Adolfo López Mateos
Adolfo López Mateos was a Mexican politician who became a member of the Institutional Revolutionary Party, after earlier opposing its precursor in 1929. He was elected President of Mexico, serving from 1958 to 1964; as president, he nationalized electric companies, created the National Commission for Free Textbooks, settled the Chamizal dispute, opened important museums such as the Museum of Natural History and the National Museum of Anthropology in Mexico City was promoted. Declaring his political philosophy to be "left within the Constitution," López Mateos was the first self-declared left-wing politician to hold the presidency since Lázaro Cárdenas. López Mateos was well-known for being popular among the Mexican people and having a great public image. Alongside Lázaro Cárdenas and Adolfo Ruiz Cortines, López Mateos is considered one of the most popular Mexican presidents of the 20th century despite acts of repression that occurred during his administration (such as the arrest of union leaders Demetrio Vallejo and Valentín Campa the murder of peasant leader Rubén Jaramillo and his family by the Mexican army.
Although his presidency has been criticized, it has its defenders. López Mateos was born in Atizapán de Zaragoza, now called Ciudad López Mateos, to Mariano Gerardo López y Sánchez Roman, a dentist, Elena Mateos y Vega, a teacher. According to official records, a small town in the state of México, though at a young age his family moved to Mexico City upon his father's death. There is a birth certificate and several testimonies archived at El Colegio de México that place his birth on 10 September 1909, in Patzicía, Guatemala. In 1929, he graduated from the Scientific and Literary Institute of Toluca, where he was a delegate and student leader of the anti-re-electionist campaign of former Minister of Education, José Vasconcelos, who ran in opposition to Pascual Ortiz Rubio, handpicked by former President Plutarco Elías Calles. Calles had founded the Partido Nacional Revolucionario in the wake of the assassination of President-elect Alvaro Obregón. After Vasconcelos's defeat, López Mateos attended law school at UNAM and shifted his political allegiance to the PNR.
Early in his career, he served as the private secretary to Col. Filiberto Gómez, the governor of the state of Mexico. In 1929, as a speaker he supported the presidential campaign of José Vasconcelos, an opposition candidate, against the presidential campaign of Pascual Ortiz Rubio. In 1934, he became the private secretary of the president of the Partido Nacional Revolucionario, Carlos Riva Palacio, he filled a number of bureaucratic positions from until 1941, when he met Isidro Fabela. Fabela helped him into a position as the director of the Literary Institute of Toluca after Fabela resigned the post to join the International Court of Justice. López Mateos became a senator of the state of Mexico in 1946, while at the same time serving as Secretary General of the PRI, he organized the presidential campaign of PRI candidate Adolfo Ruiz Cortines and was subsequently appointed Secretary of Labor in his new cabinet. He did an exemplary job, for the first and only time, a Secretary of Labor was tapped to be the PRI's candidate for the presidency.
As the candidate for the dominant party with only weak opposition, López Mateos won election, serving as president until 1964. As president of Mexico, along with his predecessor Ruiz Cortines, López Mateos continued the outline of policies by President Miguel Alemán, who set Mexico's post-World War II strategy. Alemán favored the interests of capital over labor. All three were heirs to the legacy of the Mexican Revolution, but all were too young to have participated directly. In the sphere of foreign policy, López Mateos charted a course of independence from the U. S. but cooperation on some issues and opposition to the hostile U. S. policy toward the 1959 Cuban Revolution. López Mateos sought the continuation of industrial growth in Mexico characterized as the Mexican Miracle, but this required the cooperation of organized labor. Organized labor was restive, it was a sector of the Institutional Revolutionary Party and controlled through the Confederation of Mexican Workers, led by Fidel Velázquez.
However, unions pushed back against government control and sought gains in wages, working conditions, more independence from so-called charro union leaders, who followed government and party dictates. Although López Mateos had had success when served as his predecessor's Secretary of Labor, as president, he was faced with major labor unrest; the previous strategy of playing off one labor organization against another, such as the CTM, the Revolutionary Confederation of Workers and Peasants, the General Union of Workers and Peasants of Mexico fell apart. In July 1958, the militant railway workers' union, under the leadership of Demetrio Vallejo and Valentín Campa, began a series of strikes for better wages, culminating in an major strike during Holy Week 1959; the Easter holiday was when many Mexicans traveled by train, so the choice of the date was designed for maximum impact on the general public. López Mateos depended on his forceful cabinet minister Gustavo Díaz Ordaz to deal with the striking railway workers.
The government filled Lecumberri Penitentiary. Valentín Campa and Demetrio Vallejo were given lengthy prison sentences for violating Article 145 of the Mexican Constitution for the crime of "social dissolution"; the article empowered the government to imprison "whomever it decided to consider an enemy of Mexico." Imprisoned for that crime was Mexican muralist Da
Secretariat of the Interior
The Mexican Office for Domestic Affairs is the public ministry concerned with the country's domestic affairs, the presenting of the president's bills to Congress, their publication and certain issues of national security. The country's principal intelligence agency, CISEN, is directly answerable to the Secretary of the Interior; the Secretary is a member of the President's Cabinet and is, given the constitutional implications of the post, the most important Cabinet Member. Additionally, in the absence of the President, the Secretary of Interior assumes the job of the President and so, in this matter, the Secretary is similar to a Vicepresident; the Office is equivalent to Ministries of the Interior in most other countries and is translated to English as Ministry, Secretariat or Department of the Interior. In 1821, after the establishment of what was the Mexican Provisional Cabinet, given public urgings to organise the country's government, regulation was produced outlining the functions of a new governmental arm styled The Office for Domestic and Foreign Affairs.
The new agency was answerable for managing the functioning of the government in general. The first person to take up the Directorship of the Office was José Manuel de Herrera who held the post between 1821 and 1823. On, it became necessary to particularise the duties of certain government agencies, which, in 1843, lead to the creation of the'Office for Domestic Affairs', which would be re-styled as the'Office for Foreign Relations and Government' in 1841 and again in 1843 as the'Office for Domestic Affairs and Policing'; the Office had some of its powers separated into other ministries and, in 1853, was once again named'Office for Domestic Affairs' —as it is still called up to the present day. The Office for Domestic Affairs in its modern day form, is concerned principally with the good management and proper application of the policies of Mexico's Federal Government within its national borders, it is a department of the Executive Branch and dates back to article 222 of the 1812 Spanish Constitution, which received royal assent on 19 March, 1812.
Among the Cabinet Secretaries mentioned in the constitution, were those of Governance of the Realm in the Peninsula and Adjacent Islands and Governance of the Realm Overseas. On 22 October, 1814, the Constitutional Declaration for the Emancipation of the Mexican Americas known as the Apatzingán Constitution made provisions for a republican form of Government by way of Article 134; the Apatzingán Constitution provided for an Executive Branch known as the Supreme Government which would be equipped with an Office for Domestic Affairs, among other governmental departments. This position was seen as being a heartbeat away from the Presidency, because several Secretaries of the Interior were chosen as presidential candidates for the following term by incumbent presidents Plutarco Elías Calles, Emilio Portes Gil, Lázaro Cárdenas, Miguel Alemán Valdés, Adolfo Ruiz Cortines, Gustavo Díaz Ordaz, Luis Echeverría. Francisco Labastida Ochoa, Secretary of the Interior during the latter part of the Zedillo government, was seen as Zedillo's personal favorite during the Institutional Revolutionary Party's primaries and during his unsuccessful bid which saw his political undoing at the hands of PAN candidate Vicente Fox.
In turn, Fox's Secretary of the Interior, Santiago Creel, ran in the National Action Party's primaries in 2006, but was defeated by Felipe Calderón. According to the Organic Law of the Federal Public Administration in its Article 27 corresponds to the discharge of the following functions: To present before the Congress of the Union the initiatives of law or decree of the Executive To publish the laws and decrees of the Congress of the Union, one of the two Chambers or the Standing Commission and the regulations issued by the President of the Republic, as well as the resolutions and provisions that by law must be published in the Official Gazette of the Federation Manage and publish the Official Gazette of the Federation Managing the National Personal Identification Service To deal with the administrative procedure for the expulsion of foreigners from the national territory To administer the islands of federal jurisdiction, except those whose administration corresponds, by provision of the law, to another dependence or entity of the federal public administration Conduct the internal policy, the responsibility of the Executive and not explicitly attributed to another dependency To monitor the compliance of constitutional precepts by the authorities of the country with regard to individual guarantees and to issue the necessary administrative measures for that purpose Conduct, as long as this power is not conferred on another Secretariat, the relations of the Executive Power with the other Powers of the Union, with the autonomous constitutional organs, with the governments of the federative entities, the municipalities and with the other federal and local authorities, As well as render the official information of the Federal Executive To conduct, within the scope of its competence, the political relations of the Executive Power with national political parties and groups, with social organizations, with religious associations and other social institutions Foster political development, contribute to the strengthening of democratic institutions.
Secretariat of National Defense (Mexico)
The Mexican Office for National Defence is the government department responsible for managing Mexico's Army and Air Forces. Its head is the Director for National Defense who, like the co-equal Director of the Navy, is directly answerable to the President. Before 1937, the position was called the Director of the Navy; the agency has its headquarters in Miguel Hidalgo, Mexico City. Some key figures who answer directly to the Director are the Assistant Director, the Chief of Staff of the Armed Forces, all military tribunals. Under the Federal Public Administration Act, the Secretary has the following duties: Organize and prepare the Army and the Air Force. Organize and prepare the National Military Service. Management of the Army, Air Force, National Guard and armed contingents which don't belong to state's national guard. Plan and handle mobilization of the country in the event of war. Construct and prepare the forts and all kind of military buildings for Army and Air Force use, as well as administration of barracks and other military buildings.
Administer military justice. Acquire and build armaments and all kinds of materials and elements for the use of Army and Air Force. Grant permission for an expedition force to enter another country or to allow another country to send their forces to Mexico. Manage the issuing of licenses to bear firearms with the aim of preventing the use of arms expressly banned in law and those types of arms restricted by the state for the exclusive use of the Army and National Guard, with the exception of what is established by the 13th section of Article 30 of the Constitution, as well as the supervision and issuing of permits for the sale and storage of firearms, chemical weapons and strategic weapons. Museo del Enervante - a Sedena museum dedicated to those who have fought drug trafficking in Mexico. Zuyaqui - a famous dog who worked for the agency. Official site of the Secretariat of National Defense Official site of the Secretariat of National Defense, English version Citizens' Portal, Official Site of the Mexican Government Basic Law of Federal Public Administration
Enrique Peña Nieto
Enrique Peña Nieto referred to by his initials EPN, is a Mexican politician who served as the 57th President of Mexico from 2012 to 2018. A member of the PRI, he served as Governor of the State of Mexico from 2005 to 2011, local deputy from 2003 to 2004, Secretary of Administration from 2000 to 2002. Born in Atlacomulco and raised in Toluca, Peña Nieto attended Panamerican University, graduating with a B. A. in legal studies. After attaining a M. B. A. from ITESM, he began his political career by joining the Institutional Revolutionary Party in 1984. After serving as a public notary in Mexico City, he began an ascension through local political ranks in the late 1990s, culminating in his 2005 campaign for Governor of the State of Mexico; as governor, he pledged to deliver 608 compromisos to his constituency to varying levels of success. His tenure was marked by low-to-moderate approval of his handling of a rising murder rate and various public health issues, he launched his 2012 presidential campaign on a platform of economic competitiveness and open government.
After performing well in polls and a series of high-profile candidate withdrawals, Peña Nieto was elected president with 38.14% of the vote. During his first four years, Peña Nieto led an expansive breakup of monopolies, liberalized Mexico's energy sector, reformed public education, modernized the country's financial regulation. However, political gridlock and allegations of media bias worsened corruption and drug trade in Mexico, he instated the multi-lateral Pact for Mexico which soothed inter-party fighting and led to increased legislation across the political spectrum. Global drops in oil prices and economic slowdown of the 2010s, rendered his economic reforms moderately successful which lowered political support for Peña Nieto, his handling of the Iguala mass kidnapping in 2014 and escaped drug lord Joaquín "El Chapo" Guzmán from Altiplano prison in 2015 sparked international acclaim and criticism. Historical evaluations and approval rates of his presidency have been mixed. Detractors highlight a series of failed policies and a strained public presence while supporters note increased economic competitiveness and loosening of gridlock.
He began his term with an approval rate of 50%, hovered around 35% during his inter-years and bottomed out at 12% in January 2017. Peña Nieto is seen as one of the most controversial and least popular presidents in the history of Mexico. Enrique Peña Nieto was born on 20 July 1966 in Atlacomulco, State of Mexico, a city 55 miles northwest of Mexico City, he is the oldest of four siblings. He is the nephew of two former governors of the State of México: on his mother's side, Arturo Montiel, he attended Denis Hall School in Alfred, during one year of junior high school in 1979 to learn English. After living in Atlacomulco for the first 11 years of his life, Peña Nieto's family moved to the city of Toluca. In 1975, his father would take him to the campaign rallies of the State of Mexico's governor, Jorge Jiménez Cantú, a close friend of Peña del Mazo The successor of the governor was Alfredo del Mazo González, a cousin of Peña Nieto's father. During Del Mazo González's campaign in 1981, the fifteen-year-old Peña Nieto had his first direct contact with Mexican politics: he began delivering campaign literature in favor of his relative, a memory Peña Nieto recalls as the turning point and start of his deep interest in politics.
In 1984 at the age of 18, Peña Nieto traveled to Mexico City and enrolled in the Panamerican University, where he earned a Bachelor of Arts degree in legal studies. Peña Nieto's academic thesis was found to contain some improper citations and plagiarism which stirred controversy in May 2016. Peña Nieto sought a master's degree in Business Administration at the Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey, based in the State of Mexico. Peña Nieto can speak English, however, he speaks Spanish in formal settings. Peña Nieto joined the Institutional Revolutionary Party in 1984, with a law degree nearly completed, he began earning his own money. During his final years in college, Peña Nieto worked for a public notary in Mexico City, around the same time when his relative, Alfredo del Mazo González, was mentioned as a firm candidate for the 1988 presidential elections. In his twenties, he worked at the San Luis Industrial Corporation, an auto parts manufacturer, at the law firm Laffan and Kaye.
While still a student at the Universidad Panamericana, he roomed with Eustaquio de Nicolás, the current president of Homex, a leading Mexican construction and real estate company. He befriended and roomed with Luis Miranda, who occupied several offices during the 1999–2000 administration in the State of Mexico. Peña Nieto formally started his political career under the mentorship of Montiel Rojas, becoming the Secretary of the Citizen Movement of Zone I of the State Directive Committee of the National Confederation of Popular Organizations, one of the three sectors of the PRI. For three consecutive years, Peña Nieto participated as a delegate to the Organization and Citizen Front in different municipalities of the State of Mexico. Between 1993 and 1998, during Emilio Chuayfett's term as governor, Peña Nieto was chief of staff and personal secretary to Montiel Rojas, the Secretary of Economic Development of the State of Mexico. After 1999, Peña Nieto went from having low-level secretary positions to higher and more qualified offices.
He served from 1999 to 2000 as the Su
Luisa María Alcalde Luján
Luisa María Alcalde Luján is a Mexican politician. She is the Secretary of Labor of Mexico, is affiliated with the National Regeneration Movement, she was Deputy of the LXII Legislature of the Mexican Congress, representing the Federal District
Miguel Alemán Valdés
Miguel Alemán Valdés was a Mexican politician who served a full term as the President of Mexico from 1946 to 1952, the first civilian president after a string of revolutionary generals. His administration was characterized by Mexico's rapid industrialization called the Mexican Miracle, but for a high level of personal enrichment for himself and his associates, his presidency was the first of a new generation of Mexican leaders, who had not directly participated in the Mexican Revolution, many in his cabinet were young, university-educated civilians, close friends from his days at university. Alemán was born in Sayula in the state of Veracruz, the son of revolutionary Gen. Miguel Alemán González and Tomasa Valdés Ledezma. Both had been married before, with Alemán González having a son by his first wife, they had two sons together and Miguel. The family lived in straitened circumstances, with Miguel remembering when he was young that when huaraches hurt his feet, he would urinate on them to soften the leather.
His father, Miguel Alemán González, began fighting before the outbreak of the Mexican Revolution, a so-called "precursor" in a region of Veracruz state. He avidly read the tracts of Ricardo Flores Magón, of the Mexican Liberal Party and opposed the repressive regime of Porfirio Díaz. Alemán González left his family with his parents to fight with Cándido Aguilar, the son-in-law of Venustiano Carranza against the Díaz regime. In 1920 the family moved to Mexico City, but with the accession to power of the Sonoran generals Adolfo de la Huerta, Álvaro Obregón, Plutarco Elías Calles, Alemán González continued in opposition to the government, he was implicated in the murder of one of Obregón's commanders, Arnulfo R. Gómez, was on the run; the general met his end in March 1929 in a hail of bullets committing suicide. Young Miguel had experienced first-hand the disruption of the impacts of the continuing violence in Mexico. Alemán's schooling was sporadic because of needing to move frequently. For a time, he worked at the British-owned Mexican Eagle Petroleum Company, where he first learned English and became fluent in it.
He recalled his father advised him of "the usefulness of returning to my studies and choosing an occupation more stable than the military." Alemán did that, attending the National Preparatory School in Mexico City from 1920 to 1925, founding the newspaper Eureka. He went to the School of Law at the National University until 1928, completing his law degree with his thesis on occupational diseases and accidents among workers. At UNAM, he was the leader of a group of classmates, all of whom went on the prominence in Mexican life, they included Angel Carvajal. As a successful attorney, his first practice was in representing miners suffering from silicosis, he won two notable legal victories in representing workers against corporations--the first was in securing compensation for dependents of railroad workers who were killed in revolutionary battles, the second was to gain indemnities for miners injured at work. These victories gained him considerable favor with Mexico's labor unions. Alemán started public service with a minor appointment as legal adviser to the Secretary of Agriculture and Livestock.
Other positions followed, including the Federal Board of Conciliation and Arbitration in 1930. In 1933, he served as the President of the Unifying Committee for Plutarco Elías Calles, which brought him into prominence, he served as a Senator from his home state of Veracruz 1934-36, representing the Party of the Mexican Revolution. When governor-elect Manlio Favio Altamirano was assassinated, Alemán accepted appointment as governor from 1936 to 1939; the appointment can be seen as a political reward from the Cárdenas administration for helping oust Plutarco Elías Calles during the intra-party struggle. From 1940 to 1945, he served as Secretary of the Interior under Manuel Ávila Camacho after directing Ávila's national presidential campaign; as Secretary of the Interior during World War II, he dealt with Axis espionage and Sinarquistas, whom some consider Mexican fascists. President Avila Camacho chose Alemán as the official candidate of the party in 1945, running for president in 1946. There were many possibilities for the president to choose among, both civilian and military, including Avila Camacho's older brother, Maximino Ávila Camacho.
The Avila Camacho brothers shared ill health, Maximino died in February 1945, following a banquet. His death averted a possible political crisis of succession. "There were some who wondered whether something more than seasoning had been added to Maximino's food" the day he died. Among the civilians were Javier Rojo Gómez, the head of government of the Federal District. Military men were strong contenders, all previous post-revolutionary presidents had participated in the Mexican Revolution. Miguel Henriquez Guzmán, Enrique Calderón, Jesús Agustín Castro, Francisco Castillo Nájera were in consideration. Alemán received the backing of the Confederation of Mexican Workers
Mexico the United Mexican States, is a country in the southern portion of North America. It is bordered to the north by the United States. Covering 2,000,000 square kilometres, the nation is the fifth largest country in the Americas by total area and the 13th largest independent state in the world. With an estimated population of over 120 million people, the country is the eleventh most populous state and the most populous Spanish-speaking state in the world, while being the second most populous nation in Latin America after Brazil. Mexico is a federation comprising 31 states and Mexico City, a special federal entity, the capital city and its most populous city. Other metropolises in the state include Guadalajara, Puebla, Tijuana and León. Pre-Columbian Mexico dates to about 8000 BC and is identified as one of five cradles of civilization and was home to many advanced Mesoamerican civilizations such as the Olmec, Teotihuacan, Zapotec and Aztec before first contact with Europeans. In 1521, the Spanish Empire conquered and colonized the territory from its politically powerful base in Mexico-Tenochtitlan, administered as the viceroyalty of New Spain.
Three centuries the territory became a nation state following its recognition in 1821 after the Mexican War of Independence. The post-independence period was tumultuous, characterized by economic inequality and many contrasting political changes; the Mexican–American War led to a territorial cession of the extant northern territories to the United States. The Pastry War, the Franco-Mexican War, a civil war, two empires, the Porfiriato occurred in the 19th century; the Porfiriato was ended by the start of the Mexican Revolution in 1910, which culminated with the promulgation of the 1917 Constitution and the emergence of the country's current political system as a federal, democratic republic. Mexico has the 11th largest by purchasing power parity; the Mexican economy is linked to those of its 1994 North American Free Trade Agreement partners the United States. In 1994, Mexico became the first Latin American member of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, it is classified as an upper-middle income country by the World Bank and a newly industrialized country by several analysts.
The country is considered both a regional power and a middle power, is identified as an emerging global power. Due to its rich culture and history, Mexico ranks first in the Americas and seventh in the world for number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Mexico is an ecologically megadiverse country, ranking fourth in the world for its biodiversity. Mexico receives a huge number of tourists every year: in 2018, it was the sixth most-visited country in the world, with 39 million international arrivals. Mexico is a member of the United Nations, the World Trade Organization, the G8+5, the G20, the Uniting for Consensus group of the UN, the Pacific Alliance trade bloc. Mēxihco is the Nahuatl term for the heartland of the Aztec Empire, namely the Valley of Mexico and surrounding territories, with its people being known as the Mexica, it is believed to be a toponym for the valley which became the primary ethnonym for the Aztec Triple Alliance as a result, although it could have been the other way around.
In the colonial era, back when Mexico was called New Spain this territory became the Intendency of Mexico and after New Spain achieved independence from the Spanish Empire it came to be known as the State of Mexico with the new country being named after its capital: the City of Mexico, which itself was founded in 1524 on top of the ancient Mexica capital of Mexico-Tenochtitlan. Traditionally, the name Tenochtitlan was thought to come from Nahuatl tetl and nōchtli and is thought to mean "Among the prickly pears rocks". However, one attestation in the late 16th-century manuscript known as "the Bancroft dialogues" suggests the second vowel was short, so that the true etymology remains uncertain; the suffix -co is the Nahuatl locative, making the word a place name. Beyond that, the etymology is uncertain, it has been suggested that it is derived from Mextli or Mēxihtli, a secret name for the god of war and patron of the Mexica, Huitzilopochtli, in which case Mēxihco means "place where Huitzilopochtli lives".
Another hypothesis suggests that Mēxihco derives from a portmanteau of the Nahuatl words for "moon" and navel. This meaning might refer to Tenochtitlan's position in the middle of Lake Texcoco; the system of interconnected lakes, of which Texcoco formed the center, had the form of a rabbit, which the Mesoamericans pareidolically associated with the moon rabbit. Still another hypothesis suggests that the word is derived from Mēctli, the name of the goddess of maguey; the name of the city-state was transliterated to Spanish as México with the phonetic value of the letter x in Medieval Spanish, which represented the voiceless postalveolar fricative. This sound, as well as the voiced postalveolar fricative, represented by a j, evolved into a voiceless velar fricative during the 16th century; this led to the use of the variant Méjico in many publications in Spanish, most notably in Spain, whereas in Mexico and most other Spanish–speaking countries, México was the preferred spelling. In recent years, the Real Academia Española, which regulates the Spanish l