Science fiction is a genre of speculative fiction dealing with imaginative and futuristic concepts such as advanced science and technology, space exploration, time travel, extraterrestrials in fiction. Science fiction explores the potential consequences of scientific other various innovations, has been called a "literature of ideas." "Science fiction" is difficult to define as it includes a wide range of concepts and themes. James Blish wrote: "Wells used the term to cover what we would today call'hard' science fiction, in which a conscientious attempt to be faithful to known facts was the substrate on which the story was to be built, if the story was to contain a miracle, it ought at least not to contain a whole arsenal of them."Isaac Asimov said: "Science fiction can be defined as that branch of literature which deals with the reaction of human beings to changes in science and technology." According to Robert A. Heinlein, "A handy short definition of all science fiction might read: realistic speculation about possible future events, based solidly on adequate knowledge of the real world and present, on a thorough understanding of the nature and significance of the scientific method."Lester del Rey wrote, "Even the devoted aficionado or fan—has a hard time trying to explain what science fiction is," and that the reason for there not being a "full satisfactory definition" is that "there are no delineated limits to science fiction."
Author and editor Damon Knight summed up the difficulty, saying "science fiction is what we point to when we say it." Mark C. Glassy described the definition of science fiction as U. S. Supreme Court Justice Potter Stewart did with the definition of pornography: "I know it when I see it." Science fiction had its beginnings in a time when the line between myth and fact was arguably more blurred than the present day. Written in the 2nd century CE by the satirist Lucian, A True Story contains many themes and tropes that are characteristic of contemporary science fiction, including travel to other worlds, extraterrestrial lifeforms, interplanetary warfare, artificial life; some consider it the first science-fiction novel. Some of the stories from The Arabian Nights, along with the 10th-century The Tale of the Bamboo Cutter and Ibn al-Nafis's 13th-century Theologus Autodidactus contain elements of science fiction. Products of the Age of Reason and the development of modern science itself, Johannes Kepler's Somnium, Francis Bacon's New Atlantis, Cyrano de Bergerac's Comical History of the States and Empires of the Moon and The States and Empires of the Sun, Margaret Cavendish's "The Blazing World", Jonathan Swift's Gulliver's Travels, Ludvig Holberg's Nicolai Klimii Iter Subterraneum and Voltaire's Micromégas are regarded as some of the first true science-fantasy works.
Indeed, Isaac Asimov and Carl Sagan considered Somnium the first science-fiction story. Following the 18th-century development of the novel as a literary form, Mary Shelley's books Frankenstein and The Last Man helped define the form of the science-fiction novel. Brian Aldiss has argued. Edgar Allan Poe wrote several stories considered science fiction, including "The Unparalleled Adventure of One Hans Pfaall" which featured a trip to the Moon. Jules Verne was noted for his attention to detail and scientific accuracy Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea which predicted the contemporary nuclear submarine. In 1887, the novel El anacronópete by Spanish author Enrique Gaspar y Rimbau introduced the first time machine. Many critics consider H. G. Wells one of science fiction's most important authors, or "the Shakespeare of science fiction." His notable science-fiction works include The Time Machine, The Island of Doctor Moreau, The Invisible Man, The War of the Worlds. His science fiction imagined alien invasion, biological engineering and time travel.
In his non-fiction futurologist works he predicted the advent of airplanes, military tanks, nuclear weapons, satellite television, space travel, something resembling the World Wide Web. In 1912, Edgar Rice Burroughs published A Princess of Mars, the first of his three-decade-long planetary romance series of Barsoom novels, set on Mars and featuring John Carter as the hero. In 1926, Hugo Gernsback published the first American science-fiction magazine, Amazing Stories, in which he wrote: By'scientifiction' I mean the Jules Verne, H. G. Wells and Edgar Allan Poe type of story—a charming romance intermingled with scientific fact and prophetic vision... Not only do these amazing tales make tremendously interesting reading—they are always instructive, they supply knowledge... in a palatable form... New adventures pictured for us in the scientifiction of today are not at all impossible of realization tomorrow... Many great science stories destined to be of historical interest are still to be written...
Posterity will point to them as having blazed a new trail, not only in literature and fiction, but progress as well. In 1928, E. E. "Doc" Smith's first published work, The Skylark of Space, written in collaboration with Lee Hawkins Garby, appeared in Amazing Stories. It is called the first great space opera; the same year, Philip Francis Nowlan's original Buck Rogers story, Armageddon 2419 appeared in Amazing Stories. This was followed by the first serious science-fiction comic. In 1937, John W. Campbell became editor of Astounding Science Fiction, an event, sometimes conside
Double, Double (Brunner novel)
Double, Double is a science fiction novel by John Brunner, first published in the United States as an original paperback by Ballantine Books in 1969 and reprinted in 1979 as a Del Rey paperback. A hardcover edition was released in the British market in 1971 by Jackson. Spider Robinson dismissed the novel, saying "there just ain't all that much right with it.... It's a shame writers have to do this stuff to stay alive."
Edmund Alexander Emshwiller, better known as Ed Emshwiller, was an American visual artist notable for his science fiction illustrations and his pioneering experimental films. He signed his illustrations as Emsh but sometimes used Ed Emsh, Ed Emsler and others. Born in Lansing, Michigan of Germanic descent, he graduated from the University of Michigan in 1947, studied at École des Beaux Arts in Paris with his wife, novelist Carol Emshwiller, whom he married on August 30, 1949, he studied at the Art Students League of New York. From 1951 to 1979, while living in Levittown, New York, Emshwiller created covers and interior illustrations for dozens of science fiction paperbacks and magazines, notably Galaxy and The Magazine of Fantasy & Science Fiction, he debuted in the pulp magazines with about 50 interior illustrations and four cover paintings for the May to December 1951 issues of Galaxy, a monthly edited by H. L. Gold. In that year or 1952 he did his first book cover for the U. S. paperback edition of Odd John Because he experimented with a diversity of techniques, there is no typical Emsh cover.
His painterly treatment for the August 1951 cover of Galaxy Science Fiction prefigures work by Leo and Diane Dillon. In 1964, a Ford Foundation grant allowed Emshwiller to pursue his interest in film. Active in the New American Cinema movement of the 1960s and early 1970s, he created multimedia performance pieces and did cine-dance and experimental films, such as the 38-minute Relativity, he was a cinematographer on documentaries, such as Emile de Antonio's Painters Painting, feature films, such as Time of the Heathen and Adolfas Mekas' Hallelujah the Hills. Emshwiller's footage of Bob Dylan singing "Only a Pawn in Their Game" on July 6, 1963 at a Voters' Registration Rally in Greenwood, was shot for Jack Willis' 1963 documentary The Streets of Greenwood and appears in D. A. Pennebaker's Dylan documentary, Dont Look Back, his films of the 1960s were shot in 16mm color, some of these included double exposures created by rewinding the cameras. He was one of the earliest video artists. With Scape-Mates, he began his experiments in video.
In 1979, he produced Sunstone, a groundbreaking three-minute 3-D computer-generated video made at the New York Institute of Technology with Alvy Ray Smith. Now in the Museum of Modern Art's video collection, Sunstone was exhibited at SIGGRAPH 79, the 1981 Mill Valley Film Festival and other festivals. In 1979, it was shown on WNET's Video/Film Review, a single Sunstone frame was used on the front cover of Fundamentals of Interactive Computer Graphics, published in 1982 by Addison-Wesley. After a period as artist-in-residence at the Television Laboratory WNET/13, where he worked on the effects for The Lathe of Heaven among other projects, he moved to California where he was the founder of the CalArts Computer Animation Lab and served as dean of the School of Film/Video at the California Institute of Arts from 1979 to 1990, he served as provost from 1981 through 1986. In 1987, he created his electronic video opera, for the 1987 Los Angeles Arts Festival, in partnership with composer Morton Subotnick.
It was his last completed work presented in October 1989 at the Ars Electronica Festival in Linz, Austria. One of Emshwiller's neighbors in Levittown was Bill Griffith acclaimed for his Zippy syndicated comic strip, Griffith's parents sometimes posed as models for Emshwiller's illustrations. Griffith, who credited Emshwiller as an influence on his becoming an artist, was painted by Emshwiller into the front cover of Original Science Fiction. Griffith commented, "He didn't point me to cartooning, but he pointed me into art in general and showed me a way of understanding how within one artist, there could exist this pop culture impulse and a fine art impulse." Emshwiller won one of the inaugural Hugo Awards in 1953, as the previous year's best "Cover Artist". Cover artists and interior illustrators were not thereafter distinguished by the Hugo Award for Best Artist under various names. On June 16, 2007, he became the third artist inducted by the Science Fiction Hall of Fame, his paintings of aliens were displayed in the Alien Encounters exhibition of the Science Fiction Museum, which houses the hall of fame, at that time.
His papers are archived at the California Institute of Arts. Carol and Ed Emshwiller had three children—Eve Emshwiller, screenwriter Susan Emshwiller and actor-novelist Stoney Peter Emshwiller. Family members, including his brother Maclellan Emshwiller served as models in his illustrations. Carol and Eve Emshwiller can be seen in a Galaxy Science Fiction cover. Emshwiller died of cancer on July 27, 1990, in Valencia, where he was cremated. Ortiz, Luis, Ed Emshwiller, Carol Emshwiller, Alex Eisenstein. Emshwiller: Infinity x Two: The Art & Life of Ed & Carol Emshwiller. New York: Nonstop Press, 2007. ISBN 978-1-933065-09-0 Media related to Ed Emshwiller at Wikimedia Commons Emsh and Coye Works by Ed Emshwiller at Project Gutenberg Ed Emshwiller at the Internet Speculative Fiction Database "Ed Emshwiller biography". Science Fiction and Fantasy Hall of Fame
Entry to Elsewhen
Entry to Elsewhen is a collection of science fiction short stories by John Brunner, published in 1972. It contains the following stories: "Host Age" first appeared in New Worlds in 1955. "Lungfish" first appeared in Britain in Science Fantasy in 1957. "No Other Gods But Me" first appeared in what the acknowledgments page of this book describes as a "shorter and different form" as "A Time To Rend" in Science Fantasy in 1958. The version included in Entry to Elsewhen first appears in this collection; the above attributions notwithstanding, the book's acknowledgments page notes that "All three stories have been revised by the author for the present book." The first story takes place in what appears to be the near future. Set in London, it deals with the spread of a mysterious new plague; the plague defies all efforts to treat it or stop its spread, showing varied symptoms in different victims and mutating rapidly. A sinister aspect soon appears when scientists making progress in fighting the plague are sabotaged by unknown persons.
The plague seems to be spread by multiple typhoid Mary individuals, found unconscious on trains with large amounts of cash but no identifying information. It is discovered that the plague is being spread by human military forces who have travelled through time from several centuries in the future; the head of this group explains that the plague was developed by an aggressive alien species with the purpose of destroying humanity. The plague's effectiveness derives in part from atrophied immune systems resulting from long-term prevention of exposure to any infectious agent. Traveling to the past is a desperate measure to introduce the virus to humans with more robust immune systems in the hope that the survivors will be better able to resist the virus when the alien species creates it; this story takes place aboard a multi-generational spaceship travelling from Earth to a planet orbiting Tau Ceti with the goal of establishing a colony. The story's action concerns the end of the journey; the trip has taken 37 years, by now the crew is composed of two groups—the Earthborn, the surviving members of the original crew, the Tripborn, descendants of the original crew, who have lived their entire lives aboard the ship.
On reaching the destination planet, the Tripborn refuse to leave the ship. Never having lived on a planet, they don't seem to see the appeal. Additionally the idea causes severe agoraphobia, as experienced by one Tripborn crew member who makes a landing on the planet and must be retrieved by remote control; the Earthborn crew members employ a variety of means to make the Tripborn less comfortable on the ship, such as Psychoactive Drug included in the food supply and subtle background sounds designed to cause unease. However this fails to move the Tripborn despite the fact that the ship will be unable to support the full crew's life for more than a few weeks more; the Tripborn note that it's difficult to accept the Earthborn crew's rosy predictions for the future when the overall mission calls for the Earthborn to return home, leaving the Tripborn to establish the colony. Since the ship's cargo includes the necessary tools to build a city suitable for 10,000 inhabitants on the destination planet, the Earthborn crew suggests that they instead be employed in the construction of a second spaceship.
The reduced crew on the original ship could be supported by the ship's systems, the Earthborn crew would no longer need the original ship for the return voyage. The story ends before this plan has been carried out, leaving the reader to imagine whether the plan would be successful; as with the first story, this story takes place on the near-future Earth. Colin Hooper is a man, completing recovery from a severe mental breakdown, which included hallucination. After repeated chance meetings with Vanessa Sheriff he becomes unnerved by the fact that whenever she is present, the hallucinations return. However, she sees them as well, their meetings are interrupted by the appearance of a man calling himself Kolok, who makes dire predictions if they should keep meeting, but offers no details of what might occur. Vanessa marries a man, involved with an organisation calling itself Real Truth, which she describes as a cult; the "Real Truthers" beliefs include a belief in the supremacy of human thought as the primary force in the universe, the idea that by working together they can think into existence someone who they describe as the Perfect Man.
After being drawn into a meeting of Real Truth and Vanessa accidentally cross over into a parallel-universe Earth in which mental powers such as psychokinesis are practised by a number of adepts, who use these powers to enslave the rest of the population. It is explained that these abilities originated thousands of years past as the result of a mutation which the adepts carry; the leader, Telthis, is the one with the strongest mental powers, has been using his abilities to influence events on Colin and Vanessa's Earth with the purpose of invading it and ruling both Earths. It was Telthis's efforts which hallucinations. Telthis manipulated Colin and Vanessa into their random meetings, because they carry the genetic mutation of the adepts on Telthis' Earth, he hopes that by bringing them together they will have children and promote psychokinetic and other mental powers. Kolok, it turns out, is Telthis' chief opponent, who has appeared to Colin and Vanessa in the hope of preventing this. Colin and Vanessa manage with Kolok's help to escape from return to their own Earth.
Shortly afterward, Telthis' invasion begins. However he discovers that his mental powers do not function outs
Children of the Thunder
Children of the Thunder is a 1988 science fiction novel by John Brunner
A. Bertram Chandler
Arthur Bertram Chandler was an Anglo-Australian mariner-turned-science fiction author. He was born in Aldershot, England, he was a merchant marine officer, sailing the world in everything from tramp steamers to troop ships. In 1956, he became an Australian citizen. By 1958 he was an officer on the Sydney-Hobart route. Chandler commanded various ships in the Australian and New Zealand merchant navies, was the last master of the Australian aircraft carrier HMAS Melbourne as the law required that it have an officer on board while it was laid up waiting to be towed to China to be broken up. Chandler's daughter, Jenny Chandler, married British horror fiction writer Ramsey Campbell. Chandler wrote over 200 works of short fiction, he won Ditmar Awards for the short story "The Bitter Pill" and for three novels: False Fatherland, The Bitter Pill, The Big Black Mark. Chandler's descriptions of life aboard spaceships and the relationships between members of the crew en route derive from his experience on board seagoing ships and thus carry a feeling of realism found with other writers.
He was most well known for his Rim World series and John Grimes novels, both of which have a distinctly naval flavor. In the latter, Chandler's principal hero John Grimes is an enthusiastic sailor who has occasional adventures on the oceans of various planets. In the books, there is a repeated reference to an obsolete type of magnetically powered spaceship known as the "Gaussjammer", remembered nostalgically by "old timers" –, modelled on the windjammer; the heyday of the Gaussjammer, some centuries earlier than the Rim Worlds books, is the setting of the less well-known The Deep Reaches of Space which has undisguised autobiographical elements: its protagonist is a seaman turned science-fiction writer who travels to the future and uses his nautical experience to save a party of humans stranded on an alien planet. Chandler arrived at the John Grimes series in a rather roundabout way, his original Rim Worlds protagonist was Derek Calver, the merchant spaceman who drifted from the Galactic center to the Rim.
In The Rim of Space and The Ship from Outside, Calver had various adventures around the Rim, became a ship's captain and met and married the purser Jane "Calamity" Arlen - like him a refugee from the center. Appeared Sonia Verril, the glamorous femme fatale and temptress who messed up Calver's life and came close to wrecking his marriage. While this love triangle was moving towards an explosive confrontation deep in space, the grumpy Commodore Grimes was introduced as a secondary character far in the background. However, the plot culminated with Calver, along with Arlen, going to the mysterious Outsiders' Ship and being taken off away from the Galaxy and out of all human ken, leaving the stage empty, it was that Sonia Verril got Commodore Grimes to join her in an adventure Into the Alternate Universe which ended with their hitching up for life and with Grimes becoming Chandler's undoubted no.1 character. Chandler went on to provide Commodore Grimes with numerous new adventures as well as chart his career backwards to its humble beginnings.
Chandler's Australian background is evident in his depiction of a future wherein Australia becomes a major world power on Earth, Australians take the lead in space exploration and in colonising other planets. Drongo Kane, a pirate captain, the villain in several books, comes from the planet Austral, other books mention the planet Australis in another part of the galaxy, his story "The Mountain Movers" includes the song of future Australian space adventurers, sung to the tune of "Waltzing Matilda", with the first stanza running: "When the jolly Jumbuk lifted from Port Woomera Out and away for Altair Three Glad were we all to kiss the tired old Earth goodbye Who'll come a-sailing in Jumbuk with me?"The colonists who sing the song end up re-enacting the darker part of Australian history and dispossessing the natives of the planet Olgana – humanoids who resemble the Australian Aborigines. As revealed at the climax of the story, the resemblance is not accidental. In his novel Kelly Country Chandler explored an alternate history, in which the bushranger Ned Kelly was not captured and hanged, but led a rebellion becoming the president of an Australian republic which degenerated into a hereditary dictatorship.
Chandler made heavy use of the parallel universe plot device throughout his career, with many Grimes stories involving characters crossing over into other realities. In "The Dark Dimensions", set at a point in space where various realities meet, meets not only another John Grimes, still in the Federation Survey Service, but the characters from the Empress Irene books and Poul Anderson's Dominic Flandry. In his ironic short story "The Cage", a band of shipwrecked humans wandering naked in the jungles of a faraway planet are captured by aliens and placed in a zoo, failing in all their efforts to convince their captors that they are intelligent, some are dissected, they become resigned to captivity and adopt a small local rodent as a pet, placing him in a wicker cage. Seeing this, their captors apologise for the mistake and repatriate them to Earth, remarking that "only intelligent creatures put other creatures in cages". Sex is frequent in Chandler's books in free fall. Women on board are
Muddle Earth (Brunner novel)
Muddle Earth is a science fiction novel by British writer John Brunner. It was first published in the United States by Ballantine Del Rey Books in 1993, it tells the story of a man awakened from cryogenic suspension in a bizarre 24th century where Earth is a tourist attraction