Secretariat of the Interior
The Mexican Office for Domestic Affairs is the public ministry concerned with the country's domestic affairs, the presenting of the president's bills to Congress, their publication and certain issues of national security. The country's principal intelligence agency, CISEN, is directly answerable to the Secretary of the Interior; the Secretary is a member of the President's Cabinet and is, given the constitutional implications of the post, the most important Cabinet Member. Additionally, in the absence of the President, the Secretary of Interior assumes the job of the President and so, in this matter, the Secretary is similar to a Vicepresident; the Office is equivalent to Ministries of the Interior in most other countries and is translated to English as Ministry, Secretariat or Department of the Interior. In 1821, after the establishment of what was the Mexican Provisional Cabinet, given public urgings to organise the country's government, regulation was produced outlining the functions of a new governmental arm styled The Office for Domestic and Foreign Affairs.
The new agency was answerable for managing the functioning of the government in general. The first person to take up the Directorship of the Office was José Manuel de Herrera who held the post between 1821 and 1823. On, it became necessary to particularise the duties of certain government agencies, which, in 1843, lead to the creation of the'Office for Domestic Affairs', which would be re-styled as the'Office for Foreign Relations and Government' in 1841 and again in 1843 as the'Office for Domestic Affairs and Policing'; the Office had some of its powers separated into other ministries and, in 1853, was once again named'Office for Domestic Affairs' —as it is still called up to the present day. The Office for Domestic Affairs in its modern day form, is concerned principally with the good management and proper application of the policies of Mexico's Federal Government within its national borders, it is a department of the Executive Branch and dates back to article 222 of the 1812 Spanish Constitution, which received royal assent on 19 March, 1812.
Among the Cabinet Secretaries mentioned in the constitution, were those of Governance of the Realm in the Peninsula and Adjacent Islands and Governance of the Realm Overseas. On 22 October, 1814, the Constitutional Declaration for the Emancipation of the Mexican Americas known as the Apatzingán Constitution made provisions for a republican form of Government by way of Article 134; the Apatzingán Constitution provided for an Executive Branch known as the Supreme Government which would be equipped with an Office for Domestic Affairs, among other governmental departments. This position was seen as being a heartbeat away from the Presidency, because several Secretaries of the Interior were chosen as presidential candidates for the following term by incumbent presidents Plutarco Elías Calles, Emilio Portes Gil, Lázaro Cárdenas, Miguel Alemán Valdés, Adolfo Ruiz Cortines, Gustavo Díaz Ordaz, Luis Echeverría. Francisco Labastida Ochoa, Secretary of the Interior during the latter part of the Zedillo government, was seen as Zedillo's personal favorite during the Institutional Revolutionary Party's primaries and during his unsuccessful bid which saw his political undoing at the hands of PAN candidate Vicente Fox.
In turn, Fox's Secretary of the Interior, Santiago Creel, ran in the National Action Party's primaries in 2006, but was defeated by Felipe Calderón. According to the Organic Law of the Federal Public Administration in its Article 27 corresponds to the discharge of the following functions: To present before the Congress of the Union the initiatives of law or decree of the Executive To publish the laws and decrees of the Congress of the Union, one of the two Chambers or the Standing Commission and the regulations issued by the President of the Republic, as well as the resolutions and provisions that by law must be published in the Official Gazette of the Federation Manage and publish the Official Gazette of the Federation Managing the National Personal Identification Service To deal with the administrative procedure for the expulsion of foreigners from the national territory To administer the islands of federal jurisdiction, except those whose administration corresponds, by provision of the law, to another dependence or entity of the federal public administration Conduct the internal policy, the responsibility of the Executive and not explicitly attributed to another dependency To monitor the compliance of constitutional precepts by the authorities of the country with regard to individual guarantees and to issue the necessary administrative measures for that purpose Conduct, as long as this power is not conferred on another Secretariat, the relations of the Executive Power with the other Powers of the Union, with the autonomous constitutional organs, with the governments of the federative entities, the municipalities and with the other federal and local authorities, As well as render the official information of the Federal Executive To conduct, within the scope of its competence, the political relations of the Executive Power with national political parties and groups, with social organizations, with religious associations and other social institutions Foster political development, contribute to the strengthening of democratic institutions.
Secretariat of Communications and Transportation (Mexico)
The Secretariat of Communications and Transportation of Mexico is the national federal entity that regulates commercial road traffic and broadcasting. Its headquarters are in the Torre Libertad on Reforma in Mexico City but some aspects of the department still function at the old headquarters located at the intersection of Eje Central and Eje 4 Sur; the building is decorated with murals created by arranging small colored stones on the building's outer walls. The forerunner of the modern-day SCT was created in 1891 under President Porfirio Díaz and was known as the Secretariat of Communications. In 1920 it was renamed to the Secretariat of Public Works, it acquired its present name in 1959. The SCT is headed by the Secretary of Communications and Transport, a member of the federal executive cabinet. Under the 1917 Constitution, this position has been held by the following individuals: Under President Venustiano Carranza 1917–1920: Manuel Rodríguez Gutiérrez Under President Adolfo de la Huerta 1920: Pascual Ortiz Rubio Under President Álvaro Obregón 1920–1921: Pascual Ortiz Rubio 1921–1924: Amado Aguirre Under President Plutarco Elías Calles 1924–1925: Adalberto Tejeda 1925–1926: Eduardo Ortiz 1926–1928: Ramón Ross Under President Emilio Portes Gil 1928–1930: Javier Sánchez Mejorada Under President Pascual Ortiz Rubio 1930–1931: Juan Andrew Almazán 1931–1932: Gustavo P. Serrano 1932: Miguel M. Acosta Guajardo Under President Abelardo L. Rodríguez 1932–1934: Miguel M. Acosta Guajardo Under President Lázaro Cárdenas del Río 1934–1935: Rodolfo Elías Calles 1935–1939: Francisco J. Múgica 1939–1940: Melquiades Angulo Under President Manuel Ávila Camacho 1940–1941: Jesús de la Garza 1941–1945: Maximino Ávila Camacho 1945–1946: Pedro Martínez Tornel Under President Miguel Alemán 1946–1952: Agustín García López Under President Adolfo Ruiz Cortines 1952–1955: Carlos Lazo 1955–1958: Walter Cross Buchanan Under President Adolfo López Mateos 1958–1964: Walter Cross Buchanan Under President Gustavo Díaz Ordaz 1964–1970: José Antonio Padilla Segura Under President Luis Echeverría Álvarez 1970–1976: Eugenio Méndez Docurro Under President José López Portillo 1976–1982: Emilio Mújica Montoya Under President Miguel de la Madrid 1982–1984: Rodolfo Félix Valdés 1984–1988: Daniel Díaz Díaz Under President Carlos Salinas de Gortari 1988–1992: Andrés Caso Lombardo 1992–1994: Emilio Gamboa Patrón Under President Ernesto Zedillo 1994: Guillermo Ortiz Martínez 1994–2000: Carlos Ruiz Sacristán Under President Vicente Fox 2000–2006: Pedro Cerisola y Weber Under President Felipe Calderón 2006–2009: Luis Téllez 2009–2012: Juan Molinar Horcasitas Under President Enrique Peña Nieto 2012–2018: Gerardo Ruiz Esparza Under President Andrés Manuel López Obrador 2018–present: Javier Jiménez Espriú The Direction General of Civil Aeronautics is the agency under the SCT that regulates aviation.
Palace of the Secretariat of Communications and Public Works, former Secretariat building in downtown Mexico City Ministry of Communications and Transportation Ministry of Communications and Transportation Ministry of Communications and Transportation
Federal government of Mexico
The Federal government of Mexico is the national government of the United Mexican States, the central government established by its constitution to share sovereignty over the republic with the governments of the 31 individual Mexican states, to represent such governments before international bodies such as the United Nations. The Mexican federal government has three branches: executive and judicial and functions per the Constitution of the United Mexican States, as enacted in 1917, as amended; the executive power is exercised by the executive branch, headed by the president and his Cabinet, together, are independent of the legislature. Legislative power is vested upon the Congress of the Union, a bicameral legislature comprising the Senate and the Chamber of Deputies. Judicial power is exercised by the judiciary, consisting of the Supreme Court of Justice of the Nation, the Council of the Federal Judiciary, the collegiate and district courts; the federal government, known as the Supreme Power of the Federation, is constituted by the Powers of the Union: the legislative, the executive, the judicial.
Mexico City, as the capital, the seat of the powers of the Union. All branches of government are independent; the legislative power is vested upon the Congress of the Union, a bicameral congress comprising the Senate and the Chamber of Deputies. The powers of the Congress include the right to pass laws, impose taxes, declare war, approve the national budget, approve or reject treaties and conventions made with foreign countries, ratify diplomatic appointments; the Senate addresses all matters that concern foreign policy, approves international agreements, confirms presidential appointments. The Chamber of Deputies is formed by 500 representatives of the nation. All deputies are elected in free universal elections every three years, in parallel voting: 300 deputies are elected in single-seat constituencies by first-past-the-post plurality, the remaining 200 are elected by the principle of proportional representation with closed-party lists for which the country is divided into five constituencies or plurinominal circumscriptions.
Deputies cannot be reelected for the next immediate term. Being a supplementary system of parallel voting, proportionality is only confined to the plurinominal seats. However, to prevent a party to be overrepresented, several restrictions to the assignation of plurinominal seats are applied: A party must obtain at least 2% of votes to be assigned a plurinominal seat; the Senate consists of 128 representatives of the constituent states of the federation. All senators are elected in free universal elections every six years through a parallel voting system as well: 64 senators are elected by first-past-the-post plurality, two per state and two for Mexico City elected jointly; the judiciary consists of The Supreme Court of Justice, composed of eleven judges or ministers appointed by the President with Congress approval, who interpret laws and judge cases of federal competency. Other institutions of the judiciary are the Electoral Tribunal, collegiate and district tribunals, the Council of the Federal Judiciary.
The ministers of the Supreme Court will serve for 15 years and cannot be appointed to serve more than once. Mexico City does not belong to any state in particular, but to the federation, being the capital of the country and seat of the powers of the Union; as such, it is constituted as a special jurisdiction administered by the Powers of the Union. Nonetheless, since the late 1990s certain autonomy and powers have been devolved; the executive power is vested upon a head of government elected by first-past-the-post plurality. The legislative power is vested upon a unicameral Legislative Assembly; the judicial power is exercised by the Supreme Tribunal of the Judiciary Council. Mexico City was divided into boroughs. Though not equivalent to a municipality in that they do not have regulatory powers, they have gained limited autonomy in recent years, the representatives to the head of government are now elected by the citizens as well. In 2016, the name was changed to Mexico City and the 16 delegations were transformed into municipalities, each one with its own mayor.
State governments of Mexico Constitution of Mexico Politics of Mexico Law of Mexico Presidency of the United Mexican States Congress of the Union Supreme Court of Justice of the Nation Mexican Council for Economic and Social Development
Secretariat of National Defense (Mexico)
The Mexican Office for National Defence is the government department responsible for managing Mexico's Army and Air Forces. Its head is the Director for National Defense who, like the co-equal Director of the Navy, is directly answerable to the President. Before 1937, the position was called the Director of the Navy; the agency has its headquarters in Miguel Hidalgo, Mexico City. Some key figures who answer directly to the Director are the Assistant Director, the Chief of Staff of the Armed Forces, all military tribunals. Under the Federal Public Administration Act, the Secretary has the following duties: Organize and prepare the Army and the Air Force. Organize and prepare the National Military Service. Management of the Army, Air Force, National Guard and armed contingents which don't belong to state's national guard. Plan and handle mobilization of the country in the event of war. Construct and prepare the forts and all kind of military buildings for Army and Air Force use, as well as administration of barracks and other military buildings.
Administer military justice. Acquire and build armaments and all kinds of materials and elements for the use of Army and Air Force. Grant permission for an expedition force to enter another country or to allow another country to send their forces to Mexico. Manage the issuing of licenses to bear firearms with the aim of preventing the use of arms expressly banned in law and those types of arms restricted by the state for the exclusive use of the Army and National Guard, with the exception of what is established by the 13th section of Article 30 of the Constitution, as well as the supervision and issuing of permits for the sale and storage of firearms, chemical weapons and strategic weapons. Museo del Enervante - a Sedena museum dedicated to those who have fought drug trafficking in Mexico. Zuyaqui - a famous dog who worked for the agency. Official site of the Secretariat of National Defense Official site of the Secretariat of National Defense, English version Citizens' Portal, Official Site of the Mexican Government Basic Law of Federal Public Administration
Cabinet of Mexico
The cabinet of Mexico is the Executive Cabinet and is a part of the executive branch of the Mexican government. It consists of nineteen Secretaries of State, the head of the federal executive legal office and the Attorney General. In addition to the legal Executive Cabinet there are other Cabinet-level administration offices that report directly to the President of the Republic. Officials from the legal and extended Cabinet are subordinate to the President; the term "Cabinet" does not appear in the Constitution, where reference is made only to the Secretaries of State. Article 89 of the Constitution provides that the President of Mexico can assign and remove Secretaries of State. Article 26 of the Organic Law of the Federal Public Administration creates the several cabinet secretariats, the Organic Law of the Attorney General's Office creates the office of the Attorney General; the Executive Cabinet does not play a collective executive role. The main interaction that Cabinet members have with the legislative branch are regular testimonials before Congressional committees to justify their actions, coordinate executive and legislative policy in their respective fields of jurisdiction.
The Executive Cabinet members are nominated by the President and they must be approved by the Senate. Cabinet Secretaries are selected from past and current governors and other political office holders. Private citizens such as businessmen or former military officials are common Cabinet choices, it is not rare for a Secretary to be moved from one Secretariat to another. For example, former Secretary of Energy Fernando Canales Clariond had served as Secretary of Economy and former Secretary of Education Josefina Vázquez Mota had served as Secretary of Social Development; some positions are not part of the legal Executive Cabinet, but have cabinet-level rank therefore their incumbents are considered members of the extended cabinet. Some of the cabinet-level administration offices are: Executive Cabinet CIA: Chiefs of State and Cabinet Members of Mexico
Secretariat of Culture
The Secretariat of Culture known as the National Council for Culture and Arts, is a Mexican government agency in charge of the nation's museums and monuments and protecting the arts, managing the national archives. It was a decentralized body of the Secretariat of Public Education. On December 18, 2015, CONACULTA was elevated to a secretariat following the passage of a law promoted three months earlier by President Enrique Peña Nieto. Diplomat and lawyer Rafael Tovar y de Teresa was the first culture secretary. Subsidiaries of the Secretariat of Culture include the Biblioteca Vasconcelos, the National Fund for Culture and the Arts, the Instituto Mexicano de la Cinematografía, the Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia and Instituto Nacional de Bellas Artes y Literatura. Upon its creation, the Secretariat of Culture took control of CONACULTA's television station Canal 22, seen on air in Mexico City and relayed by 25 SPR transmitters, as well as Radio Educación, part of the SEP. Both stations transmit educational content.
Secretaría de Cultura —
Enrique Peña Nieto
Enrique Peña Nieto referred to by his initials EPN, is a Mexican politician who served as the 57th President of Mexico from 2012 to 2018. A member of the PRI, he served as Governor of the State of Mexico from 2005 to 2011, local deputy from 2003 to 2004, Secretary of Administration from 2000 to 2002. Born in Atlacomulco and raised in Toluca, Peña Nieto attended Panamerican University, graduating with a B. A. in legal studies. After attaining a M. B. A. from ITESM, he began his political career by joining the Institutional Revolutionary Party in 1984. After serving as a public notary in Mexico City, he began an ascension through local political ranks in the late 1990s, culminating in his 2005 campaign for Governor of the State of Mexico; as governor, he pledged to deliver 608 compromisos to his constituency to varying levels of success. His tenure was marked by low-to-moderate approval of his handling of a rising murder rate and various public health issues, he launched his 2012 presidential campaign on a platform of economic competitiveness and open government.
After performing well in polls and a series of high-profile candidate withdrawals, Peña Nieto was elected president with 38.14% of the vote. During his first four years, Peña Nieto led an expansive breakup of monopolies, liberalized Mexico's energy sector, reformed public education, modernized the country's financial regulation. However, political gridlock and allegations of media bias worsened corruption and drug trade in Mexico, he instated the multi-lateral Pact for Mexico which soothed inter-party fighting and led to increased legislation across the political spectrum. Global drops in oil prices and economic slowdown of the 2010s, rendered his economic reforms moderately successful which lowered political support for Peña Nieto, his handling of the Iguala mass kidnapping in 2014 and escaped drug lord Joaquín "El Chapo" Guzmán from Altiplano prison in 2015 sparked international acclaim and criticism. Historical evaluations and approval rates of his presidency have been mixed. Detractors highlight a series of failed policies and a strained public presence while supporters note increased economic competitiveness and loosening of gridlock.
He began his term with an approval rate of 50%, hovered around 35% during his inter-years and bottomed out at 12% in January 2017. Peña Nieto is seen as one of the most controversial and least popular presidents in the history of Mexico. Enrique Peña Nieto was born on 20 July 1966 in Atlacomulco, State of Mexico, a city 55 miles northwest of Mexico City, he is the oldest of four siblings. He is the nephew of two former governors of the State of México: on his mother's side, Arturo Montiel, he attended Denis Hall School in Alfred, during one year of junior high school in 1979 to learn English. After living in Atlacomulco for the first 11 years of his life, Peña Nieto's family moved to the city of Toluca. In 1975, his father would take him to the campaign rallies of the State of Mexico's governor, Jorge Jiménez Cantú, a close friend of Peña del Mazo The successor of the governor was Alfredo del Mazo González, a cousin of Peña Nieto's father. During Del Mazo González's campaign in 1981, the fifteen-year-old Peña Nieto had his first direct contact with Mexican politics: he began delivering campaign literature in favor of his relative, a memory Peña Nieto recalls as the turning point and start of his deep interest in politics.
In 1984 at the age of 18, Peña Nieto traveled to Mexico City and enrolled in the Panamerican University, where he earned a Bachelor of Arts degree in legal studies. Peña Nieto's academic thesis was found to contain some improper citations and plagiarism which stirred controversy in May 2016. Peña Nieto sought a master's degree in Business Administration at the Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey, based in the State of Mexico. Peña Nieto can speak English, however, he speaks Spanish in formal settings. Peña Nieto joined the Institutional Revolutionary Party in 1984, with a law degree nearly completed, he began earning his own money. During his final years in college, Peña Nieto worked for a public notary in Mexico City, around the same time when his relative, Alfredo del Mazo González, was mentioned as a firm candidate for the 1988 presidential elections. In his twenties, he worked at the San Luis Industrial Corporation, an auto parts manufacturer, at the law firm Laffan and Kaye.
While still a student at the Universidad Panamericana, he roomed with Eustaquio de Nicolás, the current president of Homex, a leading Mexican construction and real estate company. He befriended and roomed with Luis Miranda, who occupied several offices during the 1999–2000 administration in the State of Mexico. Peña Nieto formally started his political career under the mentorship of Montiel Rojas, becoming the Secretary of the Citizen Movement of Zone I of the State Directive Committee of the National Confederation of Popular Organizations, one of the three sectors of the PRI. For three consecutive years, Peña Nieto participated as a delegate to the Organization and Citizen Front in different municipalities of the State of Mexico. Between 1993 and 1998, during Emilio Chuayfett's term as governor, Peña Nieto was chief of staff and personal secretary to Montiel Rojas, the Secretary of Economic Development of the State of Mexico. After 1999, Peña Nieto went from having low-level secretary positions to higher and more qualified offices.
He served from 1999 to 2000 as the Su