Álvaro Obregón Salido was a general in the Mexican Revolution, who became President of Mexico from 1920 to 1924. He supported Sonora's decision to follow Governor of Coahuila Venustiano Carranza as leader of a revolution against the Huerta regime. Carranza appointed Obregón commander of the revolutionary forces in northwestern Mexico and in 1915 appointed him as his minister of war. In 1920, Obregón launched a revolt against Carranza. Obregón's presidency was the first stable presidency since the Revolution began in 1910, he oversaw massive educational reform, moderate land reform, labor laws sponsored by the powerful Regional Confederation of Mexican Workers. In August 1923, he signed the Bucareli Treaty that clarified the rights of the Mexican government and U. S. oil interests and brought U. S. diplomatic recognition to his government. In 1923–24, Obregón's finance minister, Adolfo de la Huerta, launched a rebellion in part protesting the Bucareli Treaty. In his victory, he was aided by the United States with arms and 17 U.
S. planes that bombed de la Huerta's supporters. In 1924, Obregón's fellow Northern revolutionary general and hand-picked successor, Plutarco Elías Calles, was elected president, although Obregón ostensibly retired to Sonora, he remained influential under Calles. Having pushed through constitutional reform to once again make reelection possible, Obregón won the 1928 election, but was assassinated by José de León Toral, a Mexican offended by the government's anti-religious laws, before he could begin his second term. Toral's subsequent trial led to his execution by firing squad, it involved a Capuchin nun named María Concepción Acevedo de la Llata, "Madre Conchita", thought to be the mastermind behind Obregón's murder. Obregón was born in Siquisiva, Municipality of Navojoa, the son of Francisco Obregón and Cenobia Salido. Francisco Obregón had once owned a substantial estate, but his business partner supported Emperor Maximilian during the French intervention in Mexico, the family's estate was therefore confiscated by the Liberal government in 1867.
Francisco Obregón died in 1880, the year of Álvaro Obregón's birth, leaving Álvaro to be raised in poverty by his mother and his older sisters Cenobia, María, Rosa. During his childhood, he worked on the family farm and became acquainted with the Mayo people who worked there, he attended a school run by his brother José in Huatabampo and thus received an elementary education. He spent his teenage years working a variety of jobs, before finding permanent employment in 1898 as a lathe operator at the sugar mill owned by his maternal uncles in Navolato, Sinaloa. In 1903, he married Refugio Urrea and in 1904, he left the sugar mill to sell shoes door-to-door, to become a tenant farmer. By 1906, he was in a position to buy his own small farm; the next year was tragic for Obregón as his wife and two of his children died, leaving him a widower with two small children, who were henceforth raised by his three older sisters. In 1909, Obregón invented a chickpea harvester and soon founded a company to manufacture these harvesters, complete with a modern assembly line.
He marketed these harvesters to chickpea farmers throughout the Mayo Valley. Obregón entered politics in 1911 with his election as municipal president of the town of Huatabampo. Obregón expressed little sympathy for the Anti-reelectionist movement launched by Francisco I. Madero in 1908–1909 in opposition to President Porfirio Díaz. Thus, when Madero began the Mexican Revolution in November 1910 by issuing his Plan of San Luis Potosí, Obregón did not join the struggle against Porfirio Díaz. Madero succeeded in defeating Porfirio Díaz and thus became President of Mexico in November 1911. Obregón became a supporter of Madero. In March 1912, Pascual Orozco, a general who had fought with Madero during the Mexican Revolution, but had grown disaffected with Madero, launched a revolt against Madero's regime in Chihuahua with the financial backing of Luis Terrazas, a former Governor of Chihuahua and the largest landowner in Mexico. In April 1912, Obregón volunteered to join the local Maderista forces, the Fourth Irregular Battalion of Sonora, organized under the command of General Sanginés to oppose Orozco's revolt.
This Battalion supported federal troops under the command of Victoriano Huerta sent by Madero to crush Orozco's rebellion. Within weeks of joining the Battalion, Obregón displayed signs of military genius. Obregón disobeyed his superior's orders but won several battles by luring his enemy into traps, surprise assaults, encircling maneuvers. Obregón was promoted through the ranks and attained the rank of Colonel before resigning in December 1912, following victory over Orozco. Obregón had intended to return to civilian life in December 1912, but in February 1913, the Madero regime was overthrown in a coup d'état orchestrated by Victoriano Huerta, Félix Díaz, Bernardo Reyes, Henry Lane Wilson, the United States Ambassador to Mexico. Huerta assumed the presidency. Obregón traveled to Hermosillo to offer his services to the government of Sonora in opposition to the Huerta regime; the Sonoran government refused to recognize the Huerta regime, in early March 1913, Obregón was appointed chief of Sonora's War Department.
In this capacity, he set out on campaign, in a matter of days had managed to drive federal troops
David Alfaro Siqueiros
David Alfaro Siqueiros was a Mexican social realist painter, better known for his large murals in fresco. Along with Diego Rivera and José Clemente Orozco, he established "Mexican Muralism." He was a Stalinist in support of the Soviet Union and a member of the Mexican Communist Party who led an unsuccessful attempt to assassinate Leon Trotsky in May 1940. His surname would be Alfaro by Spanish naming customs, it was long believed that he was born in Camargo in Chihuahua state, but in 2003 it was proven that he had been born in the city of Chihuahua, but grew up in Irapuato, Guanajuato, at least from the age of six. The discovery of his birth certificate in 2003 by a Mexican art curator was announced the following year by art critic Raquel Tibol, renowned as the leading authority on Mexican Muralism and, a close acquaintance of Siqueiros. Siqueiros changed his given name to "David" after his first wife called him by it in allusion to Michelangelo's David. Many details of his childhood, including birth date, first name, where he grew up, were misstated during his life and long after his death, in some cases by himself.
He is reported to have been born and raised in 1898 in a town in the state of Chihuahua, his personal names are reported to be "José David". Siqueiros was born in Chihuahua in 1896, the second of three children, he was baptized José de Jesús Alfaro Siqueiros. His father, Cipriano Alfaro from Irapuato, was well-off, his mother was Teresa Siqueiros. Siqueiros had two siblings: a sister, three years older, a brother "Chucho", a year younger. David's mother died when he was four. David's grandfather, nicknamed "Siete Filos", had an strong role in his upbringing. In 1902 Siqueiros started school in Irapuato, Guanajuato, he credits his first rebellious influence to his sister, who had resisted their father's religious orthodoxy. Around this time, Siqueiros was exposed to new political ideas along the lines of anarcho-syndicalism. One such political theorist was Dr. Atl, who published a manifesto in 1906 calling for Mexican artists to develop a national art and look to ancient indigenous cultures for inspiration.
In 1911, at age fifteen, Siqueiros was involved in a student strike at the Academy of San Carlos of the National Academy of Fine Arts that protested the school's teaching methodology and urged the impeachment of the school's director. Their protests led to the establishment of an "open-air academy" in Santa Anita. At the age of eighteen and several of his colleagues from the School of Fine Arts joined Venustiano Carranza's Constitutional Army fighting Huerta's government; when Huerta fell in 1914, Siqueiros became enmeshed in the "post-revolutionary" infighting, as the Constitutional Army had to battle the diverse political factions of Pancho Villa and Emiliano Zapata for control. His military travels around the country exposed him to Mexican culture and the raw everyday struggles of the working and rural poor classes. After Carranza's forces had gained control, Siqueiros returned to Mexico City to paint before traveling to Europe in 1919. First in Paris, he absorbed the influence of cubism, intrigued with Paul Cézanne and the use of large blocks of intense color.
While there, he met Diego Rivera, another Mexican painter of "the big three" just on the brink of a legendary career in muralism, traveled with him throughout Italy to study the great fresco painters of the Renaissance. Although many have said that Siqueiros' artistic ventures were "interrupted" by his political ones, Siqueiros himself believed the two were intricately intertwined. By 1921, when he wrote his manifesto in Vida Americana, Siqueiros had been exposed to Marxism and saw the life of the working and rural poor while traveling with the Constitutional Army. In "A New Direction for the New Generation of American Painters and Sculptors", he called for a "spiritual renewal" to bring back the virtues of classical painting while infusing this style with "new values" that acknowledge the "modern machine" and the "contemporary aspects of daily life"; the manifesto claimed that a "constructive spirit" is essential to meaningful art, which rises above mere decoration or false, fantastical themes.
Through this style, Siqueiros hoped to create a style that would bridge national and universal art. In his work as well as his writing, Siqueiros sought a social realism that at once hailed the proletariat peoples of Mexico and the world while avoiding the clichés of trendy "Primitivism" and "Indianism". In 1922, Siqueiros returned to Mexico City to work as a muralist for Álvaro Obregón's revolutionary government. Secretary of Public Education José Vasconcelos made a mission of educating the masses through public art and hired scores of artists and writers to build a modern Mexican culture. Siqueiros and José Orozco worked together under Vasconcelos, who supported the muralist movement by commissioning murals for prominent buildings in Mexico City. Still, the artists working at the Preparatoria realized that many of their early works lacked the "public" nature envisioned in their ideology. In 1923 Siqueiros helped found the Syndicate of Revolutionary Mexican Painters and Engravers, which addressed the problem of widespread public access through its union paper, El Machete.
That year the paper published – "for the proletariat of the world" – a manifesto, which Siqueiros helped author
Gustavo Díaz Ordaz
Gustavo Díaz Ordaz Bolaños was a Mexican politician and member of the Institutional Revolutionary Party. He served as the President of Mexico from 1964 to 1970. Díaz Ordaz was born in San Andrés Chalchicomula and obtained a law degree from the University of Puebla in 1937 where he became its vice-rector, he represented Puebla's 1st district in the Chamber of Deputies from 1943 to 1946. Subsequently he represented the same state in the Chamber of Senators from 1946 to 1952 becoming acquainted with then-senator Adolfo López Mateos. Díaz Ordaz joined the campaign of Adolfo Ruiz Cortines for the 1952 election and subsequently worked for the Secretariat of the Interior under Ángel Carvajal Bernal, he became the secretary following López Mateos victory in the 1958 election and exercised de facto executive power during the absences of the president during the Cuban Missile Crisis. In 1963, the PRI announced him as the presidential candidate for the 1964 election, he received 88.81% of the popular vote.
His administration is remembered for the student protests that took place in 1968, their subsequent repression by the Army and State forces during the Tlatelolco massacre. After passing on presidency to his own Secretary of the Interior, Díaz Ordaz retired from public life, he was the Ambassador to Spain in 1977, a position he resigned after strong protests and criticism by the media. He died of colorectal cancer on 15 July 1979 at the age of 68. Díaz Ordaz Bolaños was born in the second of four children. In his years his father, Ramón Díaz Ordaz Redonet, worked as an accountant. However, for a decade he served in the political machine of President Porfirio Díaz, becoming the jefe político and police administrator of San Andrés Chilchicomula. With the ouster of Díaz by revolutionary forces in May 1911 at the outbreak of the Mexican Revolution, he lost his bureaucratic post in the regime change. Subsequently, the family's financial situation was insecure, Díaz Ordaz's father took a number of jobs and the family moved.
He claimed ancestry with conqueror-chronicler Bernal Díaz del Castillo. Gustavo's mother, Sabina Bolaños Cacho de Díaz Ordaz, was a school teacher, described as "stern and pious." Gustavo, as well as his older brother Rámon, had a weak chin and large protruding teeth and was skinny. "His mother would say to anyone,'But what an ugly son I have!'" His lack of good looks became a way to mock him. When the family lived for a time in Oaxaca, young Díaz Ordaz attended the Institute of Arts and Sciences, whose alumni included Benito Juárez and Porfirio Díaz, he was a serious student, but due to his family's financial circumstances, he could not always buy the textbooks he needed. At one point, the family lived as a charity case with a maternal uncle in Oaxaca, a Oaxaca state official; the family had to absent themselves. While Gustavo attended the institute, his older brother Ramón taught there after studies in Spain, teaching Latin. A student mocked Professor Ramón Díaz Ordaz's ugliness, Gustavo defended his brother with physical force.
Díaz Ordaz graduated from the University of Puebla on 8 February 1937 with a law degree. He became a professor at the university and served as vice-rector from 1940 to 1941. In a photo from 1938, Díaz Ordaz stands behind President Lázaro Cárdenasm, front and center. In the photo are two other future presidents of Mexico, Manuel Avila Camacho and Miguel Alemán, his political career had a modest start. He had not fought in the Revolution and his father had been part of Porfirio Díaz's regime, so his political rise was not straightforward, he served in the government of Puebla from 1932-43. In 1943, he became a federal politician, serving in the Chamber of Deputies for the first district of the state of Puebla, he served as a senator for the same state from 1946 to 1952, he came to national prominence in the cabinet of Mexican President President Adolfo López Mateos from 1958 to 1964, a Minister of the Interior. On 18 November 1963, he became the presidential candidate for the Institutional Revolutionary Party.
Despite facing only token opposition, Díaz Ordaz campaigned. He won the presidential election on 5 July 1964. Díaz Ordaz assumed the presidency on 1 December 1964 at the Palacio de Bellas Artes. There he took oath before the Congress of the Union presided by Alfonso Martínez Domínguez. Former president Adolfo López Mateos turned over the presidential sash and Díaz Ordaz delivered his inaugural address; as president, Díaz Ordaz was known for his authoritarian manner of rule over his cabinet and the country in general. His strictness was evident in his handling of a number of protests during his term, in which railroad workers and doctors were fired for taking industrial action. A first demonstration of this new authoritarianism was given when he used force to end a strike by medics. Medics of the Institute for Social Security and Services for State Workers residents and interns, had organized a strike to demand better working conditions and an increased salary, his authoritarian style of governing produced resistance such as the emergence of a guerrilla movement in the state of Guerrero.
Economically, the era of Díaz Ordaz was a time of economic growth. He established the Mexican Institute of Petroleum in 1965, an important step since oil has been one of Mexico's most productive industries; when university students in Mexico City protested the government's actions around the time of the 1968 Summer Olympics, Díaz Ordaz oversaw the occupation
Sport includes all forms of competitive physical activity or games which, through casual or organised participation, aim to use, maintain or improve physical ability and skills while providing enjoyment to participants, in some cases, entertainment for spectators. Hundreds of sports exist, from those between single contestants, through to those with hundreds of simultaneous participants, either in teams or competing as individuals. In certain sports such as racing, many contestants may compete or consecutively, with one winner; some sports allow a "tie" or "draw". A number of contests may be arranged in a tournament producing a champion. Many sports leagues make an annual champion by arranging games in a regular sports season, followed in some cases by playoffs. Sport is recognised as system of activities which are based in physical athleticism or physical dexterity, with the largest major competitions such as the Olympic Games admitting only sports meeting this definition, other organisations such as the Council of Europe using definitions precluding activities without a physical element from classification as sports.
However, a number of competitive, but non-physical, activities claim recognition as mind sports. The International Olympic Committee recognises both chess and bridge as bona fide sports, SportAccord, the international sports federation association, recognises five non-physical sports: bridge, draughts, Go and xiangqi, limits the number of mind games which can be admitted as sports. Sport is governed by a set of rules or customs, which serve to ensure fair competition, allow consistent adjudication of the winner. Winning can be crossing a line first, it can be determined by judges who are scoring elements of the sporting performance, including objective or subjective measures such as technical performance or artistic impression. Records of performance are kept, for popular sports, this information may be announced or reported in sport news. Sport is a major source of entertainment for non-participants, with spectator sport drawing large crowds to sport venues, reaching wider audiences through broadcasting.
Sport betting is in some cases regulated, in some cases is central to the sport. According to A. T. Kearney, a consultancy, the global sporting industry is worth up to $620 billion as of 2013; the world's most accessible and practised sport is running, while association football is its most popular spectator sport. The word "sport" comes from the Old French desport meaning "leisure", with the oldest definition in English from around 1300 being "anything humans find amusing or entertaining". Other meanings include. Roget's defines the noun sport as an "activity engaged in for relaxation and amusement" with synonyms including diversion and recreation; the singular term "sport" is used in most English dialects to describe the overall concept, with "sports" used to describe multiple activities. American English uses "sports" for both terms; the precise definition of what separates a sport from other leisure activities varies between sources. The closest to an international agreement on a definition is provided by SportAccord, the association for all the largest international sports federations, is therefore the de facto representative of international sport.
SportAccord uses the following criteria, determining that a sport should: have an element of competition be in no way harmful to any living creature not rely on equipment provided by a single supplier not rely on any "luck" element designed into the sport. They recognise that sport can be physical mind, predominantly motorised co-ordination, or animal-supported; the inclusion of mind sports within sport definitions has not been universally accepted, leading to legal challenges from governing bodies in regards to being denied funding available to sports. Whilst SportAccord recognises a small number of mind sports, it is not open to admitting any further mind sports. There has been an increase in the application of the term "sport" to a wider set of non-physical challenges such as video games called esports due to the large scale of participation and organised competition, but these are not recognised by mainstream sports organisations. According to Council of Europe, European Sports Charter, article 2.i, "'Sport' means all forms of physical activity which, through casual or organised participation, aim at expressing or improving physical fitness and mental well-being, forming social relationships or obtaining results in competition at all levels."
There are opposing views on the necessity of competition as a defining element of a sport, with all professional sport involving competition, governing bodies requiring competition as a prerequisite of recognition by the International Olympic Committee or SportAccord. Other bodies advocate widening the definition of sport to include all physical activity. For instance, the Council of Eu
Constitution of Mexico
The Constitution of Mexico, formally the Political Constitution of the United Mexican States is the current constitution of Mexico. It was drafted in Santiago de Querétaro, in the State of Querétaro, by a constitutional convention, during the Mexican Revolution, it was approved by the Constitutional Congress on 5 February 1917. It is the successor to the Constitution of 1857, earlier Mexican constitutions; the current Constitution of 1917 is the first such document in the world to set out social rights, serving as a model for the Weimar Constitution of 1919 and the Russian Constitution of 1918. Some of the most important provisions are Articles 3, 27, 123. Aimed at restricting the Roman Catholic Church in Mexico, Article 3 established the basis for a free and secular education. Articles 3, 5, 24, 27, 130 restricted the Roman Catholic Church in Mexico, attempts to enforce the articles by President Plutarco Calles in 1926 led to the violent conflict known as the Cristero War. In 1992, under the administration of Carlos Salinas de Gortari, there were significant revisions of the constitution, modifying Article 27 to strengthen private property rights, allow privatization of ejidos and end redistribution of land — and the articles restricting the Roman Catholic Church in Mexico were repealed.
Constitution Day is one of Mexico's annual Fiestas Patrias, commemorating the promulgation of the Constitution on 5 February 1917. Although the official anniversary is on 5 February, the holiday takes place on the first Monday of February regardless of the date; the constitution was founded on seven fundamental ideals: A declaration of rights Sovereignty of the nation Separation of powers Representative government A federal system Constitutional remedy Supremacy of the State over the Church The Constitution is divided into "Titles" which are series of articles related to the same overall theme. The Titles, of variable length, are: First Title: Chapter I: Of Human Rights and their Guarantees Chapter II: On Mexicans Chapter III, On Foreigners Chapter IV: On Mexican Citizens Second Title: Chapter I: On National Sovereignty and Form of Government Chapter II: On the Parts That Make Up the Federation and the National Territory Third Title: Chapter I: On the Separation of Powers Chapter II: On the Legislative Power Chapter III: On the Executive Power Chapter IV: On the Judicial Power Fourth Title: About the responsibilities of the public service and the patrimony of the State Fifth Title: About the States of the Federation and the Federal District Sixth Title: About Work and Social Welfare Seventh Title: General Provisions Eighth Title About Reforms to the Constitution Ninth Title: About the Inviolability of the Constitution The Political Constitution of the United Mexican States is one of the outcomes of the Mexican Revolution of 1910 won by the Constitutionalist faction led by Venustiano Carranza.
Carranza convoked a congress to draft the new constitution. Carranza excluded the zapatista factions from this congress, it replaced the liberal Constitution of 1857, extending that constitution's restrictions on the Roman Catholic Church in Mexico. Its innovations were in expanding the Mexican state's power into the realms of economic nationalism, political nationalism, protection of workers' rights. Unlike the congresses that produced the 1824 Mexican Constitution and the 1857 Constitution over a lengthy period, the Constituent Congress produced the final draft in a matter of a few months, between November 1916 and February 1917; the constitution was "a means to confer legitimacy on a shaky regime." One interpretation of the speed with which the document was drafted and Carranza's acceptance of some provisions that were radical "suggests that what Carranza and his colleagues chiefly wanted was a Constitution, the hypothetical contents of which could be reviewed and ignored." The Liberal Party of Mexico's 1906 political program proposed a number of reforms that were incorporated into the 1917 Constitution.
Article 123 incorporated its demands for the 8-hour day, minimum wage, hygienic working conditions, prohibitions on abuse of sharecroppers, payment of wages in cash, not scrip, banning of company stores, Sunday as an obligatory day of rest. Article 27 of the Constitution incorporated some of the PLM's d
The Order of Preachers known as the Dominican Order, is a mendicant Catholic religious order founded by the Spanish priest Dominic of Caleruega in France, approved by Pope Honorius III via the Papal bull Religiosam vitam on 22 December 1216. Members of the order, who are referred to as Dominicans carry the letters OP after their names, standing for Ordinis Praedicatorum, meaning of the Order of Preachers. Membership in the order includes friars, active sisters, affiliated lay or secular Dominicans. Founded to preach the Gospel and to oppose heresy, the teaching activity of the order and its scholastic organisation placed the Preachers in the forefront of the intellectual life of the Middle Ages; the order is famed for its intellectual tradition, having produced many leading theologians and philosophers. In the year 2017 there were 5,742 Dominican friars, including 4,302 priests; the Dominican Order is headed by the Master of the Order Bruno Cadoré. A number of other names have been used to refer to its members.
In England and other countries the Dominican friars are referred to as "Black Friars" because of the black cappa or cloak they wear over their white habits. Dominicans were "Blackfriars", as opposed to "Whitefriars" or "Greyfriars", they are distinct from the Augustinian Friars who wear a similar habit. In France, the Dominicans were known as "Jacobins" because their convent in Paris was attached to the Church of Saint-Jacques, now disappeared, on the way to Saint-Jacques-du-Haut-Pas, which belonged to the Italian Order of Saint James of Altopascio Sanctus Iacobus in Latin, their identification as Dominicans gave rise to the pun that they were the "Domini canes", or "Hounds of the Lord". The Dominican Order came into being in the Middle Ages at a time when men of God were no longer expected to stay behind the walls of a cloister. Instead, they travelled among the people, taking as their examples the apostles of the primitive Church. Out of this ideal emerged two orders of mendicant friars: one, the Friars Minor, was led by Francis of Assisi.
Like his contemporary, Dominic saw the need for a new type of organization, the quick growth of the Dominicans and Franciscans during their first century of existence confirms that the orders of mendicant friars met a need. Dominic sought to establish a new kind of order, one that would bring the dedication and systematic education of the older monastic orders like the Benedictines to bear on the religious problems of the burgeoning population of cities, but with more organizational flexibility than either monastic orders or the secular clergy; the Order of Preachers was founded in response to a perceived need for informed preaching. Dominic's new order was to be trained to preach in the vernacular languages. Dominic inspired his followers with loyalty to learning and virtue, a deep recognition of the spiritual power of worldly deprivation and the religious state, a developed governmental structure. At the same time, Dominic inspired the members of his order to develop a "mixed" spirituality.
They were both active in preaching, contemplative in study and meditation. The brethren of the Dominican Order were urban and learned, as well as contemplative and mystical in their spirituality. While these traits affected the women of the order, the nuns absorbed the latter characteristics and made those characteristics their own. In England, the Dominican nuns blended these elements with the defining characteristics of English Dominican spirituality and created a spirituality and collective personality that set them apart; as an adolescent, he had a particular love of theology and the Scriptures became the foundation of his spirituality. During his studies in Palencia, Spain, he experienced a dreadful famine, prompting Dominic to sell all of his beloved books and other equipment to help his neighbors. After he completed his studies, Bishop Martin Bazan and Prior Diego d'Achebes appointed Dominic to the cathedral chapter and he became a Canon Regular under the Rule of Saint Augustine and the Constitutions for the cathedral church of Osma.
At the age of twenty-four or twenty-five, he was ordained to the priesthood. In 1203, Dominic de Guzmán joined Diego de Acebo on an embassy to Denmark for the monarchy of Spain, to arrange the marriage between the son of King Alfonso VIII of Castile and a niece of King Valdemar II of Denmark. At that time the south of France was the stronghold of the Cathar movement; the Cathars were a heretical neo-gnostic sect. They believed that matter was evil and only the spirit was good; the Albigensian Crusade was a 20-year military campaign initiated by Pope Innocent III to eliminate Catharism in Languedoc, in southern France. Dominic saw the need for a response that would attempt to sway members of the Albigensian movement back to mainstream Christian thought. Dominic became inspired into a reforming zeal after they encountered Albigensian Christians at Toulouse. Diego saw one of the paramount reasons for the spread of the unorthodox movement- the representatives of the Holy Church acted and moved with an offensive amount of pomp and ceremony.
In contrast, the Cathars led ascetic lifestyles. For these reasons, Diego suggested that the papal legates begin to live a reformed apostolic l
Luis Echeverría Álvarez is a Mexican politician affiliated with the Institutional Revolutionary Party who served as the 50th President of Mexico from 1970 to 1976. At 97, he is the oldest living former Mexican president, his presidency was characterized by his authoritarian manners, the 1971 Corpus Christi massacre against student protesters, the Dirty War against leftist dissent in the country, the economic crisis that occurred in Mexico towards the end of his term. At the international stage, he attempted to become a leader of the so-called "Third World", the countries that were not aligned with either the US or the USSR during the Cold War. In 2006, he was indicted and ordered under house arrest for his role in the 1968 Tlatelolco massacre and the 1971 Corpus Christi massacre, but in 2009 the charges against him were dismissed, he was born in Mexico City to Catalina Álvarez. Echeverría joined the faculty of the National Autonomous University of Mexico in 1947 and taught political theory, he rose in the hierarchy of the Institutional Revolutionary Party and became the private secretary of the party president, Rodolfo Sánchez Taboada.
Echeverría served as Interior Secretary under President Gustavo Díaz Ordaz from 1964 to 1970. He maintained a hard line against student protesters throughout 1968. Clashes between the government and protesters culminated in the Tlatelolco massacre in October 1968, a few days before the 1968 Summer Olympics were held in Mexico City. In a separate incident, he ordered the transfer of 15% of the Mexican military to the state of Guerrero to counter guerrilla groups that were operating there. On 22 October 1969, Díaz Ordaz summoned Alfonso Martínez Domínguez—the PRI party president—and other party leaders to his office in Los Pinos to reveal Echeverría as his successor. Martínez Domínguez asked the president if he was sure of his decision and Díaz Ordaz replied, "Why do you ask? It's the most important decision of my life and I've thought it over well." On 8 November 1969, PRI announced Echeverría as the presidential candidate. At one point during his campaign for the presidency, Echeverría called for a moment of silence to remember the victims of the Tlatelolco massacre, an act that enraged President Díaz Ordaz and prompted him to call for Echeverría's resignation.
Although Echeverría was a hardliner in Díaz Ordaz's administration and considered responsible for the Tlatelolco massascre, he became "immediately obsessed with making people forget that he had done it." Echeverría was the first president born after the Mexican Revolution. Once Echeverría inaugurated as president, he embarked on a massive program of populist political and economic reform, nationalizing the mining and electrical industries, redistributing private land in the states of Sinaloa and Sonora to peasants, imposing limits on foreign investment, extending Mexico's patrimonial waters to 370 kilometres. State spending on health, housing construction and food subsidies was significantly increased, the percentage of the population covered by the social security system was doubled, he enraged the left because he did not bring the perpetrators of the 1971 Corpus Christi massacre to justice. He angered the business community with his populist rhetoric and his moves to nationalize industries and redistribute land.
He was unpopular within the file of his own party. After decades of economic growth under his predecessors, the Echeverría administration oversaw an economic crisis during its final months, becoming the first in a series of Presidencies in Mexico that faced severe economic crises during the next two decades. Echeverría was accused of irresponsible government spending, increasing inflation, cronyism, symbolized by appointing his childhood friend and eventual successor, José López Portillo, as Finance Minister as well as by devaluing the peso, from 12.50 pesos per dollar in 1954 to 20 pesos per dollar in late 1976. During his period in office, the country's external debt soared from $6 billion in 1970 to $20 billion in 1976; that caused a gradual loss of prestige in the ruling party, at least in terms of its economic policies, at home and abroad. At the end of his term, Mexico was in a state of economic crisis. On 8 October 1974, Echeverría issued a decree creating the new Mexican states of Baja California Sur and Quintana Roo.
Echeverría nationalized the barbasco industry in the late 1970s. Wild barbasco was the natural source of hormones that were the key component in the contraceptive pill. Nationalization and the creation of the state-run company PROQUIVEMEX came as the importance of Mexico to the industry was waning. During the administration of Echeverría, a new Federal Election Law was approved: Lowered the number of members a party needed to become registered from 75,000 to 65,000 Increased the number of Congress seats chosen according to proportional representation principle from 20 to 25 Introduction of a permanent voting card Established the age of candidacy at 21, from 30. Following the PRI tradition, Echeverría handpicked his successor for the Presidency, chose his Finance Minister and childhood friend, José López Portillo, to be the PRI Presidential candidate for the 1976 elections. Due to a series of events and an internal conflict in the opposition party PA