A school bus is a type of bus owned, contracted to, or operated by a school or school district. It is used to transport students to and from school or school-related activities, but not including a charter bus or transit bus. Various configurations of school buses are used worldwide. In North America, school buses are purpose-built vehicles distinguished from other types of buses by design characteristics mandated by federal and state/province regulations. In addition to their distinct paint color, school buses are fitted with exterior warning lights and multiple safety devices. In the second half of the 19th century, many rural areas of the United States and Canada were served by one-room schools. For those students who lived beyond practical walking distance from school, transportation was facilitated in the form of the kid hack. One of the longest-running school bus manufacturers, Wayne Works, started producing its first school wagons in Indiana in the late 1880s. A re-purposed farm wagon with the addition of interior bench seats, the design featured a rear entrance door.
As kid hacks were horse-drawn vehicles, the feature was intended in order to avoid startling the horses while loading or unloading passengers. After the first decade of the 20th century, student transport underwent a major transition, as vehicles transitioned from horse-drawn wagons towards "horseless" automotive chassis. In terms of overall configuration, few initial changes were made, as wagon bodies were adapted to truck frames. For the passenger compartment, the rear entry door and perimeter bench seating remained. For most of the first three decades, school bus bodies were given little, if any, weather protection, sometimes consisting of a tarpaulin stretched above the passenger seating. In 1927, Ford dealership owner A. L. Luce produced a bus body for a 1927 Ford Model T. Unlike previous wood-bodied buses, Luce used wood only to frame the body of the bus, paneling the body in steel. While the bus was constructed with a roof, its only weather protection was afforded by roll-up canvas side curtains.
During the 1930s, several advances in school buses were seen that would change its design and production forever. To better adapt automotive chassis design, school bus entry doors were moved from the rear to the front curbside, becoming a door operated by the driver. However, school buses retained the rear door, re-purposed as an emergency exit. Following the introduction of the steel-paneled 1927 Luce bus, school bus manufacturing began to transition towards all-steel bus bodies. In 1930, both Wayne and Superior introduced all-steel school buses, with Wayne introducing a body with safety glass windows; as school bus design paralleled design of light to medium-duty commercial trucks of the time, the advent of forward-control trucks would have their own influence on school bus design. In an effort to gain extra seating capacity and visibility, Crown Coach built its own cabover school bus design from the ground up; the highest-capacity school bus of the time, the 76-passenger Crown Supercoach was aptly named, as many California school districts operated in terrain requiring heavy-duty vehicles.
As the 1930s progressed, flat-front school buses began to follow motorcoach design in styling as well as engineering the reason the industry adopted "transit-style" in naming them. In 1940, the first mid-engined transit school bus was produced by Gillig in California; the custom-built nature of school buses created an inherent obstacle to their profitable mass production on a large scale. Although school bus design had moved away from the wagon-style kid hacks of the generation before, there was not yet an agreed on set of industry-wide standards for school buses. Organized by rural education expert Dr. Frank W. Cyr, a week-long 1939 conference at Teachers College, Columbia University forever changed the design and production of school buses. Funded by a $5000 grant, Dr. Cyr had invited transportation officials, representatives from body and chassis manufacturers, paint companies. To reduce the complexity of school bus production and increase safety, a set of 44 standards were agreed upon and adopted by the attendees.
To allow for large-scale production of school buses among body manufacturers, adoption of these standards allowed for greater consistency among body manufacturers. While many of the standards of the 1939 conference have been modified or updated, one part of its legacy remains a key part of every school bus in North America today: the adoption of a standard paint color for all school buses. While technically named National School Bus Glossy Yellow, school bus yellow was adopted for use since it was considered easiest to see in dawn and dusk, it contrasted well with black lettering. While not universally used worldwide, yellow has become the shade most associated with school buses both in North America and abroad. In the years leading up to World War II, education systems would take a larger role in school bus operation, with bus ownership transitioning from single individuals to local school districts beginning their own fleets of school buses and employing bus drivers. Following World War II and the rise of suburban growth in North America, demand for school busing increased outside of rural areas.
In all but the most isolated areas, one-room schools from the tu
A truck or lorry is a motor vehicle designed to transport cargo. Trucks vary in size and configuration. Commercial trucks can be large and powerful, may be configured to mount specialized equipment, such as in the case of fire trucks, concrete mixers, suction excavators. Modern trucks are powered by diesel engines, although small to medium size trucks with gasoline engines exist in the US, Mexico. In the European Union, vehicles with a gross combination mass of up to 3.5 t are known as light commercial vehicles, those over as large goods vehicles. Trucks and cars have a common ancestor: the steam-powered fardier Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot built in 1769. However, steam wagons were not common until the mid-1800s; the roads of the time, built for horse and carriages, limited these vehicles to short hauls from a factory to the nearest railway station. The first semi-trailer appeared in 1881, towed by a steam tractor manufactured by De Dion-Bouton. Steam-powered wagons were sold in France and the United States until the eve of World War I, 1935 in the United Kingdom, when a change in road tax rules made them uneconomic against the new diesel lorries.
In 1895 Karl Benz designed and built the first truck in history using the internal combustion engine. That year some of Benz's trucks were modified to become the first bus by the Netphener, the first motorbus company in history. A year in 1896, another internal combustion engine truck was built by Gottlieb Daimler. Other companies, such as Peugeot, Renault and Büssing built their own versions; the first truck in the United States was built by Autocar in 1899 and was available with optional 5 or 8 horsepower motors. Trucks of the era used two-cylinder engines and had a carrying capacity of 3,300 to 4,400 lb. In 1904, 700 heavy trucks were built in the United States, 1000 in 1907, 6000 in 1910, 25000 in 1914. After World War I, several advances were made: pneumatic tires replaced the common full rubber versions. Electric starters, power brakes, 4, 6, 8 cylinder engines, closed cabs, electric lighting followed; the first modern semi-trailer trucks appeared. Touring car builders such as Ford and Renault entered the heavy truck market.
Although it had been invented in 1897, the diesel engine did not appear in production trucks until Benz introduced it in 1923. The diesel engine was not common in trucks in Europe until the 1930s. In the United States, Autocar introduced engines for heavy applications in the mid-1930s. Demand was high enough Autocar launched the "DC" model in 1939. However, it took much longer for diesel engines to be broadly accepted in the US: gasoline engines were still in use on heavy trucks in the 1970s. Truck is used in American English, is common in Canada, New Zealand, Puerto Rico and South Africa, while lorry is the equivalent in British English, is the usual term in countries like the United Kingdom, Malaysia and India; the word "truck" might come from a back-formation of "truckle", meaning "small wheel" or "pulley", from Middle English trokell, in turn from Latin trochlea. Another possible source is the Latin trochus, meaning "iron hoop". In turn, both sources emanate from trekhein; the first known usage of "truck" was in 1611, when it referred to the small strong wheels on ships' cannon carriages.
In its extended usage it came to refer to carts for carrying heavy loads, a meaning known since 1771. Its expanded application to "motor-powered load carrier" has been in usage since 1930, shortened from "motor truck", which dates back to 1901."Lorry" has a more uncertain origin, but has its roots in the rail transport industry, where the word is known to have been used in 1838 to refer to a type of truck a large flat wagon. It derives from the verb lurry of uncertain origin, its expanded meaning, "self-propelled vehicle for carrying goods", has been in usage since 1911. Before that, the word "lorry" was used for a sort of big horse-drawn goods wagon. In the United States and the Philippines "truck" is reserved for commercial vehicles larger than normal cars, includes pickups and other vehicles having an open load bed. In Australia, New Zealand and South Africa, the word "truck" is reserved for larger vehicles. In the United Kingdom, Malaysia, Singapore and Hong Kong lorry is used instead of truck, but only for the medium and heavy types.
Produced as variations of golf cars, with internal combustion or battery electric drive, these are used for off-highway use on estates, golf courses, parks. While not suitable for highway use some variations may be licensed as slow speed vehicles for operation on streets as a body variation of a neighborhood electric vehicle. A few manufactures produce specialized chassis for this type of vehicle, while Zap Motors markets a version of their xebra electric tricycle. Popular in Europe and Asia, many mini trucks are factory redesigns of light automobiles with monocoque bodies. Specialized designs with substantial frames such as the Italian Piaggio shown here are based upon Japanese designs and are popular for use in "old town" sections of European cities that have narrow alleyways. Regardless of name, these smal
An ambulance is a medically equipped vehicle which transports patients to treatment facilities, such as hospitals. In some instances, out-of-hospital medical care is provided to the patient. Ambulances are used to respond to medical emergencies by emergency medical services. For this purpose, they are equipped with flashing warning lights and sirens, they can transport paramedics and other first responders to the scene, carry equipment for administering emergency care and transport patients to hospital or other definitive care. Most ambulances use a design based on pick-up trucks. Others take the form of motorcycles, buses and boats. Vehicles count as an ambulance if they can transport patients. However, it varies by jurisdiction as to whether a non-emergency patient transport vehicle is counted as an ambulance; these vehicles are not equipped with life-support equipment, are crewed by staff with fewer qualifications than the crew of emergency ambulances. Conversely, EMS agencies may have emergency response vehicles that cannot transport patients.
These are known by names such as fly-cars or response vehicles. The term ambulance comes from the Latin word "ambulare" as meaning "to walk or move about", a reference to early medical care where patients were moved by lifting or wheeling; the word meant a moving hospital, which follows an army in its movements. Ambulances were first used for emergency transport in 1487 by the Spanish forces during the siege of Málaga by the Catholic Monarchs against the Emirate of Granada. During the American Civil War vehicles for conveying the wounded off the field of battle were called ambulance wagons. Field hospitals were still called ambulances during the Franco-Prussian War of 1870 and in the Serbo-Turkish war of 1876 though the wagons were first referred to as ambulances about 1854 during the Crimean War; the history of the ambulance begins in ancient times, with the use of carts to transport incurable patients by force. Ambulances were first used for emergency transport in 1487 by the Spanish, civilian variants were put into operation during the 1830s.
Advances in technology throughout the 19th and 20th centuries led to the modern self-powered ambulances. Ambulances can be grouped into types depending on whether or not they transport patients, under what conditions. In some cases, ambulances may fulfil more than one function (such as combining emergency ambulance care with patient transport Emergency ambulance – The most common type of ambulance, which provide care to patients with an acute illness or injury; these can be road-going vans, helicopters, fixed-wing aircraft or converted vehicles such as golf carts. Patient transport ambulance – A vehicle, which has the job of transporting patients to, from or between places of medical treatment, such as hospital or dialysis center, for non-urgent care; these can be buses or other vehicles. Response vehicle – Also known as a fly-car, nontransporting EMS vehicle and variations. A vehicle, used to reach an acutely ill patient and provide on scene care. In some places, these vehicles can transport a patient, but only if they are able to sit in a regular car seat.
Response units may be backed up by an emergency ambulance which can transport the patient, or may deal with the problem on scene, with no requirement for a transport ambulance. These can be a wide variety of vehicles, from standard cars, to modified vans, pedal cycles, quad bikes or horses. Fire engines are used for this purpose in North America; these units can function as a vehicle for supervisors. Charity ambulance – A special type of patient transport ambulance is provided by a charity for the purpose of taking sick children or adults on trips or vacations away from hospitals, hospices or care homes where they are in long term care. Examples include; these are based on a bus. Bariatric ambulance – A special type of patient transport ambulance designed for obese patients equipped with the appropriate tools to move and manage these patients. In the US, there are four types of ambulances. There are Type I, Type II, Type III and Type IV. Type I is based upon a heavy truck chassis and is used for Advanced Life Support and rescue work.
Type II is a van based ambulance with few modifications except for a raised roof and is used for basic life support and transfer of patients. Type III is a van chassis but with a custom-made rear compartment and has the same uses as Type I ambulances. Type IV is for smaller ad hoc patient transfer that use smaller utility vehicles in which passenger vehicles and trucks would have difficulty in traversing, such as large industrial complexes, commercial venues, special events with large crowds. Ambulances can be based on many types of vehicle although emergency and disaster conditions may lead to other vehicles serving as makeshift ambulances: Van or pickup truck – A typical general-purpose ambulance is based on either the chassis of a van or a light-duty truck; this chassis is modified to the designs and specifications of the purchaser. Vans may either retain their original body and be upfitted inside, or may be based on a chassis without the original body with a modular box body fitted instead.
Those based on pickup trucks always have modular bodies. Those vehicles intended for intensive care or require a large amount of equipment to be carried may be based on
A bus is a road vehicle designed to carry many passengers. Buses can have a capacity as high as 300 passengers; the most common type of bus is the single-deck rigid bus, with larger loads carried by double-decker and articulated buses, smaller loads carried by midibuses and minibuses. Many types of buses, such as city transit buses and inter-city coaches, charge a fare. Other types, such as elementary or secondary school buses or shuttle buses within a post-secondary education campus do not charge a fare. In many jurisdictions, bus drivers require a special licence above and beyond a regular driver's licence. Buses may be used for scheduled bus transport, scheduled coach transport, school transport, private hire, or tourism. Horse-drawn buses were used from the 1820s, followed by steam buses in the 1830s, electric trolleybuses in 1882; the first internal combustion engine buses, or motor buses, were used in 1895. Interest has been growing in hybrid electric buses, fuel cell buses, electric buses, as well as ones powered by compressed natural gas or biodiesel.
As of the 2010s, bus manufacturing is globalised, with the same designs appearing around the world. Bus is a clipped form of the dative plural of omnis-e; the theoretical full name is in French voiture omnibus. The name originates from a mass-transport service started in 1823 by a French corn-mill owner named Stanislas Baudry in Richebourg, a suburb of Nantes. A by-product of his mill was hot water, thus next to it he established a spa business. In order to encourage customers he started a horse-drawn transport service from the city centre of Nantes to his establishment; the first vehicles stopped in front of the shop of a hatter named Omnés, which displayed a large sign inscribed "Omnes Omnibus", a pun on his Latin-sounding surname, omnes being the male and female nominative and accusative form of the Latin adjective omnis-e, combined with omnibus, the dative plural form meaning "for all", thus giving his shop the name "Omnés for all". His transport scheme was a huge success, although not as he had intended as most of his passengers did not visit his spa.
He turned the transport service into his principal lucrative business venture and closed the mill and spa. Nantes citizens soon gave the nickname "omnibus" to the vehicle. Having invented the successful concept Baudry moved to Paris and launched the first omnibus service there in April 1828. A similar service was introduced in London in 1829. Regular intercity bus services by steam-powered buses were pioneered in England in the 1830s by Walter Hancock and by associates of Sir Goldsworthy Gurney, among others, running reliable services over road conditions which were too hazardous for horse-drawn transportation; the first mechanically propelled omnibus appeared on the streets of London on 22 April 1833. Steam carriages were much less to overturn, they travelled faster than horse-drawn carriages, they were much cheaper to run, caused much less damage to the road surface due to their wide tyres. However, the heavy road tolls imposed by the turnpike trusts discouraged steam road vehicles and left the way clear for the horse bus companies, from 1861 onwards, harsh legislation eliminated mechanically propelled vehicles from the roads of Great Britain for 30 years, the Locomotive Act of that year imposing restrictive speed limits on "road locomotives" of 5 mph in towns and cities, 10 mph in the country.
In parallel to the development of the bus was the invention of the electric trolleybus fed through trolley poles by overhead wires. The Siemens brothers, William in England and Ernst Werner in Germany, collaborated on the development of the trolleybus concept. Sir William first proposed the idea in an article to the Journal of the Society of Arts in 1881 as an "...arrangement by which an ordinary omnibus...would have a suspender thrown at intervals from one side of the street to the other, two wires hanging from these suspenders. Although this experimental vehicle fulfilled all the technical criteria of a typical trolleybus, it was dismantled in the same year after the demonstration. Max Schiemann opened a passenger-carrying trolleybus in 1901 in Germany. Although this system operated only until 1904, Schiemann had developed what is now the standard trolleybus current collection system. In the early days, a few other methods of current collection were used. Leeds and Bradford became the first cities to put trolleybuses into service in Great Britain on 20 June 1911.
In Siegerland, two passenger bus lines ran but unprofitably, in 1895 using a six-passenger motor carriage developed from the 1893 Benz Viktoria. Another commercial bus line using the same model Benz omnibuses ran for a short time in 1898 in the rural area around Llandudno, Wales. Daimler produced one of the earliest motor-bus models in 1898, selling a double-decker bus to the Motor Traction Company, first used on the streets of London on 23 April 1898; the vehicle had a maximum speed of 18 km/h and accommodated up to 20 passengers, in an enclosed area below and on an open-air pl
A minibus, microbus, or minicoach is a passenger carrying motor vehicle, designed to carry more people than a multi-purpose vehicle or minivan, but fewer people than a full-size bus. In the United Kingdom, the word "minibus" is used to describe any full-sized passenger carrying van. Minibuses have a seating capacity of between 30 seats. Larger minibuses may be called midibuses. Minibuses are front-engined step-entrance vehicles, although low floor minibuses do exist. Minibuses are used for a variety of reasons. In a public transport role, they can be used as fixed route transit buses, airport buses, flexible demand responsive transport vehicles, share taxis or large taxicabs. Accessible minibuses can be used for paratransit type services, by local authorities, transit operators, hospitals or charities. Private uses of minibuses can include charter buses, tour buses. Schools, sports clubs, community groups and charities may use minibuses for private transport. Individual owners may use reduced seating minibuses as cheap recreational vehicles.
By size, microbuses are minibuses smaller than 8 metres long. Midibuses are minibuses smaller than full-size buses. There are many different types and configurations of minibuses, due to historical and local differences, usage. Minibus designs can be classified in three main groups, with a general increase in seating capacity with each type: Van conversions. Simple, optional extras Body builds Purpose built The most basic source of minibuses is the van conversion, where the minibus is derived by modifying the existing van design. Conversions may be produced by the van manufacturer, sold as part of their standard model line-up, or be produced by specialist conversion companies, who source a suitably prepared base model from the van manufacturer for final completion as a minibus. Van conversions involve adding windows to the bodywork, seating to the cargo area. Van conversion minibuses outwardly look the same shape as the parent van, the driver and front passenger cabin remains unchanged, retaining the driver and passenger doors.
Access to the former cargo area for passengers is through the standard van side sliding door, or the rear doors. These may be fitted with step equipment to make boarding easier. Optional extras to van converted minibuses can include the addition of a rollsign for transit work, and/or a full-height walk-in door, for passenger access to the former cargo area. For public transport use, this door may be an automatic concertina type. For other uses, this may be a simple plug style coach door. Depending on the relevant legislation, conversions may involve wheelchair lifts and tachograph equipment. A van conversion with a passenger area in the front and a storage area in the back, behind a fixed bulkhead, is called a splitter bus. Examples of vans used for these conversion minibuses are: Ford Transit Hyundai H350 LDV Maxus Mercedes-Benz Sprinter Renault Master Toyota Hiace Volkswagen Crafter Another method of building a minibus is for a second stage manufacturer to build a specific body for fitting to a semi-completed van or light truck chassis.
These allow a higher seating capacity than a simple van conversion. The second stage manufacturer is a bus manufacturer. In a body-on-chassis minibus, a cabin body is installed on a van or light truck chassis encompassing the drivers area; these designs may retain some outward signs such as the hood and grill. Other designs are visually a complete bus design, it is the chassis underneath, from the van design; the body-on-chassis approach gives the advantage of higher seating capacity, or more room for passenger comfort, through a larger cabin area. There is the advantage of being able to have the drivers seat positioned in a small cubicle, next to the main passenger entrance, allowing the driver to collect fares in a transit bus role. Examples of body built minibuses are: Busette Optare CityPacer Plaxton Beaver Examples of vehicles used for this type of minibuses are: Ford Transit Freight Rover Isuzu Elf locally built as the NQR bus A next generation approach to the van-derived or cutaway chassis approach, is for manufacturers to produce an integral design, where the whole vehicle is purposely designed and built for use as a minibus.
This is done by an integral bus manufacturer, although large automotive groups produce their own models. These designs are available in long high capacity versions, may attract different designations, such as midibus, or light bus. Examples of purpose built minibuses are: Hino Liesse Isuzu Journey MCW Metrorider Nissan Diesel RN Nissan Civilian Mitsubishi Fuso Rosa Toyota Coaster Karsan J9 Premier Karsan J10 Hyundai County Daewoo Lestar Renault Dodge S56 Following the development of low-floor technology, some low-floor purpose built minibuses have been created; some offer a low floor access through a centre door. Some short versions of low floor midibuses are sometimes called minibuses. Orion International "Orion II" Mitsubishi Fuso Aero Midi ME Optare Solo Optare Alero Karsan JEST! Hino Poncho Nissan Diesel RN Bluebird Tucana Bluebird Auriga Mercedes-Benz Sprinter There are many different form of public transportation services around the world that are provided by using vehicles that can be considered as minibus: Chiva bus in Colombia and
A recreational vehicle abbreviated as RV, is a motor vehicle or trailer which includes living quarters designed for accommodation. Types of RVs include motorhomes, caravans, fifth-wheel trailers, popup campers and truck campers. Typical amenities of an RV include a kitchen, a bathroom, one or more sleeping facilities. RVs can range from the utilitarian — containing only sleeping quarters and basic cooking facilities — to the luxurious, with features like air conditioning, water heaters and satellite receptors, quartz countertops, for example. RVs can either be self-motorized. Most RVs are single-deck. To allow a more compact size while in transit, larger RVs have expandable sides, called slide-outs, or canopies. An early type of caravan is the horse-drawn covered wagon, which from circa 1745 played a significant part in opening up of the interior of the North American continent to white settlement. By the 1920s the RV was well established in the United States, with RV camping clubs established across the country, despite the unpaved roads and limited camping facilities.
Several companies began manufacturing house trailers. Airstream is one such company; until the 1950s, the RV industry was connected to the mobile home industry because most mobile homes were shorter than 9 metres long, thus transportable. During the 1950s, the RV and mobile home industries became separated and RV manufacturers began building self-contained motorhomes. In Europe, wagons built for accommodation were developed in France around 1810, they were used in Britain by circus performers from the 1820s. Romani people only began living in caravans circa 1850. In Canada, the earliest motorhomes were built on car or truck bodies from about 1910. In Australia, the earliest known motorhome was built in 1929; this motorhome is recognized as being the first motorized caravan in Australia and is located in the Goolwa museum. Although the most common usage of RVs is as temporary accommodation when traveling, some people use an RV as their main residence. In the United States and Canada, travelling south each winter to a warmer climate is referred to as snowbirding.
In Australia, the slang term for a retired person who travels in a recreational vehicle is a "grey nomad". Some owners fit solar panels to the roof of their RV. Usage of RVs is common at rural festivals such as Burning Man; as of 2016, the average age of a person owning a recreational vehicle in the United States was 45, with a three year decrease since 2015. Gallant, JD. How to Select and Buy an RV. RV Consumer Group. ISBN 1890049-9-05. Freeman, Jayne; the Complete RV Handbook. McGraw-Hill Professional. ISBN 978-0-07-144339-5. Moeller, Bill; the Complete Book of Boondock RVing: Camping Off the Beaten Path. McGraw-Hill Professional. ISBN 978-0-07-149065-8. "Hitting the Trail 1935 Style". Popular Mechanics: 40–42. July 1935
Cutaway van chassis
Cutaway van chassis are used by second stage manufacturers for a wide range of completed motor vehicles. Popular in the United States, they are based upon incomplete vans made by manufacturers such as FCA US LLC, Ford Motor Company, General Motors which are equipped with heavier components than most of their complete products. To these incomplete vehicles, a second stage manufacturer adds specific equipment and completes the vehicle. Common applications of this type of vehicle design and manufacturing includes small trucks, school buses, recreational vehicles and ambulances; the term "cutaway" can be somewhat of a misnomer in most of the vehicle's context since it refers to truck bodies for heavy-duty commercial-grade applications sharing a common truck chassis. Following the initial popularity of Volkswagen's imported minibuses, vans made by the domestic manufacturers were developed and became popular in the United States in the 1960s. By the early 1970s, Chrysler Corporation, Ford Motor Company, General Motors were all manufacturing many models of passenger and utility vans.
The Dodge passenger vans of Chrysler had a maximum seating capacity of 14 persons plus the driver, came to be known as 15 passenger vans, joined by similar sized models by the other manufacturers years later. Conversions for personal motor homes became popular, drawing the interest of recreational vehicle manufacturers. Based upon that, cutaway van chassis were developed in the early 1970s to accommodate demand for conversions which were heavier and wider than the standard production vans completed by the major auto and truck manufacturers; as they began working on bigger models of their popular light-duty van products, they developed cutaway van chassis for use by second stage manufacturers. As produced by the first stage manufacturers, a cutaway van chassis features a van front end and cab design; the body ends behind the driver and front passenger seats, is covered by temporary plywood or heavy cardboard material for shipment to the various second stage manufacturers. It was soon known by the name "cutaway van chassis" in recognition of this feature.
Second stage manufacturers, known in the industry as "body-builders," build such products as bus and truck bodies, motor homes, other specialized vehicles. Neither their product, nor the first stage portion defined as an "incomplete motor vehicle" under the Federal Motor Vehicle safety Standards in the US, are compliant with requirements for a complete motor vehicle. Neither portion can be operated lawfully without the other. Many cutaway chassis are equipped with dual rear wheels and can handle greater weight loads than the basic vans upon which they were based. Busette, developed by Wayne Corporation in 1972, was the first successful small school bus to be based on a cutaway van chassis with dual rear wheels. With a low center of gravity and the dual rear wheels, Busette provided an exceptional combination of increased seating capacity and handling stability over conventional vans and van conversions. By the early 1980s, all five of the major school bus body companies in the United States had developed competing products built on the cutaway van chassis.
These manufacturers were joined by several others. In the early 1990s, Mid Bus, an Ohio manufacturer specializing in small school buses, purchased the tooling and product rights to build the Busette from Wayne Corporation, produced Busettes for a few more years. In modern times, more small school buses are based upon cutaway van chassis than any other type. Most school bus body builders produce models for non-school use called a "commercial minibus". A recreational vehicle is a motor vehicle dually used as a temporary travel home, they are called "motor homes" and are popular in North America. By the mid 1970s, recreational vehicle builders were building models based upon cutaway van chassis. Within the industry, a motor home based upon a cutaway van chassis is a Class C motor home, it is built on a truck chassis with an attached cab section, cutaway van chassis based. They are characterized by a distinctive "cab-over" profile, the portion of the coach over the cab containing a bed or an "entertainment" section.
Seeking to expand product offerings, several recreational vehicle manufacturers, notably Champion, ElDorado National and others developed minibus models using cutaway van chassis and body construction similar to their motor homes. With their products, they joined the school bus body companies in expanding markets. Minibuses customarily have a seating capacity of between 30 seats, they are used in a wide variety of applications. In a public transport role, they can be used as fixed route transit buses, airport buses, flexible demand responsive transport vehicles, share taxis or large taxicabs. Wheelchair accessible minibuses can be used for paratransit type services, by local authorities, transit operators, hospitals or charities. Private uses of minibuses can include corporate transport, charter buses, tour buses, for non-profit organizations such as churches. In the United States, the 1973 National EMS Systems Act, passed by Congress in 1974, implemented four years required that communities receiving federal funds for their programs had ambulances that met new federal specifications.
The regulations included minimum width and other requirements which eliminated car-based vehicles. The last American-made car-based ambulance was built i