Breuil-Cervinia is an alpine resort in the Aosta Valley region of northwest Italy. It is a frazione of the comune of Valtournenche, cervinia lies at 2,006 m above sea level, at the foot of the Matterhorn, in a valley surrounded by high, glaciated mountains and the sheer rock face of the Jumeaux. It shares a ski area with Zermatt in Switzerland, connected through the Plateau Rosa glacier, some of the runs are very long, the longest stretches 22 km from the Klein Matterhorn in Switzerland down to Valtournenche in Italy. Cervinia being one of Europes highest ski resorts means low temperatures and good consistent snow fall, temperatures get very cold through the winter months with daily averages being around -5 - -10 for the winter months and only about 8-10c in the summer months. This maintains the snow in great shape throughout the winter season, december usually averages round 40-50cm in resort and 140-160cm on the mountain, January approx 80cm and 200cm, February approx 90cm and 220cm, march 100cm and 240cm, April 60cm - 200cm.
The town hosted the FIBT World Championships in 1971,1975, official website, & Breuil-Cervinia Downhill Snow Report from Aosta valley official website, &
Italy, officially the Italian Republic, is a unitary parliamentary republic in Europe. Located in the heart of the Mediterranean Sea, Italy shares open land borders with France, Austria, San Marino, Italy covers an area of 301,338 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate and Mediterranean climate. Due to its shape, it is referred to in Italy as lo Stivale. With 61 million inhabitants, it is the fourth most populous EU member state, the Italic tribe known as the Latins formed the Roman Kingdom, which eventually became a republic that conquered and assimilated other nearby civilisations. The legacy of the Roman Empire is widespread and can be observed in the distribution of civilian law, republican governments, Christianity. The Renaissance began in Italy and spread to the rest of Europe, bringing a renewed interest in humanism, exploration, Italian culture flourished at this time, producing famous scholars and polymaths such as Leonardo da Vinci, Galileo and Machiavelli. The weakened sovereigns soon fell victim to conquest by European powers such as France and Austria.
Despite being one of the victors in World War I, Italy entered a period of economic crisis and social turmoil. The subsequent participation in World War II on the Axis side ended in defeat, economic destruction. Today, Italy has the third largest economy in the Eurozone and it has a very high level of human development and is ranked sixth in the world for life expectancy. The country plays a prominent role in regional and global economic, military and diplomatic affairs, as a reflection of its cultural wealth, Italy is home to 51 World Heritage Sites, the most in the world, and is the fifth most visited country. The assumptions on the etymology of the name Italia are very numerous, according to one of the more common explanations, the term Italia, from Latin, was borrowed through Greek from the Oscan Víteliú, meaning land of young cattle. The bull was a symbol of the southern Italic tribes and was often depicted goring the Roman wolf as a defiant symbol of free Italy during the Social War. Greek historian Dionysius of Halicarnassus states this account together with the legend that Italy was named after Italus, mentioned by Aristotle and Thucydides.
The name Italia originally applied only to a part of what is now Southern Italy – according to Antiochus of Syracuse, but by his time Oenotria and Italy had become synonymous, and the name applied to most of Lucania as well. The Greeks gradually came to apply the name Italia to a larger region, excavations throughout Italy revealed a Neanderthal presence dating back to the Palaeolithic period, some 200,000 years ago, modern Humans arrived about 40,000 years ago. Other ancient Italian peoples of undetermined language families but of possible origins include the Rhaetian people and Cammuni. Also the Phoenicians established colonies on the coasts of Sardinia and Sicily, the Roman legacy has deeply influenced the Western civilisation, shaping most of the modern world
The Matterhorn is a mountain of the Alps, straddling the main watershed and border between Switzerland and Italy. It is a huge and near-symmetrical pyramidal peak in the extended Monte Rosa area of the Pennine Alps, whose summit is 4,478 metres high, making it one of the highest summits in the Alps and Europe. The four steep faces, rising above the glaciers, face the four compass points and are split by the Hörnli, Leone. The mountain overlooks the Swiss town of Zermatt in the canton of Valais to the north-east, just east of the Matterhorn is Theodul Pass, the main passage between the two valleys on its north and south sides and a trade route since the Roman Era. The Matterhorn was studied by Horace-Bénédict de Saussure in the eighteenth century. It remained unclimbed after most of the other great Alpine peaks had been attained, the first ascent of the Matterhorn was finally made in 1865 from Zermatt by a party led by Edward Whymper but ended disastrously when four of its members fell to their deaths on the descent.
That climb and disaster, portrayed in films, marked the end of the golden age of alpinism. The north face was not climbed until 1931, and is amongst the three biggest north faces of the Alps, known as the ‘The Trilogy’, the west face, which is the highest of the four, was completely climbed only in 1962. It is estimated that over 500 alpinists have died on the Matterhorn since the first climb in 1865, making it one of the deadliest peaks in the world. The current shape of the mountain is the result of erosion due to multiple glaciers diverging from the peak, such as the Matterhorn Glacier at the base of the north face. Sometimes referred to as the Mountain of Mountains, the Matterhorn has become an emblem of the Swiss Alps. Since the end of the 19th century, when railways were built in the area, each year a large number of mountaineers try to climb the Matterhorn from the Hörnli Hut via the northeast Hörnli ridge, the most popular route to the summit. Many trekkers undertake the 10-day-long circuit around the mountain, the Matterhorn is part of the Swiss Federal Inventory of Natural Monuments since 1983.
Decomposing Matterhorn yields Matter and Horn, here Matter is Matte in the case. Commonly, prepositions related to Zermatt are dropped as in Matterhorn, Mattertal, in Sebastian Münsters Cosmography, published in 1543, the name Matter is given to the Theodul Pass, which seems to be the origin of the present German name of the mountain. On Münsters topographical map this group is marked under the names of Augstalberg, the French name Cervin, from which the Italian term Cervino derives, stems from the Latin Mons Silvanus where silva, means forest which was corrupted to Selvin and Servin. The change of the first letter s to c is attributed to Horace Bénédict de Saussure, servius Galba, in order to carry out Caesars orders, came with his legions from Allobroges to Octodurum in the Valais, and pitched his camp there. It is unknown when the new name of Servin, or Cervin, replaced the old, the Matterhorn is named Gran Becca by the Valdôtains and Horu by the local Walliser German speaking people
John Tyndall FRS was a prominent Irish 19th-century physicist. His initial scientific fame arose in the 1850s from his study of diamagnetism, he made discoveries in the realms of infrared radiation and the physical properties of air. Tyndall published more than a dozen science books which brought state-of-the-art 19th century experimental physics to a wide audience, from 1853 to 1887 he was professor of physics at the Royal Institution of Great Britain in London. Tyndall was born in Leighlinbridge, County Carlow and his father was a local police constable, descended from Gloucestershire emigrants who settled in southeast Ireland around 1670. Tyndall attended the schools in County Carlow until his late teens. Subjects learned at school notably included technical drawing and mathematics with some applications of those subjects to land surveying. He was hired as a draftsman by the Ordnance Survey of Ireland in his teens in 1839. In the decade of the 1840s, a boom was in progress. Between 1844 and 1847, he was employed in railway construction planning.
In 1847 Tyndall opted to become a mathematics and surveying teacher at a school in Hampshire. Recalling this decision later, he wrote, the desire to grow intellectually did not forsake me, another recently arrived young teacher at Queenwood was Edward Frankland, who had previously worked as a chemical laboratory assistant for the British Geological Survey. Frankland and Tyndall became good friends, on the strength of Franklands prior knowledge, they decided to go to Germany to further their education in science. Among other things, Frankland knew that certain German universities were ahead of any in Britain in experimental chemistry, the pair moved to Germany in summer 1848 and enrolled at the University of Marburg, where Robert Bunsen was an influential teacher. Tyndall studied under Bunsen for two years, perhaps more influential for Tyndall at Marburg was Professor Hermann Knoblauch, with whom Tyndall maintained communications by letter for many years afterwards. Tyndalls Marburg dissertation was an analysis of screw surfaces in 1850.
He stayed at Marburg for a year doing research on magnetism with Knoblauch, including some months visit at the Berlin laboratory of Knoblauchs main teacher. It is clear today that Bunsen and Magnus were among the very best experimental science instructors of the era, when Tyndall returned to live in England in summer 1851, he probably had as good an education in experimental science as anyone in England. Tyndalls early original work in physics was his experiments on magnetism and diamagnetic polarity and his two most influential reports were the first two, co-authored with Knoblauch
Zermatt is a municipality in the district of Visp in the German-speaking section of the canton of Valais in Switzerland. It has a population of about 5,800 inhabitants, the town lies at the upper end of Mattertal at an elevation of 1,620 m, at the foot of Switzerlands highest peaks. It lies about 10 km from the over 10,800 ft high Theodul Pass bordering Italy, Zermatt is famed as a mountaineering and ski resort of the Swiss Alps. The year round population is 5,759, though there may be several times as many tourists in Zermatt at any one time. Much of the economy is based on tourism, with about half of the jobs in town in hotels or restaurants. Just over one-third of the permanent population was born in the town, the name of Zermatt, as well as that of the Matterhorn itself, derives from the alpine meadows, or matten, in the valley. The name appeared first as Zur Matte and became Zermatt and it does not appear until 1495 on a map or 1546 in a text, but may have been employed long before. Praborno or Prato Borno are the names of Zermatt, they appear in the ancient maps as early as the thirteenth century.
The Romand-speaking people from the Aosta Valley and from the Romand-speaking part of canton Wallis used this name until about 1860 in the form of Praborne, the reason of this change from Praborno to Zermatt is attributed to the gradual replacement of the Romance-speaking people by German-speaking colony. The town of Zermatt lies at the end of the Matter Valley. Zermatt is almost completely surrounded by the mountains of the Pennine Alps among which Monte Rosa. It is followed by the Dom, Lyskamm and the Matterhorn, most of the Alpine four-thousanders are located around Zermatt or in the neighbouring valleys. The town of Zermatt, while dense, is geographically small, there are three main streets which run along the banks of the river Matter Vispa, and numerous cross-streets, especially around the station and the church which forms the centre of Zermatt. In general anything is at most a thirty-minute walk away, there are several suburbs within Zermatt. Winkelmatten, which was once a hamlet, lies on a hill on the southern side.
Steinmatten is located on the bank of the main river. Many hamlets are located in the valleys above Zermatt, however they are not usually inhabited all year round, zum See lies south of Zermatt on the west bank of the Gorner gorge, near Furi where a cable car station is located. On the side of Zmutt valley lies the hamlet of Zmutt, findeln is located in the eastern valley above the Findelbach river
Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a federal republic in Europe. It consists of 26 cantons, and the city of Bern is the seat of the federal authorities. The country is situated in western-Central Europe, and is bordered by Italy to the south, France to the west, Germany to the north, and Austria and Liechtenstein to the east. Switzerland is a country geographically divided between the Alps, the Swiss Plateau and the Jura, spanning an area of 41,285 km2. The establishment of the Old Swiss Confederacy dates to the medieval period, resulting from a series of military successes against Austria. Swiss independence from the Holy Roman Empire was formally recognized in the Peace of Westphalia in 1648. The country has a history of armed neutrality going back to the Reformation, it has not been in a state of war internationally since 1815, nevertheless, it pursues an active foreign policy and is frequently involved in peace-building processes around the world. In addition to being the birthplace of the Red Cross, Switzerland is home to international organisations.
On the European level, it is a member of the European Free Trade Association. However, it participates in the Schengen Area and the European Single Market through bilateral treaties, spanning the intersection of Germanic and Romance Europe, Switzerland comprises four main linguistic and cultural regions, French and Romansh. Due to its diversity, Switzerland is known by a variety of native names, Suisse, Svizzera. On coins and stamps, Latin is used instead of the four living languages, Switzerland is one of the most developed countries in the world, with the highest nominal wealth per adult and the eighth-highest per capita gross domestic product according to the IMF. Zürich and Geneva have each been ranked among the top cities in the world in terms of quality of life, with the former ranked second globally, according to Mercer. The English name Switzerland is a compound containing Switzer, a term for the Swiss. The English adjective Swiss is a loan from French Suisse, in use since the 16th century.
The name Switzer is from the Alemannic Schwiizer, in origin an inhabitant of Schwyz and its associated territory, the Swiss began to adopt the name for themselves after the Swabian War of 1499, used alongside the term for Confederates, used since the 14th century. The data code for Switzerland, CH, is derived from Latin Confoederatio Helvetica. The toponym Schwyz itself was first attested in 972, as Old High German Suittes, ultimately related to swedan ‘to burn’
Edward Whymper was an English mountaineer, explorer and author best known for the first ascent of the Matterhorn in 1865. Four members of his party were killed during the descent. Whymper made important first ascents on the Mont Blanc massif and in the Pennine Alps, Chimborazo in South America, and his exploration of Greenland contributed an important advance to Arctic exploration. Whymper wrote several books on mountaineering, including Scrambles Amongst the Alps, Edward Whymper was born in London, England, on 27 April 1840 to the artist and wood engraver Josiah Wood Whymper and Elizabeth Claridge. He was the second of eleven children, his brother being the artist. He was trained to be a wood-engraver at an early age, in 1860, he made extensive forays into the central and western Alps to produce a series of commissioned alpine scenery drawings. In 1861, Whymper successfully completed the ascent of Mont Pelvoux, Whymper climbed the Barre des Écrins in 1864 with Horace Walker, A. W. Moore and guides Christian Almer senior and junior.
That year he made the first crossing of the Moming Pass. According to his own words, his failure was on the west ridge of the Dent dHérens in 1863. In 1865, who had failed eight times already and this party of four was joined by Hudson and Croz, and the inexperienced Douglas Hadow. Their attempt by what is now the route, the Hörnli ridge, met with success on 14 July 1865. On the descent, Hadow slipped and fell onto Croz, dislodging him and dragging Douglas and Hudson to their deaths, a controversy ensued as to whether the rope had actually been cut, but a formal investigation could not find any proof. It can be deduced that Taugwalder had no choice but to use a weaker rope as the stronger rope was not long enough to connect Traugwalder to Douglas. The account of Whympers attempts on the Matterhorn occupies the part of his book, Scrambles amongst the Alps. Yes, I shall always see them, Whympers 1865 campaign had been planned to test his route-finding skills in preparation for an expedition to Greenland in 1867.
The exploration in Greenland resulted in an important collection of fossil plants, Whympers report was published in the report of the British Association of 1869. Another expedition in 1872 was devoted to a survey of the coastline, Whymper next organized an expedition to Ecuador, designed primarily to collect data for the study of altitude sickness and the effect of reduced pressure on the human body. His chief guide was Jean-Antoine Carrel, who died from exhaustion on the Matterhorn after bringing his employers into safety through a snowstorm
Pic Tyndall is a minor summit below the Matterhorn in the Pennine Alps, on the boundary between Aosta Valley and Switzerland. Because of its small prominence it was included in the enlarged list of alpine four-thousanders and it was named in honour of John Tyndall who made the first ascent. Pic Tyndall was not considered as a goal in itself but it was located on the Lion ridge and its summit was effectively reached during one of those attempts by John Tyndall accompanied by his guides Johann Joseph Bennen and Walter. Jean-Antoine Carrel and César Carrel were engaged as porters, the five men started from Breuil on July 27,1863. A wooden ladder, which Tyndall had taken him, helped them over the most difficult passage. They could not go any higher than Pic Tyndall since the cleft that separated it from the peak of the Matterhorn, named the enjambée. It was at the time, the highest altitude reached by man on the Matterhorn, John Tyndall wrote, We reached the first summit, and planted a flag upon it.
The same thought had probably brooded in other minds, still it angered me slightly to hear misgiving obtain audible expression, from the point on which we planted our first flagstaff a hacked and extremely acute ridge ran, and abutted against the final precipice. Along this we moved cautiously, while the face of the precipice came clearer and clearer into view, the ridge on which we stood ran right against it, it was the only means of approach, while ghastly abysses fell on either side. We sat down, and inspected the place, no glass was needed, three out of the four men muttered almost simultaneously, It is impossible. Bennen was the man of the four who did not utter the word. A jagged stretch of the ridge still separated us from the precipice, I pointed to a spot at some distance from the place where we sat, and asked the three doubters whether that point might not be reached without much danger. We think so, was the reply and we reached the place, and sat down there. The men again muttered despairingly, and at length they said distinctly, I by no means wished to put on pressure, but directing their attention to a point at the base of the precipice, I asked them whether they could not reach that point without much risk.
Then, I said, let us go there and we moved cautiously along, and reached the point aimed at. The ridge was here split by a cleft which separated it from the final precipice. So savage a spot I had never seen, and I sat down upon it with the sickness of disappointed hope, the summit was within almost a stones throw of us, and the thought of retreat was bitter in the extreme. Bennen excitedly pointed out a track which he thought practicable and he spoke of danger, of difficulty, never of impossibility, but this was the ground taken by the other three men