Fall of Calicut (1526)
The fall of Calicut occurred in 1526, when the Zamorin, the local Indian ruler, captured the fort of Calicut from the Portuguese. The Portuguese had had plans for establishing a fort at Calicut since 1500, the fort was finally completed in 1513, on the spot of an earlier Serame, after a peace treaty was signed between the king of Portugal and the Zamorin. Hostilities were triggered when Duarte de Menezes attacked and destroyed a fleet of the Zamorin at Ponnani on 26 March 1525, in reprisal, the Zamorin attacked the fort of Calicut on 3 June 1526. There were 300 Portuguese defenders in the fort, under João de Lima, reinforcements came from Goa on 20 September, with the intent of embarking the defenders and attacking the troops of the Zamorin. Faced with the hostility of the Zamorin however, the Portuguese decided to abandon and partly destroy the fort
Battle of Diu (1509)
It marks the beginning of European colonialism in Asia. Since Vasco da Gama arrived in 1498, the Portuguese had been fighting Calicut while allying with its local rival Kingdom of Cochin, where they established their headquarters. In 1505, the King of Portugal, Manuel I, sent his first viceroy, Dom Francisco de Almeida with twenty one vessels to strengthen the fledgling Portuguese empire in East Africa, sultan Mahmud Begada of Gujarat allied with the Kozhikkodu Samutiri when Portugal threatened his field. He asked his partners, the Mamluks, for help. In 1507, Portuguese forces under command of Afonso de Albuquerque had conquered Socotra, at the mouth of the Red Sea and, for a short time, Ormuz in the Persian Gulf. The Mamluks and their European trade partners, the Venetians, had become wealthy from monopolising the flow of spices from India to Europe. Venice broke diplomatic relations with Portugal and started to look for ways to counter its intervention in the Indian Ocean, venice negotiated for Egyptian tariffs to be lowered to facilitate competition with the Portuguese, and suggested that rapid and secret remedies be taken against the Portuguese.
The sovereign of Calicut, the Zamorin, had sent an ambassador asking for help against the Portuguese. These vessels, which Venetian shipwrights helped disassemble in Alexandria and reassemble on the Red Sea coast, had to brave the Indian Ocean, the galley warriors could mount light guns fore and aft, but not along the gunwales because these cannon would interfere with the rowers. The native ships, with their sewn wood planks, could carry no heavy guns at all, most of the coalitions artillery was archers, whom the Portuguese could easily outshoot. The Mamluk-Ottoman fleet, called by the Portuguese by the generic term, joined by Gujarat admiral Malik Ayyaz, governor of Diu, they fought for over three days and won the Battle of Chaul. The Mamluk fleet isolated Lourenço de Almeidas ship, but let the others escape and they killed the Portuguese commander and took nine captives back to Diu. The Mirat Sikandari, a Persian account of the Kingdom of Gujarat, having taken the prisoners, they headed to Diu.
Enraged at the death of his son, the Portuguese viceroy Francisco de Almeida sought revenge, Diu was a critical outpost in the overall spice trade from India. The Portuguese attempt to trade with India would require the breaking of this strongly defended. In addition to enforcing Portuguese rule, the battle was undertaken as an issue by Portuguese viceroy Francisco de Almeida to avenge the death of his son Lourenço at the hands of the Mirocem. He was so enraged at his sons death that he is supposed to have said, He who ate the chick must eat the rooster, or pay for it. Francisco de Almeida had rushed to chase the Mamluks fleet because Afonso de Albuquerque arrived on 6 December 1508 with orders from the King of Portugal to replace him as the next viceroy
Siege of Diu
The Siege of Diu occurred when an army of the Sultanate of Gujarat, aided by forces of the Ottoman Empire attempted to capture the city of Diu in 1538, held by the Portuguese. The Portuguese successfully resisted the four month long siege, since 1517, the Ottomans had attempted to combine forces with Gujarat in order to fight the Portuguese away from the Red Sea and in the area of India. Pro-Ottoman forces under Captain Hoca Sefer had been installed by Selman Reis in Diu, Diu in Gujerat, was with Surat, one of the main points of supply of spices to Ottoman Egypt at that time. However, Portuguese intervention thwarted that trade by controlling the traffic in the Red Sea, in 1530, the Venetians could not obtain any supply of spices through Egypt. Under the command of governor Nuno da Cunha, the Portuguese had attempted to capture Diu by force in February 1531, the Portuguese waged war on Gujarat, devastating its shores and several cities like Surat. The Portuguese seized the stronghold of Gogala near the city, bahadur Shah had appealed to the Ottomans to expel the Portuguese, which led to the 1538 expedition.
Pasha Suleiman forbade any shipping out of the Red Sea to avoid leaking information to the Portuguese in India, there were delays however due to the Siege of Coron in the Mediterranean, and the Ottoman-Safavid war of 1533-1535. It carried over 400 artillery pieces in total, over 10,000 sailors and rowers and 6,000 soldiers, the Pasha employed a Venetian renegade, Francisco, as captain of 10 galleys, plus 800 Christian mercenaries. In July 20,1538, the armada set sail from Jeddah, at Aden, Pasha Suleiman captured the city after inviting the Sultan, Sheikh Amir bin Dawaud, favourable towards the Portuguese, aboard his ships, hanging him. Thus, Aden was occupied without a siege and it was the largest Ottoman fleet ever sent into the Indian Ocean. The captain of Diu at the time was the experienced António da Silveira, former captain of Bassein, the Portuguese fortress housed about 3,000 people, of which solely 600 were soldiers. For the following two months the Gujaratis were unable to threaten the besieged with more than a low-intensity bombardment, on September 4, the Ottoman fleet arrived in Diu, catching the Portuguese garrison by surprise and thus blockading the fortress by sea.
The janissaries attempted to scale the walls but are repelled with 50 dead. On September the 14th, four foists from Goa and Chaul arrived with reinforcements, in September 10 the army of Khadjar Safar bombarded the fortlet with Turkish artillery pieces before attempting to assault it with the aid of janissaries but are repelled. Khadjar Safar ordered a craft be filled with timber and tar, with which he hoped to place by the redoubt and smoke the Portuguese out. Realizing his intentions, António da Silveira sent Francisco de Gouveia with a crew on a craft to burn the device with fire bombs under cover from the night. Another assault on September 28 with 700 janissaries failed after a prolonged bombardment, the Portuguese garrison resisted until its captain Pacheco agreed to surrender to the Pasha on October 1, who had granted them safe passage to the fortress unarmed. When they surrendered however, Suleiman promptly had them imprisoned on his galleys, to which da Silveira dictated out-loud his reply to be sent to the Pasha, ahead of the whole fortress, Most honored captain Pasha
Capture of Ormuz (1507)
The Capture of Ormuz in 1507 occurred when the Portuguese Afonso de Albuquerque attacked Hormuz Island to establish the Castle of Ormuz. This conquest gave the Portuguese full control of the trade between India and Europe passing through the Persian Gulf, a fleet under Tristão da Cunha was sent to capture the Muslim fort on Socotra in order to control the entrance to the Red Sea, this was accomplished in 1507. The main part of the fleet left for India, with a few ships remaining under Albuquerque. Albuquerque disobeyed orders and left to capture the island of Ormuz and he obtained the submission of the local king to the king of Portugal, as well as the authorisation to build a fort using local labour. With the support of the sovereign of Ormuz, the rebellious captains fought the forces of Albuquerque in early January 1508, after a few days of battle, Albuquerque was forced to withdraw from the city, abandoning the fort under construction. He sailed away in April 1508 with the two remaining ships and he returned to Socotra where he found the Portuguese garrison starving.
He remained in the Gulf of Aden to raid Muslim ships and he again returned to Ormuz, and set sail to India on board a merchant ship he had captured. In March 1515, Albuquerque returned to Ormuz, leading a fleet of 27 vessels, with a strength of 1,500 soldiers and 700 malabaris, determined to regain it. He held the position of the ancient fortress on 1 April, referring to the building, now under a new name, Fort of Our Lady of the Conception. In 1622, an Anglo-Persian force combined to take over the Portuguese garrison at Hormuz Island in the Capture of Ormuz, the capture of Ormuz by an Anglo-Persian force in 1622 entirely changed the balance of power and trade. Kingdom of Ormus Portuguese Empire Sir Percy Molesworth Sykes, narrative of a Journey Into Khorasan, in the Years 1821 and 1822
Siege of Cannanore (1507)
It followed the Battle of Cannanore, in which the fleet of the Zamorin was defeated by the Portuguese. Treaties were signed and a factory, defended by a small palisade, was established in 1502. Francisco de Almeida, the first Portuguese vice-roy of the Indies, the fortress garrison of 150 men was placed under the command of D. Lourenço de Brito The old Kolathiri Raja who had energetically pursued the Portuguese alliance died sometime in 1506. As the succession was disputed, the Zamorin of Calicut, as suzerain of the Kerala coast. The new Kolathiri Raja of Cannanore was consequently indebted to the Zamorin, such passes had to be signed by either the commander of Cochin or Cannanore. The population of the state of Kōlattunād was greatly angered by this event, and asked their ruler. The siege started on 27 April 1507, and was to last for four months, the Kōlattiri had 40,000 Nāyars attack the position. The Zamorin supplied the ruler of Cannanore with 21 pieces of artillery and 20,000 auxiliaries, the firepower of the garrison under Lourenço de Brito allowed it to repulse massive attacks involving thousands of men.
The siege soon entered a stalemate, with the Malabari trenches being protected from Portuguese cannon fire by walls of cotton bales, and the Portuguese being slowly forced into starvation. Castanhedas detailed report of the states that they were surprised -. A major assault before the Onam festival nearly overcame the defenders, however, a large part of the garrison was wounded in the attempt. The Portuguese garrison was on the verge of being overwhelmed, when on 27 August a fleet of 11 ships under Tristão da Cunha, the fleet landed 300 Portuguese soldiers, forcing the lifting of the siege and relieving the fortress. Peace was negotiated between the Portuguese and the Kōlattiri Raja, confirming the presence of the Portuguese in Cannanore. These events would eventually be followed by the defeat of the Portuguese at the Battle of Chaul in 1508
The Gujarat Sultanate was a kingdom established in the early 15th century in Gujarat. Zafar Khans father Sadharan, was a Tanka Rajput convert to Islam, Zafar Khan defeated Farhat-ul-Mulk near Anhilwada Patan and made the city his capital. He declared himself independent in 1407, the next sultan, his grandson Ahmad Shah I founded the new capital Ahmedabad in 1411 on the banks of Sabarmati River, which he styled as Shahr-i-Muazzam. The prosperity of the sultanate reached its zenith during the rule of Mahmud Shah I Begada, in 1509, the Portuguese wrested Diu from Gujarat sultanate following the Battle of Diu. Mughal emperor Humayun attacked Gujarat in 1535, the end of the sultanate came in 1573, when Akbar annexed Gujarat in his empire. The last ruler Muzaffar Shah III was taken prisoner to Agra, in 1583, he escaped from the prison and with the help of the nobles succeeded to regain the throne for a short period before being defeated by Akbars general Abdul Rahim Khan-I-Khana. During the rule of Muhammad bin Tughluq, his cousin Firuz Shah Tughlaq was once on an expedition in area what is now Kheda district of Gujarat.
He lost his way and lost and he was welcome to partake in hospitality by village headmen, two brothers of Tanka Rajput family and Sadharan. After drinking, he revealed his identity as a cousin and successor of the king, the brothers offered his beautiful sister in marriage and he accepted. They accompanied Firuz Shah Tughluq to Delhi along with his sister, Sadhu assumed new name, Samsher Khan while Sadharan assumed Wajih-ul-Mulk. They were disciple of saint Hazrat-Makhdum-Sayyid-i-Jahaniyan-Jahangshi aka Saiyyd Jalaluddin Bukhari, Delhi Sultan Firuz Shah Tughluq appointed Malik Mufarrah, known as Farhat-ul-Mulk and Rasti Khan governor of Gujarat in 1377. In 1387, Sikandar Khan was sent to him. In 1391, Sultan Nasir-ud-Din Muhammad bin Tughluq appointed Zafar Khan, in 1392, he defeated Farhat-ul-Mulk in the battle of Kamboi, near Anhilwada Patan and occupied the city of Anhilwada Patan. In 1403, Zafar Khans son Tatar Khan urged his father to march on Delhi, as a result, in 1408, Tatar imprisoned him in Ashawal and declared himself sultan under the title of Muhammad Shah.
He marched towards Delhi, but on the way he was poisoned by his uncle, after the death of Muhammad Shah, Muzaffar was released from the prison and he took over the control over administration. In 1407, he declared himself as Sultan Muzaffar Shah, took the insignia of royalty, after his death in 1411, he was succeeded by his grandson, the son of Tatar Khan, Ahmad Shah. Soon after his accession, Ahmad Shah was faced with a rebellion of his uncles, the rebellion was led by his eldest uncle Firuz Khan, who declared himself king. Ultimately Firuz and his brothers surrendered to him, during this rebellion Sultan Hoshang Shah of Malwa invaded Gujarat
Battle of Cochin (1504)
The celebrated heroics of the tiny Portuguese garrison, led by Duarte Pacheco Pereira, fended off an invading army several hundred times bigger. It proved a humiliating defeat for the Zamorin of Calicut and he not only failed to conquer Cochin, but his inability to crush the tiny opposition undermined the faith of his vassals and allies. The Zamorin lost much of his authority over the Malabar states of India in the aftermath. The preservation of Cochin secured the presence of the Portuguese in India. Under the Zamorins rule, Calicut grew as a city, emerging as the major entrepot of the Kerala pepper trade. In the opening journey of the Portuguese to India in 1498, Vasco da Gama immediately made his way to Calicut, unimpressed by Gama, the elderly Zamorin allowed the Portuguese to buy spices on Calicuts markets, but refused to accord them any greater privileges. The follow-up expedition of Pedro Álvares Cabral arrived better prepared, the old Zamorin having died in the interim, Cabral negotiated a treaty with the new Zamorin, and a Portuguese factory was opened in Calicut.
But within a couple of months, quarrels erupted between Portuguese agents and established Arab traders in the city, in which the Zamorin refused to intervene, in December,1500, a riot was raised and the factory in Calicut was overrun and numerous Portuguese massacred. Blaming the Zamorin for the event, Cabral demanded that the Zamorin compensate them for their losses, when the Zamorin refused, Cabral bombarded the city of Calicut. Thus began the war between Portugal and Calicut, the Portuguese quickly found local allies among some of the city-states on the Malabar coast which had long grated under Calicuts dominance. Cochin and Quilon opened their ports and invited the Portuguese, the succeeding Portuguese armadas to India took to routinely bombarding Calicut, preying on her ships, and driving commercial traffic away from the city. The Portuguese presence in India consisted only of a handful of commercial agents, the Portuguese had come for spices. That meant trying to force his enemy kingdoms of Cochin, Cannanore, in principle, the Zamorins plan was sound.
The Portuguese had antagonised some of the residents of the Malabar coast and their fleets had left a brutish calling card, made absurd demands upon the rulers, disrupted trade and daily life all along the coast. It should not have been too difficult to prevail upon the Malabari cities to participate in a boycott of Portuguese trade. But the Cochin rejected Zamorins unreasonable demands, the city of Cochin was a growing commercial town perched on the edge of the Vembanad lagoon. The ruling Hindu prince, Unni Goda Varda, the Trimumpara Raja of Cochin, was not secure in his own position, formally, he was a minor prince, subsidiary to senior family members across the lagoon at Edapalli, the official overlords of the lagoon. Indeed, it is quite probable Trimumpara was in the midst of a family quarrel, sentiment among the Cochinese population was largely against the Portuguese
The Portuguese Empire, known as the Portuguese Overseas, was one of the largest and longest-lived empires in world history and the first colonial empire. It existed for almost six centuries from the capture of Ceuta in 1415 to the grant of sovereignty to East Timor in 2002, the first era of the Portuguese empire originated at the beginning of the Age of Discovery. Initiated by the Kingdom of Portugal, it would eventually expand across the globe, in 1488, Bartolomeu Dias rounded the Cape of Good Hope, and in 1498, Vasco da Gama reached India. In 1500, either by an accidental landfall or by the secret design. Over the following decades, Portuguese sailors continued to explore the coasts and islands of East Asia, establishing forts, by 1571, a string of naval outposts connected Lisbon to Nagasaki along the coasts of Africa, the Middle East and South Asia. This commercial network and the trade had a substantial positive impact on Portuguese economic growth. Though the realms continued to be administered separately, the Council of Portugal ruled the country and its empire from Madrid.
As the King of Spain was King of Portugal, Portuguese colonies became the subject of attacks by three rival European powers hostile to Spain, the Dutch Republic and France. With its smaller population, Portugal was unable to defend its overstretched network of trading posts. Eventually, Brazil became the most valuable colony of the era until, as part of the wave of independence movements that swept the Americas during the early 19th century. The third era represents the stage of Portuguese colonialism after the decolonization of the Americas of the 1820s. The colonial possessions had been reduced to the African coastline, Portuguese Timor, the disastrous 1890 British Ultimatum led to the contraction of Portuguese ambitions in Africa. Macau was returned to China in 1999, the origin of the Kingdom of Portugal lay in the reconquista, the gradual reconquest of the Iberian peninsula from the Moors. There were several motives for their first attack, on the Marinid Sultanate. In 1415 an attack was made on Ceuta, a strategically located North African Muslim enclave along the Mediterranean Sea, although Ceuta proved to be a disappointment for the Portuguese, the decision was taken to hold it while exploring along the Atlantic African coast.
At the time, Europeans did not know what lay beyond Cape Bojador on the African coast, under his sponsorship, soon the Atlantic islands of Madeira and Azores were reached and started to be settled producing wheat to export to Portugal. Fears of what lay beyond Cape Bojador, and whether it was possible to return once it was passed, were assuaged in 1434 when it was rounded by one of Infante Henrys captains, Gil Eanes. Once this psychological barrier had been crossed, it became easier to further along the coast