International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a numeric commercial book identifier, intended to be unique. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency. An ISBN is assigned to each variation of a book. For example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN; the ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, 10 digits long if assigned before 2007. The method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country; the initial ISBN identification format was devised in 1967, based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966. The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO 2108. Published books sometimes appear without an ISBN; the International ISBN agency sometimes assigns such books ISBNs on its own initiative.
Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines and newspapers. The International Standard Music Number covers musical scores; the Standard Book Numbering code is a 9-digit commercial book identifier system created by Gordon Foster, Emeritus Professor of Statistics at Trinity College, for the booksellers and stationers WHSmith and others in 1965. The ISBN identification format was conceived in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the United States by Emery Koltay; the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO 2108. The United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. ISO has appointed the International ISBN Agency as the registration authority for ISBN worldwide and the ISBN Standard is developed under the control of ISO Technical Committee 46/Subcommittee 9 TC 46/SC 9; the ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978.
An SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit "0". For example, the second edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has "SBN 340 01381 8" – 340 indicating the publisher, 01381 their serial number, 8 being the check digit; this can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8. Since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format, compatible with "Bookland" European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each variation of a book. For example, an ebook, a paperback, a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN; the ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, 10 digits long if assigned before 2007. An International Standard Book Number consists of 4 parts or 5 parts: for a 13-digit ISBN, a prefix element – a GS1 prefix: so far 978 or 979 have been made available by GS1, the registration group element, the registrant element, the publication element, a checksum character or check digit. A 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces.
Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is done with either hyphens or spaces. Figuring out how to separate a given ISBN is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN is most used among others special identifiers to describe references in Wikipedia and can help to find the same sources with different description in various language versions. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency, responsible for that country or territory regardless of the publication language; the ranges of ISBNs assigned to any particular country are based on the publishing profile of the country concerned, so the ranges will vary depending on the number of books and the number and size of publishers that are active. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture and thus may receive direct funding from government to support their services. In other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded.
A full directory of ISBN agencies is available on the International ISBN Agency website. Partial listing: Australia: the commercial library services agency Thorpe-Bowker.
Supreme Director of the United Provinces of the Río de la Plata
The Supreme Director of the United Provinces of the Río de la Plata was a title given to the executive officers of the United Provinces of the Río de la Plata according to the form of government established in 1814 by the Asamblea del Año XIII. The supreme director was to wield power for a term of two years; the assembly hoped to confront the royalists, emboldened by internal dissension within the patriotic faction. To prevent abuses of power, the directorship would be combined with a state council of nine members and would be required to answer to a congress empowered to carry out legislation. After the resignation of José Rondeau following the unitarian defeat at the Battle of Cepeda, the office of Supreme Director was assumed by Juan Pedro Aguirre, he endorsed the Buenos Aires Cabildo to name a governor for the province of Buenos Aires as the national congress dissolved itself on 16 February 1820 ending the centralism in the national government and giving way to a new federal reorganization for the country, formalized by the Treaty of Pilar on 23 February 1820.
For the traditional liberal historiography, exemplified by Bartolomé Mitre's works, the aftermath of the dissolution of the centralist government led to the Anarquía del año 20. Until 1826 there would not be any central authority among the provinces of Argentina. List of heads of state of Argentina President of Argentina
The Argentine Confederation was the last predecessor state of modern Argentina. It was the name of the country from 1831 to 1852, when the provinces were organized as a confederation without a head of state; the governor of Buenos Aires Province managed foreign relations during this time. Under his rule, the Argentine Confederation resisted attacks by Brazil, Uruguay and the UK, as well as other Argentine factions during the Argentine Civil Wars. Rosas was ousted from power in 1852 after the battle of Caseros. Urquiza convened the 1853 Constituent Assembly to write a national constitution. Buenos Aires resisted Urquiza and seceded from the Confederation in 1852, becoming the State of Buenos Aires. Modern Argentina is a small subset of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, a colony of Spain which included present day Bolivia, part of Peru and most of Paraguay. Long after attaining independence, Argentina conquered large areas of indigenous land; the May Revolution in Buenos Aires began the Argentine War of Independence, the country was renamed the United Provinces of the Río de la Plata.
Modern Bolivia and Paraguay became new states. Uruguay was invaded and annexed by Brazil in 1816, until the Thirty-Three Orientals led an insurrection to rejoin the United Provinces; this began the Cisplatine War, which ended with the Treaty of Montevideo that made Uruguay a new state. When Argentine forces returned to Buenos Aires, Juan Lavalle led a military coup against governor Manuel Dorrego, he executed him and began a campaign against all federals, supported by José María Paz in Córdoba, who deposed Juan Bautista Bustos and took similar measures against federals. The rancher Juan Manuel de Rosas organized the resistance against Lavalle, forcing him out of government and restoring the Legislature. Paz organized the Unitarian League with the provinces that joined him, Rosas signed the Federal Pact with Entre Ríos and Santa Fe. All the unitarian provinces were defeated and joined the Pact, became the Argentine Confederation. Rosas declined a new term as governor after the victory over the unitarian league.
Rosas left Buenos Aires and waged the first campaign in the desert in the south, to prevent further malones from the indigenous peoples. The campaign combined military actions and negotiations, succeeded in preventing malones for several years. Despite being absent, the political influence of Rosas in Buenos Aires was still strong, his wife Encarnación Ezcurra was in charge of keeping good relations with the people of the city. On October 11, 1833, the city was filled with announcements of a trial against "The restorer of laws". A large number of gauchos and poor people instigated the Revolution of the Restorers, a demonstration at the gates of the legislature, praising Rosas and demanding the resignation of Governor Juan Ramón Balcarce; the troops who were organized to fight the demonstration instead joined it. The legislature gave up the trial, a month ousted Balcarce and replaced him with Juan José Viamonte. Still, the social unrest led many people to believe that only Rosas could secure order, that Viamonte or Manuel Vicente Maza would be unable to do so.
The murder of Facundo Quiroga in Córdoba increased this belief, so the legislature appointed him governor in 1835, with the sum of public power. Rosas faced a difficult military threat during first years of his second administration. First, the Peru–Bolivian Confederation in the North declared the War of the Confederation against Argentina and Chile. France made diplomatic requests which were denied by Rosas, subsequently imposed a naval blockade as a result. France invaded Martín García island and deposed the Uruguayan president Manuel Oribe, appointing instead the loyal Fructuoso Rivera, who declared war on Argentina in support of France. Domingo Cullen, from Santa Fe, promoted the secession of all provinces, leaving Buenos Aires alone in the conflict. Berón de Astrada, from Corrientes, opposed Rosas as well, Juan Lavalle organized an army to take Buenos Aires; the ranchers organized the "Freemen of the South" militia. Rosas overcame all these threats; the Peru–Bolivian Confederation was defeated by Chile and ceased to exist.
Cullen was defeated and shot, Astrada was defeated by Justo José de Urquiza. The ranchers were defeated as well; the diplomat Manuel Moreno channeled the protests of the British merchants in Buenos Aires who were impacted by the blockade. France lifted the blockade with the Mackau-Arana treaty. Lavalle sought to continue the conflict anyway, he retreated before reaching Buenos Aires, without starting any battles, escaped to the North. He was chased by Oribe, now in charge of Argentine armies, died in unclear circumstances. Despite the French defeat, Uruguay was still an open war theater. Manuel Oribe claimed to be the rightful president of Uruguay, waged the Uruguayan Civil War against Rivera. Rosas supported Oribe in the conflict. Oribe laid siege to Montevideo. Britain and France joined forces with Rivera, captured the Argentine navy, began a new naval blockade against Buenos Aires. Giuseppe Garibaldi helped to secure the Uruguay river, aided by Italian soldiers. A new expedition tried to
Antonio González de Balcarce
Antonio González de Balcarce was an Argentine military commander in the early 19th century. González de Balcarce was born in Buenos Aires, he joined the armed forces as a cadet in 1788. In the battle for Montevideo in 1807, he was taken to England. After his release, he fought in the service of Spain during the Peninsular War against the Emperor Napoleon. Returning to Buenos Aires, he participated in the May Revolution in 1810. Subsequently, he was named second commander for the military campaign of the independentist forces in the Viceroyalty of Perú, where he won the Battle of Suipacha on November 7, 1810, the first victory over the Spanish royal forces, he was called back and became the Governor of Buenos Aires Province in 1813. In 1816, he served as the Supreme Director of the United Provinces of the Río de la Plata ad interim, became the Major General of the armed forces the following year under the government of Juan Martín de Pueyrredón. According to historian William Denslow, Antonio Balcarce was a member of the well-known masonic lodge Lautaro.
He took part of the crossing of the Andes to Chile and was San Martin's second-in-command during the battles of Cancha Rayada and Maipu. He fell ill in Chile and had to return to Buenos Aires, where he died in 1819
Antonio Álvarez Jonte
Antonio Álvarez Jonte was an Argentine politician. He was moved with parents to Córdoba when young, he studied law at Córdoba University and obtained his doctorate at the Real Universidad de San Felipe in Santiago de Chile. He opened a law practice in Buenos Aires, lived there at the time of the British invasions, he was declined due to poor health. Álvarez Jonte took part on the preparations for the May Revolution in 1810. After the revolution, the newly constituted Primera Junta sent him to Chile to try to foment a similar revolution there; this happened in October 1810, Álvarez Jonte became the first Argentine ambassador to this country. Towards the end of 1810 he was in Buenos Aires and he joined Mariano Moreno's revolutionary group; the Junta named him member of the Cabildo, where he pressed to dissolve the governing Junta when news of the Battle of Huaqui disaster arrived. He supported the formation of the First Triumvirate, by their initiative he was named again rector of the Cabildo for the year 1812.
He moved to the opposition when the government of Rivadavia dissolved the first national assembly in 1812. Álvarez Jonte joined the Lautaro lodge, founded by Alvear and San Martín, supported the October 1812 revolution. By this movement the First Triumvirate was dissolved and replaced by a Second Triumvirate, formed by Juan José Paso, Nicolás Rodríguez Peña, Álvarez Jonte. A short while Paso was replaced by José Julián Pérez, a few months Rodríguez Peña was replaced by Gervasio Posadas, Alvear's uncle. In reality, the government was controlled by Alvear; the Triumvirate called for a National Constitutional Assembly, dominated by Buenos Aires where most of the deputies from the interior of the country were named by the Lodge, in Buenos Aires. The Assembly did not meet its objectives, not having declared independence from Spain, nor sanctioning any constitution. By the end of 1813, Juan Larrea replace Álvarez Jonte, named to lead the commission investigating the military defeats at Vilcapugio and Ayohuma.
Álvarez Jonte travelled to Tucumán to start the investigations and legal proceedings, but he declined to judge general Belgrano. In early 1814 he reorganized the government of Tucumán Province. Was named as military comptroller to the Army of the North during the short period where its commander in chief was San Martín. Álvarez Jonte returned to Buenos Aires, where he served as general war comptroller, worked in this post during the brief government of Alvear. After the mutiny that led to the Alvear's fall from government, he was exiled to London. There he joined the local Lautaro Lodge and dedicated himself to the formation of a navy squadron for Chile liberated from Spain by San Martín, supporting the latter's plans to attack the Viceroyalty of Peru by sea, he arrived in Chile with Admiral Thomas Cochrane in November 1818, with the navy's ships intended to move the Army of the Andes to Peru. Though he fell ill, he was named army comptroller and secretary to San Martín, he accompanied Cochrane in the first naval campaign to the port of El Callao.
In August 1820 he embarked with San Martín towards Peru again. A short time after arriving, he died in October 1820 in the port of Pisco. An avenue in Buenos Aires's Monte Castro neighborhood, is named after him. Wright, Ione S. and Lisa M. Nekhom. Historical Dictionary of Argentina pp 30–31 elforolatino.com
The Federal Pact was a treaty first signed by the Argentine provinces of Buenos Aires, Entre Ríos and Santa Fe on 4 January 1831, for which a Federal military alliance was created to confront the Unitarian League. Other provinces would join the treaty. After the demise of the Liga Federal and inspired by José Gervasio Artigas, the first meeting between the Provinces of Santa Fe, Entre Ríos, Corrientes and Buenos Aires, with the purpose of an alliance, took place on July 20, 1830, in Santa Fe, it had the following representatives: Domingo Cullen for Santa Fe, Diego Miranda for Entre Ríos, Pedro Ferré for Corrientes and José María Roxas y Patrón for Buenos Aires. The treaty was to be written by Roxas. Ferré insisted in the organization of the state at the international level. Roxas y Patrón opposed to such ideas claiming that they did not have the attributions to decide over all those topics; the conflict grew around the topic of the centralism of the Buenos Aires port, with Ferré supporting the creation of other port for international commerce, such as in Santa Fe, the distribution among the provinces of customs taxes.
Seeing Roxas y Patrón remained inflexible about those topics, he decided to quit the negotiations for the treaty. Thus the treaty was signed by the remaining three provinces on January 4, 1831 in the city of Santa Fe. Corrientes Province joined the treaty on August 19 of the same year; the main topics of the pact were: It obligated the signer provinces to resist any foreign invasion to an Argentine province, whether this was a member of the treaty or not. It formed a defensive and offensive alliance against the integrity and independence of the signing parties against attacks from other provinces; the signing provinces were not to sign other treaties without the previous acceptance of the rest of the provinces. It forbade, it allowed the unrestricted circulation of people and fruits between provinces by road or river free of any kind of taxes. All inhabitants of the provinces were granted the same rights, except the right to be governors. Other provinces could join the treaty under the same terms, given the acceptance of the founding members.
If one of the signing provinces were attacked, it would be helped by the others, with their forces under the control of the local government. Mendoza: August 9, 1831 Córdoba: August 21, 1831 Santiago del Estero: March 12, 1832 La Rioja: August 12, 1832 Tucumán: October 18, 1832 Salta: July 4, 1832 San Luis: July 12, 1832 Catamarca: September 1, 1832 San Juan: May 3, 1832 In several ways, the Federal Pact acted as a constitution. In fact, the Argentine Constitution of 1853 starts by justifying its creation "with the purpose of fulfilling pre-existent pacts", which refers to this and other agreements; the creation of a Constitutional Assembly was planned long before 1853, but the negative of Juan Manuel de Rosas, governor of Buenos Aires and strong member of the treaty, delayed it. The members of the Pacto Federal joined the United Provinces of the River Plate in the founding of the modern state of Argentina. Confederación Argentina Juan Manuel de Rosas Liga Federal List of treaties Historical analysis
Bernardino de la Trinidad González Rivadavia y Rivadavia was the first President of Argentina called the United Provinces of Rio de la Plata, from February 8, 1826 to June 27, 1827. He was left without finishing his studies. During the British Invasions he served as Third Lieutenant of the Galicia Volunteers, he participated in the open Cabildo on May 1810 voting for the deposition of the viceroy. He had a strong influence on the First Triumvirate and shortly after he served as Minister of Government and Foreign Affairs of the Province of Buenos Aires. Although there was a General Congress intended to draft a constitution, the beginning of the War with Brazil led to the immediate establishment of the office of President of Argentina. Argentina's Constitution of 1826 was promulgated but was rejected by the provinces. Contested by his political party, Rivadavia resigned and was succeeded by Vicente López y Planes. Rivadavia retired to Spain, where he died in 1845, his remains were repatriated to Argentina in 1857.
Today his remains rest in a mausoleum located in Plaza Miserere, adjacent to Rivadavia Avenue, named after him. Rivadavia was born in Buenos Aires on May 20, 1780, the fourth son of Benito Bernardino González de Rivadavia, a wealthy Spanish lawyer, his first wife María Josefa de Jesús Rodríguez de Rivadeneyra. On December 14, 1809, he married Juana del Pino y Vera Mujica, daughter of the viceroy of the Río de la Plata, Joaquín del Pino and his second wife, the vicereine Rafaela Francisca de Vera Mujica y López Pintado, his military appointment was rejected by Mariano Moreno. Rivadavia was active in both the Argentine resistance to the British invasion of 1806 and in the May Revolution movement for Argentine Independence in 1810. In 1811, Rivadavia became the dominant member of the governing triumvirate as Secretary of the Treasury and Secretary of War; until its fall in October 1812, this government focused on creating a strong central government, moderating relations with Spain, organizing an army.
By 1814 the Spanish King Ferdinand VII had returned to the throne and started the Absolutist Restoration, which had grave consequences for the governments in the Americas. Manuel Belgrano and Rivadavia were sent to Europe to seek support for the United Provinces from both Spain and Britain, they sought to promote the crowning of Francisco de Paula, son of Charles IV of Spain, as regent of the United Provinces, but in the end he refused to act against the interests of the King of Spain. The diplomatic mission was a failure, both in Britain, he visited France as well, returned to Buenos Aires in 1821, at their friends' request. During his stay in Britain, Rivadavia saw the growing development of the Industrial Revolution, the rise of Romanticism, he sought to promote a similar development in Buenos Aires, invited many people to move to the city. He convinced Aimé Bonpland to visit the country. In June 1821, he was named minister of government to Buenos Aires by governor Martín Rodríguez. Over the next five years, he exerted a strong influence, focused on improving the city of Buenos Aires at the expense of greater Argentina.
To make the former look more European, Rivadavia constructed large avenues, schools and lighted streets. He founded the University of Buenos Aires, as well as the Theatre and Medicine Academies and the continent's first museum of natural science, he persuaded the legislature to authorize a one-million pound loan for public works that were never undertaken. The provincial bonds were sold in London through the Baring Brothers Bank and Buenos Aires-based British traders acting as financial intermediaries; the borrowed money was in turn lent to these businessmen. Of the original million pounds the Buenos Aires government received only £552,700; the province's foreign debt was transferred to the nation in 1825, its final repayment being made in 1904. A strong supporter of a powerful, centralized government in Argentina, Rivadavia faced violent resistance from the opposition federalists. In 1826, Rivadavia was elected the first President of Argentina. During his term he founded many museums, expanded the national library.
His government had many problems an ongoing war with Brazil over territory in modern Uruguay and resistance from provincial authorities. Faced with the rising power of the Federalist Party and with several provinces in open revolt, Rivadavia submitted his resignation on June 27, 1827, he was succeeded by Vicente López y Planes. At first he returned to private life, but fled to exile in Europe in 1829. Rivadavia returned to Argentina in 1834 to confront his political enemies, but was sentenced again to exile, he went first to Brazil and to Spain, where he died on September 2, 1845. He asked. Rivadavia is recognized as the first president of Argentina though his rule was accepted only in Buenos Aires, he did not complete a full mandate, there was no constitution for more than half of his rule, did not start a presidential succession line; the chair of the President of Argentina is known as the "chair of Rivadavia", but only metaphorically: Rivadavia took everything when he left office, including the chair, which could never be retrieved.
Liberal historians praise Rivadavia as a great historical man, for his work improving education and separation of church and state. Revisionist authors condemn his Anglophilia, the weak customs barriers that allowed the entry of big British imports, harming the weak Argent