The East Block is one of the three buildings on Canada's Parliament Hill, in Ottawa, containing offices for parliamentarians, as well as some preserved pre-Confederation spaces. Built in the Victorian High Gothic style, the East Block is, along with the Library of Parliament, one of only two buildings on Parliament Hill to have survived intact since original construction. Though not as renowned as the Centre Block of parliament, the East Block appeared on the face of the Journey Series design of the Canadian hundred-dollar bill; the East Block is open to the public for tours in August. Designed by Thomas Stent and Augustus Laver, the East Block is an asymmetrical structure built in the Victorian High Gothic style, with load bearing masonry walls— being nearly 0.9 m thick at the ground level, expanding to 2.1 m thick at the base of the main tower. These are all clad in a rustic Nepean sandstone exterior and dressed stone trim around windows and other edges, as well as displaying a multitude of stone carvings, including gargoyles and friezes, keeping with the style of the rest of the parliamentary complex.
This detail continues on the interior of the East Block, where emblems, such as wheat sheaves, were carved in stone to indicate the various government departments housed nearby. The level of quality and luxury of the offices indicated the status of the inhabitant: large, wood panelled chambers with marble fireplaces and richly decorated plaster ceilings served for ministers of the Crown. Though much of the original decor has been retained or restored, the spaces have been reorganized so that the East Block now houses, as well as ministers, members of parliament and parliamentary administrators. Corridors and entranceways are lit by windows filled with stained glass, contemporary adaptations of the original gas fixtures adorn the walls. Beneath the decor stand 0.6 m wide, double-wythe masonry partitions with a rubble fill core, concrete floors more than 0.3 m thick. The main historic spaces in the East Block are restored to reflect the period around 1872; the former office of the Governor General of Canada contains its original furnishings, the woodwork and plasterwork are finished as they would have been just a decade after Confederation.
The office, occupied by Sir John A. Macdonald contains a blue-grey Arnprior marble mantle, the Prime Minister's furniture occupies the room; the previous Queen's Privy Council for Canada chamber holds a reproduction of the original table made at Upper Canada Village, above which hangs the same chandelier that hung there before the Second World War. The Department of Public Works sent out on 7 May 1859 a call for architects to submit proposals for the new parliament buildings to be erected on Barrack Hill, answered by 298 submitted drawings. After the entries were narrowed down to three Governor General Sir Edmund Walker Head was approached to break the stalemate, the winner was announced on 29 August; the departmental buildings, Centre Block, a new residence for the governor general were each awarded separately, the team of Thomas Stent and Augustus Laver, under the pseudonym of Stat nomen in umbra, won the prize for the first category. Construction on the East Block commenced by the end of 1859, at the same time as work on the Centre Block and Stent and Laver's West Block began.
By the time it was completed in 1866, the building was four years behind schedule and costs had risen to $706,549, when $150,000 had been allocated. As the home of the office of the governor general and the offices for all the Cabinet ministers, the East Block was occupied by the Viscount Monck and his prime minister, John A. Macdonald, who occupied the room at the south west corner of the second floor. George-Étienne Cartier used an office at the northern end of the west wing, thereafter used by every prime minister until Pierre Trudeau; the Queen's Privy Council chamber was used for cabinet meetings for 105 years, was where the British North America Act 1867 was formulated, decisions about the Red River Rebellions were made, Canada's war involvement was orchestrated. As the number of staff on Parliament Hill grew with the expansion of the country, however more office space was desired. In the East Block's early days, the wives of ministers and senior staff attended tea in the building each Thursday afternoon, other socializing took place outside of the working hours of 10am to 4pm.
As well, governors general held their annual New Year's Levee in the building from 1870 until the Marquess of Willingdon moved the event to the Centre Block in 1928. Though the building contained many examples of the cutting edge technology of the time, such as a system of electric bells for communications, state of the art sanitary and heating equipment, its spaces were continually chilly in winter and overheated in summer. Thereafter, the East Block showed more and more decay, further exacerbated by crude renovations and interventions during the Modernist period, and, at several points, the idea of demolishing the building in
Igor Sergeyevich Gouzenko was a cipher clerk for the Soviet embassy to Canada in Ottawa, Ontario. He defected on September 5, 1945—just three days after the end of World War II—with 109 documents on Soviet espionage activities in the West; this forced Prime Minister Mackenzie King to call a Royal Commission to investigate espionage in Canada. Gouzenko exposed Joseph Stalin's efforts to steal nuclear secrets, the technique of planting sleeper agents; the "Gouzenko Affair" is credited as a triggering event of the Cold War, with historian Jack Granatstein stating it was "the beginning of the Cold War for public opinion" and journalist Robert Fulford writing he was "absolutely certain the Cold War began in Ottawa". The New York Times described Gouzenko's actions as having "awakened the people of North America to the magnitude and the danger of Soviet espionage". Gouzenko was born to a Ukrainian family on January 13, 1919, in the village of Rogachev near Dmitrov, Moscow Governorate, 100 kilometers north-west of Moscow, he was the youngest of three children.
Igor's father was not present in his early life. Igor attended the Moscow Architectural Institute. While at the institute he met his future wife Svetlana Gouseva. At the start of World War II, he joined the military, his position gave him knowledge of Soviet espionage activities in the West. Gouzenko worked under the leadership of Colonel Nikolai Zabotin. In September 1945, hearing that he and his family were to be sent home to the Soviet Union and dissatisfied with the quality of life and the politics of his homeland, he decided to defect. Gouzenko walked out of the embassy door carrying with him a briefcase with Soviet code books and deciphering materials, he went to the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, but the RCMP officers on duty refused to believe his story. He went to the Ottawa Journal newspaper, but the paper's night editor was not interested, suggested he go to the Department of Justice – however nobody was on duty when he arrived. Terrified that the Soviets had discovered his duplicity, he went back to his apartment and hid his family in the apartment across the hall for the night.
Gouzenko, hidden by a neighbour, watched through the keyhole as a group of Soviet agents broke into his apartment. They began searching through his belongings, left only when confronted by Ottawa police; the next day Gouzenko was able to find contacts in the RCMP who were willing to examine the documents he had removed from the Soviet embassy. Gouzenko was transported by the RCMP to the secret World War II "Camp X", comfortably distant from Ottawa. While there, Gouzenko was interviewed by investigators from Britain's internal security service, MI5 and by investigators from the US Federal Bureau of Investigation, it has been alleged that, though the RCMP expressed interest in Gouzenko, Prime Minister of Canada William Lyon Mackenzie King wanted nothing to do with him. With Gouzenko in hiding and under RCMP protection, King pushed for a diplomatic solution to avoid upsetting the Soviet Union, still a wartime ally and ostensible friend. Documents reveal that King 70 and weary from six years of war leadership, was aghast when Norman Robertson, his undersecretary for external affairs, his assistant, H. H. Wrong, informed him on the morning of September 6, 1945, that a "terrible thing" had happened.
Gouzenko and his wife Svetlana, they told him, had appeared at the office of Justice Minister Louis St. Laurent with documents unmasking Soviet perfidy on Canadian soil. "It was like a bomb on top of everything else", King wrote. King's diaries assembled after his death were missing a single volume for November 10 to December 31, 1945, according to Library and Archives Canada. Robertson told the Prime Minister that Gouzenko was threatening suicide, but King was adamant that his government not get involved if Gouzenko was apprehended by Soviet authorities. Robertson ignored King's wishes and authorized granting asylum to Gouzenko and his family, on the basis that their lives were in danger. In February 1946, news spread that a network of Canadian spies under control of the Soviet Union had been passing classified information to the Soviet government. Much of the information taken is public knowledge now, the Canadian government was less concerned with the information stolen, but more of the potential of real secrets coming into the hands of future enemies.
Canada played an important part in the early research with nuclear bomb technology, Canada along with the UK being part of the wartime Manhattan Project, that kind of vital information could be dangerous to Canadian interests in the hands of other nations. Gouzenko's defection "ushered in the modern era of Canadian security intelligence"; the evidence provided by Gouzenko led to the arrest of 39 suspects, including Agatha Chapman, whose apartment at 282 Somerset Street West was a favourite evening rendezvous. Among those convicted were Fred Rose, the only Communist Member of Parliament in the Canadian House of Commons. Chapman was acquitted.
Ottawa River timber trade
The Ottawa River timber trade known as the Ottawa Valley timber trade or Ottawa River lumber trade, was the nineteenth century production of wood products by Canada on areas of the Ottawa River destined for British and American markets. It was the major industry of the historical colonies of Upper Canada and Lower Canada and it created an entrepreneur known as a lumber baron; the trade in squared timber and sawed lumber led to population growth and prosperity to communities in the Ottawa Valley the city of Bytown. The product was white pine; the industry lasted until around 1900 as both supplies decreased. The industry came about following Napoleon's 1806 Continental Blockade in Europe causing the United Kingdom to require a new source for timber for its navy and shipbuilding; the U. K.'s application of increasing preferential tariffs increased Canadian imports. The first part of the industry, the trade in squared timber lasted until about the 1850s; the transportation for the raw timber was first by means of floating down the Ottawa River, proved possible in 1806 by Philemon Wright.
Squared timber would be assembled into large rafts which held living quarters for men on their six week journey to Quebec City, which had large exporting facilities and easy access to the Atlantic Ocean. The second part of the industry involved the trade of sawed lumber, the American lumber barons and lasted chiefly from about 1850 to 1900-1910; the Reciprocity Treaty caused a shift to American markets. The source of timber in Britain changed, where its access to timber in the Baltic region was restored, it no longer provided the protective tariffs. Entrepreneurs in the United States at that time began to build their operations near the Ottawa River, creating some of the world's largest sawmills at the time; these men, known as lumber barons, with names such as John Rudolphus Booth and Henry Franklin Bronson created mills which contributed to the prosperity and growth of Ottawa. The sawed lumber industry benefited from transportation improvements, first the Rideau Canal linking Ottawa with Kingston, Ontario on Lake Ontario, much railways that began to be created between Canadian cities.
Shortly after 1900, the last raft went down the Ottawa River. Supplies of pine were dwindling and there was a decreased demand. By this time, the United Kingdom was able to resume its supply from the Baltic Region and their policies the reduction in protectionism of their colonies led to a decrease in markets in the U. K. Shipbuilding turned towards steel. Before 1950 many operations began to discontinue, many mills were removed and the spoiled land began to be restored in Urban Renewal policies in Ottawa; the industry had contributed to population increases and economic growth of Ontario and Quebec. Upper and Lower Canada's major industry in terms of employment and value of the product was the timber trade; the largest supplier of square red and white pine to the British market originated from the Ottawa River and the Ottawa Valley had "rich red and white pine forests" Bytown, was a major lumber and sawmill centre of Canada. In 1806, Napoleon ordered a blockade to European ports, blocking Britain's access to timber required for the navy from the Baltic Sea.
The British naval shipyards were in need of lumber. British tariff concessions fostered the growth of the Canadian timber trade; the British government instituted the tariff on the importation of foreign timber in 1795 in need of alternate sources for its navy and to promote the industry in its North American colonies. The "Colonial Preference" was first 10 shillings per load, increasing to 25 in 1805 and after Napoleon's blockade ended, it was increased to 65 in 1814. In 1821 the tariff was reduced to 55 shillings and was abolished in 1842; the United Kingdom resumed its trade in Baltic timber. The change in Britain's tariff preferences was a result of Britain moving to Free Trade in 1840; the 1840s saw a gradual move from protectionism in Great BritainWhen the Ottawa River first began to be used for floating timber en route to markets, squared timber was the preference by the British for resawing, it "became the main export". Britain imported 15,000 loads of timber from Canada in 1805, from the colonies, 30,000 in 1807, nearly 300,000 in 1820.
The reciprocity treaty of 1854 allowed for duty-free export of Ottawa Valley's lumber into the United States. Both the market was changing, as well as the entrepreneurs running the businesses. An American September 30, 1869 statement showed that lumber was, by far Canada's biggest export to the U. S. Here are the top 3: lumber: 424,232,087 feet, $4,761,357. Iron, pig: 26,881 do, $536,662 sheep: 228,914, $524,639 Also in 1869, about a third of the lumber manufactured at Ottawa was shipped to foreign countries, the area employed 6000 men in cutting and rafting logs, about 5,500 in the preparation of squared timber for European markets, about 5,000 at the mills in Ottawa. Somewhere between 1848 and 1861, a large increase in the number of sawmills in "the town" had occurred: 1845: 601 houses and 3 saw mills 1848: 1019 houses and 2 saw mills 1861: 2104 dwellings and 12 saw millsHere is the production of some companies in 1873, M feet of lumber and number of employees and their 1875 address listed, where available.
J. R. Booth, 40, 400, Albert Island, Chaudier Bronsons & Weston, 40, 400, Victoria Island Gilmour & Co. 40, 500-1000, 22 Bank E. B. Eddy, 40, 1700 Perley
Ottawa is the capital city of Canada. It stands on the south bank of the Ottawa River in the eastern portion of southern Ontario. Ottawa borders Gatineau, Quebec; as of 2016, Ottawa had a city population of 964,743 and a metropolitan population of 1,323,783 making it the fourth-largest city and the fifth-largest CMA in Canada. Founded in 1826 as Bytown, incorporated as Ottawa in 1855, the city has evolved into the political centre of Canada, its original boundaries were expanded through numerous annexations and were replaced by a new city incorporation and amalgamation in 2001 which increased its land area. The city name "Ottawa" was chosen in reference to the Ottawa River, the name of, derived from the Algonquin Odawa, meaning "to trade". Ottawa has the most educated population among Canadian cities and is home to a number of post-secondary and cultural institutions, including the National Arts Centre, the National Gallery, numerous national museums. Ottawa has the highest standard of living in low unemployment.
With the draining of the Champlain Sea around ten thousand years ago, the Ottawa Valley became habitable. Local populations used the area for wild edible harvesting, fishing, trade and camps for over 6500 years; the Ottawa river valley has archaeological sites with arrow heads and stone tools. Three major rivers meet within Ottawa, making it an important trade and travel area for thousands of years; the Algonquins called the Ottawa River Kichi Sibi or Kichissippi meaning "Great River" or "Grand River". Étienne Brûlé regarded as the first European to travel up the Ottawa River, passed by Ottawa in 1610 on his way to the Great Lakes. Three years Samuel de Champlain wrote about the waterfalls in the area and about his encounters with the Algonquins, using the Ottawa River for centuries. Many missionaries would follow the early traders; the first maps of the area used the word Ottawa, derived from the Algonquin word adawe, to name the river. Philemon Wright, a New Englander, created the first settlement in the area on 7 March 1800 on the north side of the river, across from the present day city of Ottawa in Hull.
He, with five other families and twenty-five labourers, set about to create an agricultural community called Wrightsville. Wright pioneered the Ottawa Valley timber trade by transporting timber by river from the Ottawa Valley to Quebec City. Bytown, Ottawa's original name, was founded as a community in 1826 when hundreds of land speculators were attracted to the south side of the river when news spread that British authorities were constructing the northerly end of the Rideau Canal military project at that location; the following year, the town was named after British military engineer Colonel John By, responsible for the entire Rideau Waterway construction project. The canal's military purpose was to provide a secure route between Montreal and Kingston on Lake Ontario, bypassing a vulnerable stretch of the St. Lawrence River bordering the state of New York that had left re-supply ships bound for southwestern Ontario exposed to enemy fire during the War of 1812. Colonel By set up military barracks on the site of today's Parliament Hill.
He laid out the streets of the town and created two distinct neighbourhoods named "Upper Town" west of the canal and "Lower Town" east of the canal. Similar to its Upper Canada and Lower Canada namesakes "Upper Town" was predominantly English speaking and Protestant whereas "Lower Town" was predominantly French and Catholic. Bytown's population grew to 1,000 as the Rideau Canal was being completed in 1832. Bytown encountered some impassioned and violent times in her early pioneer period that included Irish labour unrest that attributed to the Shiners' War from 1835 to 1845 and political dissension evident from the 1849 Stony Monday Riot. In 1855 Bytown was incorporated as a city. William Pittman Lett was installed as the first city clerk guiding it through 36 years of development. On New Year's Eve 1857, Queen Victoria, as a symbolic and political gesture, was presented with the responsibility of selecting a location for the permanent capital of the Province of Canada. In reality, Prime Minister John A. Macdonald had assigned this selection process to the Executive Branch of the Government, as previous attempts to arrive at a consensus had ended in deadlock.
The "Queen's choice" turned out to be the small frontier town of Ottawa for two main reasons: Firstly, Ottawa's isolated location in a back country surrounded by dense forest far from the Canada–US border and situated on a cliff face would make it more defensible from attack. Secondly, Ottawa was midway between Toronto and Kingston and Montreal and Quebec City. Additionally, despite Ottawa's regional isolation it had seasonal water transportation access to Montreal over the Ottawa River and to Kingston via the Rideau Waterway. By 1854 it had a modern all season Bytown and Prescott Railway that carried passengers and supplies the 82-kilometres to Prescott on the Saint Lawrence River and beyond. Ottawa's small size, it was thought, would make it less prone to rampaging politically motivated mobs, as had happened in the previous Canadian capitals; the government owned the land that would become Parliament Hill which they thought would be an ideal location for the Parliament Buildings. Ottawa was th
The Ottawa Valley is the valley of the Ottawa River, along the boundary between Eastern Ontario and the Outaouais, Canada. The valley is the transition between the Canadian Shield; because of the surrounding shield, the valley is narrow at its western end and becomes wide as it progresses eastward. The underlying geophysical structure is the Ottawa-Bonnechere Graben. 1.3 million people reside in the valley, around 80% of whom reside in Ottawa, the remainder on the north side of the Ottawa River, in Quebec. The total area of the Ottawa Valley is 2.4 million ha. The National Capital Region area has just over 1.4 million inhabitants in both provinces. Near the City of Ottawa, the Ottawa Valley merges with the St. Lawrence Valley to the south to create a delta of flat farmland stretching unbroken from the Ottawa River to the Saint Lawrence River as far east as the island of Montreal, where the two rivers meet; the area is sometimes referred to as the "Lower Ottawa Valley," in contrast with the "Upper Ottawa Valley" west of Ottawa, but the name is not common, most people think of the Ottawa Valley as only the upper portion.
From west to east, communities in the Ottawa Valley include Mattawa, Deep River, Pembroke, Fort Coulonge, Renfrew, Arnprior, Rockland, L'Orignal and Rigaud. The entire Ottawa Valley is within Omàmiwininiwak and, like most populated areas of Canada, is presently under land claim; as a recent adaptation resulting from the economic pressures of the encroachment of non-native settling of the valley, the Algonquin First Nation is unevenly distributed within their territory. A majority of Algonquins reside on the Quebec side of the border, where all but two Algonquin communities are located. However, there are many Algonquin communities and individuals not recognized as such by the Government of Canada under the Indian Act; these individuals are referred to as'Non-Status Indians'. Ardoch Algonquin First Nation is one such community located in the Ottawa Valley fighting for the return of their land. After the arrival of European settlers in North America, the first major industry of the Ottawa Valley was fur trading.
The valley was part of the major cross-country route for French-Canadian Voyageurs, who would paddle canoes up the Ottawa River as far as Mattawa and portage west through various rivers and lakes to Georgian Bay on Lake Huron. Lumber became the valley's major industry, it is still important in the far western part where the valley is narrow and little farmland is available. Today, the vast majority of the valley's residents live at its eastern end in Ottawa and its suburbs, where government and technology are major industries. In the areas of Morrison’s Island and the Allumette Island there were many archaeological sites found from the earlier years of the Algonquin First Nations tribes. Many of these sites were found by the late Clyde C. Kennedy, a student of history; the items found on the different sites are dated from about five thousand years ago to about two thousand years ago, are a range of different things from native copper, to spear heads. Petawawa is a town located in the Ottawa Valley.
It was thought to have been first settled by the Agolkin Natives and the name comes from their language meaning "where one hears the noise of the water". Samuel de Champlain visited this town and it was used as an important location for the Hudson's Bay Company. Many of the first settlers were of Irish and German origin. In 1865 the township of Petawawa was incorporated because of its rich natural resources and its important military role, it wasn't until Canada Day 1997. Today it is the home of one of the largest Canadian Forces Land Force Command bases in Canada CFB Petawawa. Pembroke is located in Renfrew County on the Ottawa River, it is known as “the heart of the Ottawa Valley”. It became a centre for the logging industry. Today, it is the largest regional service centre between North Bay. Samuel de Champlain spent the years between 1613 and 1615 traveling the Ottawa River with Algonquin and Huron guides, he was the first documented European to see the Ottawa Valley. When Champlain first arrived there the Huron, Algonquin and Outaouais tribes were living in the Valley.
In charting the new land Champlain inaugurated the route that would be used by French fur traders for the next 200 years.*Between 1847 and 1879 a "horse railway" was used to portage passengers from the Ottawa River steamboat in a horse-drawn car for 5.5 kilometres along the wooded shore, around the Chats Falls, on the Quebec side of the river between the ghost villages of Pontiac Village and Union Village, near Quyon Quebec, to another steamboat to continue their journey upriver. English and French are both spoken throughout the Ottawa Valley on both sides of the river; the Counties of Prescott and Russell County, in the Ottawa Valley, has the highest concentration of francophones in Canada, living west of Quebec. The variant of French spoken in this area of the province is based on Quebec French, but distinctly different from that of the Outaouais region. Regional English accents are rare in Canada, but because of its isolation before the arrival of the railways and by the mixture of the dominant French
The Rideau Canal known unofficially as the Rideau Waterway, connects Canada's capital city of Ottawa, Ontario, to Lake Ontario and the Saint Lawrence River at Kingston, Ontario. It is 202 kilometres in length; the name Rideau, French for "curtain", is derived from the curtain-like appearance of the Rideau River's twin waterfalls where they join the Ottawa River. The canal system uses sections of two rivers, the Rideau and the Cataraqui, as well as several lakes; the Rideau Canal is operated by Parks Canada. The canal was opened in 1832 as a precaution in case of war with the United States, it remains in use today for pleasure boating, with most of its original structures intact, operated by Parks Canada. The locks on the system open for navigation in close in mid-October, it is the oldest continuously operated canal system in North America, in 2007 it was registered as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The construction of the Rideau Canal was a preventive military measure undertaken after a report that during the War of 1812 the United States had intended to invade the British colony of Upper Canada via the St. Lawrence River, which would have severed the lifeline between Montreal and Kingston.
The British built a number of other canals as well as a number of forts to impede and deter any future American invasions of Canadian territory. The initial purpose of the Rideau Canal was military, as it was intended to provide a secure supply and communications route between Montreal and the British naval base in Kingston. Westward from Montreal, travel would proceed along the Ottawa River to Bytown southwest via the canal to Kingston and out into Lake Ontario; the objective was to bypass the stretch of the St. Lawrence bordering New York; the canal served a commercial purpose. The Rideau Canal was easier to navigate than the St. Lawrence River because of the series of rapids between Montreal and Kingston; as a result, the Rideau Canal became a busy commercial artery from Montreal to the Great Lakes. However, by 1849, the rapids of the St. Lawrence had been tamed by a series of locks, commercial shippers were quick to switch to this more direct route; the construction of the canal was supervised by Lieutenant-Colonel John By of the Royal Engineers.
Private contractors such as future sugar refining entrepreneur John Redpath, Thomas McKay, Robert Drummond, Thomas Phillips, Andrew White and others were responsible for much of the construction, the majority of the actual work was done by thousands of Irish and French-Canadian labourers. Colonel John By decided to create a slackwater canal system instead of constructing new channels; this was a better approach as it required fewer workers, was more cost effective, would have been easier to build. The canal work started in the fall of 1826, it was completed by the spring of 1832; the first full steamboat transit of the canal was done by Robert Drummond's steamboat, leaving Kingston on May 22, 1832 with Colonel By and family on board, arriving in Bytown on May 29, 1832. The final cost of the canal's construction was £822,804 by the time all the costs, including land acquisitions costs, were accounted for. Given the unexpected cost overruns, John By was recalled to London and was retired with no accolades or recognition for his tremendous accomplishment.
Once the canal was constructed, no further military engagements took place between Canada and the United States. Although the Rideau Canal never had to be used as a military supply route, it played a pivotal role in the early development of Canada. Prior to the locks being completed on the St. Lawrence in the late 1840s, the Rideau served as the main travel route for immigrants heading westward into Upper Canada and for heavy goods from Canada's hinterland heading east to Montreal. Tens of thousands of immigrants from the British Isles travelled the Rideau in this period. Hundreds of barge loads of goods were shipped each year along the Rideau, allowing Montreal to compete commercially in the 1830s and 40s with New York as a major North American port. In 1841, for instance, there were 19 steamboats, 3 self-propelled barges and 157 unpowered or tow barges using the Rideau Canal; as many as one thousand of the workers died from other diseases and accidents. Most deaths were from disease, principally complications from malaria, endemic in Ontario within the range of the Anopheles mosquito, other diseases of the day.
Accidents were rare for a project of this size. Inquests were held for each accidental death; the men and children who died were buried in local cemeteries, either burial grounds set up near work sites or existing local cemeteries. Funerals were held for the workers and the graves marked with wooden markers; some of the dead remain unidentified. Memorials have been erected along the canal route, most the Celtic Cross memorials in Ottawa and Chaffeys Lock; the first memorial on the Rideau Canal acknowledging deaths among the labour force was erected in 1993 by the Kingston and District Labour Council and the Ontario Heritage Foundation at Kingston Mills. Three canal era cemeteries are open to the public today: Chaffey's Cemetery and Memory Wall at Chaffey's Lock—this cemetery was used from 1825 to the late 19th century.
Thomas Fuller (architect)
Thomas Fuller was a Canadian architect. From 1881 to 1896, he was Chief Dominion Architect for the Government of Canada, during which time he played a role in the design and construction of every major federal building. Fuller was born in Bath, where he trained as an architect. Living in Bath and London he did a number of projects. In 1845 he left for Antigua, where he spent two years working on a new cathedral before emigrating to Canada in 1857. Settling in Toronto, he formed a partnership with Chilion Jones with Fuller responsible for design work; the company first won the contract to design the church of St. Stephen-in-the-Fields. In 1859, The Legislative Assembly in Ottawa voted the sum of £75,000 for the erection of a "Parliament House" and offered a premium of $1000 for the best design within that budget; the winning bid was made by Jones for a neo-gothic design. The principal architects until its completion in 1866 were Charles Baillairge. In Hand Book to the Parliamentary and Departmental Buildings, Joseph Bureau wrote, "The corner stone was laid with great ceremony by His Royal Highness the Prince of Wales in September, 1860, on which occasion the rejoicings partook of the nature of the place, the lumber arches and men being a novelty to most of its visitors and sheep were roasted whole upon the government ground and all comers were feasted."
In 1867 he won the contract to build the New York State Capitol building in Albany, New York, spent the next several years in the United States. The project ran into severe cost overruns, an inquiry blamed Fuller. Fuller thus returned to Canada, unable to work in the more lucrative private sector, in 1881 became Chief Dominion Architect, replacing Thomas Seaton Scott; the Department of Public Works erected a number of small urban post offices in smaller urban centres during Thomas Fuller's term as Chief Architect. Thomas Fuller's son, Thomas W. Fuller, was appointed Chief Architect in 1927. Thomas W. Fuller's son, Thomas G. Fuller spent more than 50 years in the building industry. In 2002, Thomas Fuller Construction Co. Limited was awarded the contract for the Library of Parliament building rehabilitation A 35 cent, 3 colour postage stamp featured an image of the Parliament Buildings and the text'Royal Canadian Academy of Arts, 1880-1980, Thomas Fuller' On his death in 1898, Thomas Fuller was interred in the Beechwood Cemetery in Ottawa.
His son Thomas Fuller II became an architect. Several of his buildings in Bath have been threatened with demolition and other works, such as his Bradford-on-Avon Town Hall, have been converted into other uses. In 2002, the Thomas Fuller Construction Company, founded by Fuller's grandson Thomas G. Fuller and now operated by his great grandsons, was awarded a contract to renovate the Library of Parliament in Ottawa which he designed. Canada by Design: Parliament Hill, Ottawa at Library and Archives Canada Biography at the Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online Thomas Fuller biography from St. Stephen-in-the-Fields Thomas Fuller, Chief Dominion Architect 1881-1896 Canada`s Historic Places Family: When Simon Fuller designed and built his house at Britannia on the Bay, he drew on family traditions and on his own passion for the river to create a unique and wonderful setting for family life By Janet Uren Photography by Gordon King