jérémie, Saint-Marc, Gonaïves.
On October 10, 1863, he reintroduced the colonial law that required roads to be built and maintained. He revived the policy of former rulers Jean-Jacques Dessalines, Alexandre Pétion and Jean-Pierre Boyer of recruiting African Americans to settle in Haiti. In May 1861, a group of African Americans led by James Theodore Holly settled east of Croix-des-Bouquets. However, by 1862, Geffrard began to examine the constitution and eliminated the legislature to his own benefit, he first gave himself a raise, 2 plantations, paid for his personal luxuries with hospital funds and army funds. In 1863, he reformed the monetary system to that of the present day. Geffrard was a Catholic, he gave orders to demolish altars and any other instruments used in ceremonies. In 1863, a six-year-old girl was killed by Voodoo practitioners in a gruesome fashion. Geffrard ordered a public execution was held; this case became the famous Affaire de Bizoton, featured in a British minister's best-selling book. In 1859, Geffrard made the first attempt in negotiating with the Dominican Republic under the regime of Pedro Santana.
In March 1861, Pedro gave his country back to Queen Isabella II of Spain, thus making Haitian officials nervous about having a European power back on their borders. In May of that year, guerilla war broke out in Santo Domingo against Spain. Geffrard sent his personal guards and men to help out the rebels against Spanish troops, but in July 1861, Spain gave Haiti an ultimatum for participating and supporting the Dominican rebels. In the end, Geffrard agreed to surrender to Spanish demands and dropped all intervention within Spanish territory in the east; this episode left many Haitians humiliated and angry at Geffrard because he backed down to a European nation while Faustin Soulouque would have never accepted it. Geffrard, like many Haitians, supported the abolitionist movement in the United States and held a state funeral for the abolitionist John Brown, hanged for leading an armed insurrection against the United States government in 1859. With the secession of the slave-owning Southern states in the American Civil War, Haiti was granted diplomatic recognition by the United States.
During the war and British colonial officials in Cuba, the Bahamas and neighboring Santo Domingo sided with the Confederacy, harboring Confederate commerce-raiders and blockade-runners. By contrast, Haiti was the one part of the Caribbean where the United States Navy was welcome, Cap-Haïtien served as the headquarters of its West Indian Squadron, which helped maintain the Union blockade in the Florida Straits. Haiti took advantage of the war to become a major exporter of cotton to the United States, Geffrard imported gins and technicians to increase production. However, the crops failed in 1865 and 1866, by that point the United States was again exporting cotton. By the eighth month of Geffrard's presidency, Faustin Soulouque's minister of interior, Guerrier Prophète, began to lay out his plan to overthrow Geffrard. For Geffrard, his plan was picked up by Geffrard's guards and Prophète was exiled. In September 1859, Geffrard's daughter Madame Cora Manneville-Blanfort was assassinated by Timoleon Vanon.
In 1861, General Legros tried to take over the weaponry storage but was detained by government forces. In 1862, Etienne Salomon tried to rally the rural community to revolt against Geffrard, but was instead shot and killed. In 1863, Aimé Legros gathered troops to overthrow Geffrard, but his troops betrayed him, he was shot. In 1864, the elite community in Port-au-Prince tried to take over the weaponry storage, but the conspirators were prosecuted and sentenced to jail. In 1867, Geffrard's bodyguards, betrayed him and tried to assassinate him inside the national palace. In 1865, Major Sylvain Salnave began his takeover of the Artibonite part of Haiti. By May 15, both Geffrard and his government troops clashed with Salnave Northern troops. After using the Royal Navy for gunboat diplomacy with Salnave, the Geffrard regime was in ruins financially, he re-opened old wounds between North and South Haitians and brought foreigners into domestic affairs. In 1866, a huge fire engulfed hundreds of businesses.
In March 1867, Geffrard and his family disguised themselves and fled to Jamaica, where he died in Kingston in 1878
History of Haiti
The recorded written history of Haiti began on 5 December 1492 when the European navigator Christopher Columbus happened upon a large island in the region of the western Atlantic Ocean that came to be known as the Caribbean. It was inhabited by the Taíno, Arawakan people, who variously called their island Ayiti, Bohio, or Kiskeya. Columbus promptly claimed the island for the Spanish Crown, naming it La Isla Española Latinized to Hispaniola. French influence began in 1625, French control of what was called Saint-Domingue—modern-day Haiti—began in 1660. From 1697 on, the western part of the island was French and the eastern part was Spanish. Haiti became one of the wealthiest of France's colonies, producing vast quantities of sugar and coffee and depended on a brutal slave system for the necessary labor. Inspired by the message of the French Revolution, Haitian slaves rose up in revolt in 1791 and after decades of struggle the independent republic of Haiti was proclaimed in 1804. Successive waves of Arawak migrants, moving northward from the Orinoco delta in South America, settled the islands of the Caribbean.
Around A. D. 600, the Taíno, an Arawak culture, arrived on the island. They were organized into cacicazgos, each led by a cacique. Christopher Columbus established La Navidad, near the modern town of Cap-Haïtien, it was built from the timbers of his wrecked ship, Santa María, during his first voyage in December 1492. When he returned in 1493 on his second voyage he found the settlement had been destroyed and all 39 settlers killed. Columbus continued east and founded a new settlement at La Isabela on the territory of the present-day Dominican Republic in 1493; the capital of the colony was moved to Santo Domingo in 1496, on the south west coast of the island in the territory of the present-day Dominican Republic. The Spanish returned to western Hispaniola in 1502, establishing a settlement at Yaguana near modern-day Léogâne. A second settlement was established on the north coast in 1504 called Puerto Real near modern Fort-Liberté – which in 1578 was relocated to a nearby site and renamed Bayaja.
Following the arrival of Europeans, La Hispaniola's indigenous population suffered to near extinction, in the worst case of depopulation in the Americas. A accepted hypothesis attributes the high mortality of this colony in part to European diseases to which the natives had no immunity. A small number of Taínos were able to set up villages elsewhere. Spanish interest in Hispaniola began to wane in the 1520s, as more lucrative gold and silver deposits were found in Mexico and South America. Thereafter, the population of Spanish Hispaniola grew at a slow pace; the settlement of Yaguana was burnt to the ground three times in its just over a century long existence as a Spanish settlement, first by French pirates in 1543, again on May 27, 1592, by a 110-strong landing party from a four-ship English naval squadron led by Christopher Newport in his flagship Golden Dragon, who destroyed all 150 houses in the settlement, by the Spanish themselves in 1605, for reasons set out below. In 1595, the Spanish, frustrated by the twenty-year rebellion of their Dutch subjects, closed their home ports to rebel shipping from the Netherlands, cutting them off from the critical salt supplies necessary for their herring industry.
The Dutch responded by sourcing new salt supplies from Spanish America where colonists were more than happy to trade. So large numbers of Dutch traders/pirates joined their English and French brethren trading on the remote coasts of Hispaniola. In 1605, Spain was infuriated that Spanish settlements on the northern and western coasts of the island persisted in carrying out large scale and illegal trade with the Dutch, who were at that time fighting a war of independence against Spain in Europe and the English, a recent enemy state, so decided to forcibly resettle their inhabitants closer to the city of Santo Domingo; this action, known as the Devastaciones de Osorio, proved disastrous. Five of the existing thirteen settlements on the island were brutally razed by Spanish troops including the two settlements on the territory of present-day Haiti, La Yaguana, Bayaja. Many of the inhabitants escaped to the jungle, or fled to the safety of passing Dutch ships; this Spanish action was counterproductive as English and French pirates were now free to establish bases on the island's abandoned northern and western coasts, where wild cattle were now plentiful and free.
In 1697, after decades of fighting over the territory, the Spanish ceded the western part of the island to the French, who henceforth called it Saint-Domingue. Saint-Domingue developed into a lucrative colony for France, its economy was based on a labor-intensive sugar industry which rested on vast numbers of African slaves. Meanwhile, the situation on the Spanish part of the island deteriorated; the entire Spanish empire sank into a deep economic crisis, Santo Domingo was in addition struck by earthquakes, hurricanes and a shrinking population. In 1711, the city of Cap-Français was formally established by Louis XIV and took over as capital of the colony from Port-de-Paix. In 1726, the city of Les Cayes was founded on the Southern coast which became the biggest settlement in the south. In 1749, the city of Port-au-Prince was established on the West coast, which in 1770 took over as the capital of the colony from Cap-Français, however that same year the 1770 Port-au-Prince earthquake and tsunami destroyed the city killing 200 people and 30,000 from famine and di