The Control Yuan, one of the five branches of the Government of the Republic of China, is an investigatory agency that monitors the other branches of government. It may be compared to the Court of Auditors of the European Union or the Government Accountability Office of the United States. However, the clearest anaologous position is the State Comptroller of Israel, like the CY, is a hybrid between a government performance auditor and a political ombudsman; the Control Yuan was established in February 1931 succeeding the role of Auditing Yuan. Auditing Yuan was subsequently incorporated into the Control Yuan; the idea for the Control Yuan was inspired by a long tradition of supervision used in past dynasties, ranging from the Censor established by the Qin and Han dynasties to the tái and jiàn offices established under the Sui and Tang dynasties to the Board of Public Censors selected under the Ming and Qing dynasties. Most of these offices operated local and provincial branches to supervise local governments.
Under the Qing dynasty, the Board of Public Censors consisted of forty or fifty members, two presidents, one of Manchu ancestry and the other of Chinese ancestry. They were, in theory, allowed to send one censor to participate in the meetings of all government boards; the Board's powers were minimized by the time of political flux which preceded the end of the Empire. As a republican phenomenon, the idea of government supervision and audit was adopted by Sun Yat-sen during his involvement with the Tongmenghui as part of five proposed branches of republican government. Following the establishment of the provisional republican government, the traditional three branches were put in place. By 1928, the Control and Examination Yuans were established by the provisional government. A sixth Auditing Yuan was established in February 1928, but in February 1931, the Auditing Yuan was downgraded to the current Ministry of Audit and incorporated into the Control Yuan; the first formal Control Yuan was elected by provincial, Mongolian and Overseas Chinese representative councils and was first convened in 1948 following the enactment of the 1947 Constitution.
Most branch offices of the Control Yuan were closed following the KMT evacuation to Taiwan from the mainland. In 1992, the selection process for the Control Yuan was reformed by constitutional amendment, with representative council elections being replaced by National Assembly confirmations; this was further reformed in 2000 by the replacement of the National Assembly with the Legislative Yuan for confirmation elections. At the end of 2004 President Chen Shui-bian sent a list of nominees to positions in the Control Yuan to the Legislative Yuan for approval; the Pan-Blue Coalition, which held a majority in the Legislative Yuan, refused to ratify President Chen's nominees and demanded that he submit a new list. The political deadlock that resulted stopped the Control Yuan from functioning from February 2005 to July 2008. Following the election of President Ma of the Pan-Blue Coalition, the Legislative Yuan ratified a new list of members of the Control Yuan and Wang Chien-shien was appointed to be its President.
Impeachment Censure Supervision Audit Investigation of officials Receipt of petition complaints concerning officials Supervising of Examination Yuan exams for prospective government workers Implementation of the freedom of information legislation for financial transactions and gifts involving politicians Suggestion of corrective measures to correct issues of neglect or malfunction in the Executive Yuan Human rights protection International collaboration with ombudsman and human rights institutions, including the International Ombudsman Institute The structure of the Control Yuan consists of the President, Vice President, a 27-member council and the Ministry of Audit. The council of the Yuan, chaired by the Yuan President, is divided into a number of committees to fulfill the Yuan's various purposes; the seven standing committees cover the following: Domestic and ethnic minority affairs Foreign and overseas Chinese affairs National defense and intelligence affairs Finance and economic affairs Education and cultural affairs Transportation and procurement affairs Judicial affairs and prison administration In addition, Control Yuan members join five special committees: Committee on Statutory Studies Committee on Consultation Committee on Discipline for Control Yuan Members Committee on Anti-Corruption Committee on Human Rights Protection An Administrative Appeal Committee, operated under the aegis of the Control Yuan but consisting of both members and non-members of the Control Yuan, considers administrative appeals which are inappropriate to both the Control Yuan proper and the Ministry of Audit.
Budgetary Planning and Administrative Committee - which provides suggestions on the planning and drawing up of the Control Yuan’s annual budget International Affairs Committee - which provides for collaboration and communication with the audit and ombudsman institutions of other governments. No member of the Control Yuan can hold another public office or profession while serving in the branch, members must be able to perform absent of partisan control or influence. Members can vote in no more than three committees and can join additional committees as non-voting members; each committee can have up to 14 members and elects a convenor amongst themselves to chair commi
The Judicial Yuan is the judicial branch of the government of the Republic of China on Taiwan. Its Justices of the Constitutional Court, with 15 members, is charged with interpreting the Constitution; the President and Vice President of the Judicial Yuan are chosen from among the Justices by the President. Eight of the grand justices, including the president and vice president of the Judicial Yuan, serve four-year terms, the remaining justices serve eight-year terms; the Judicial Yuan supervises the Supreme Court, the high courts, the district courts, the Administrative Court, the Commission on the Disciplinary Sanctions of Public Functionaries. According to Articles 77 and 78 of the Constitution of the Republic of China, Article 5 of the Additional Articles of the Constitution, Articles 30, 43, 75 of the Local Government Systems Act, the major functions of the Judicial Yuan are as follows: To interpret the Constitution and to unify the interpretation of laws and orders. Judicial Administrative Power of the Constitutional Court.
The Justices of the Constitutional Court provides rulings on the following four categories of cases: Interpretation of the Constitution. A petition for an interpretation of the Constitution shall be filed in the following circumstances: Where a central or local government agency is uncertain regarding the application of the Constitution while exercising its powers, or, if the agency, while exercising its powers, has disputes with another agency regarding the application of the Constitution, or if the agency is uncertain of the constitutionality of a particular law or order when applying the same; the Justices are: The Honorable Chief Justice and President of the Judicial Yuan Hsu Tzong-li The Honorable Justice and Vice President of the Judicial Yuan Su Yeong-chin The Honorable Justice Lin Sea-yau The Honorable Justice Chih Chi-ming The Honorable Justice Li Chen-shan The Honorable Justice Tsay Ching-you The Honorable Justice Huang Mao-zong The Honorable Justice Chen Ming The Honorable Justice Yeh Pai-hsiu The Honorable Justice Chen Chun-sheng The Honorable Justice Chen Shin-min The Honorable Justice Chen Be-yue The Honorable Justice Huang Hsi-chun The Honorable Justice Lo Chang-fa The Honorable Justice Tang Te-chung The Supreme Court is the court of last resort for civil and criminal cases.
A civil case can be appealed to the Supreme Court. Except for petty offences enumerated in Article 376 of the Code of Criminal Procedure, any criminal case may be appealed to the Court; this Court exercises jurisdiction over the following cases: appeals from judgments of High Courts or their branches as courts of first instance in criminal cases. There are six High Court branches in the Taiwan Area: The High Courts and its branches exercise jurisdiction over the following cases: Appeals from judgments of the District Courts or their branches as courts of the first instance in ordinary proceedings of civil and criminal cases; the High Courts and its Branch Courts are divided into civil and specialized divisions. Each Division is composed of one two Associate Judges. Additionally, the High Court and its Branch Courts have a Clerical Bureau, headed by a Chief Clerk who assists the
2008 Taiwan presidential election
The 12th President and Vice President election of the Republic of China was held in Taiwan on Saturday, March 22, 2008. Kuomintang nominee Ma Ying-jeou won with 58% of the vote, ending eight years of Democratic Progressive Party rule. Along with the 2008 legislative election, Ma's landslide victory brought the Kuomintang back to power in Taiwan; this was the fourth direct election for the President of the Republic of China. The two candidates were Democratic Progressive Party candidate Frank Hsieh and Kuomintang nominee Ma Ying-jeou; the KMT ticket was formed as of June 23, 2007, with Ma announcing his choice for running mate to be former premier Vincent Siew. The DPP ticket was announced in August, 2007, with Frank Hsieh selecting former Premier Su Tseng-chang. Unlike the 2004 presidential election, the political rhetoric of the campaigns tended to focus on economic issues and government corruption rather than national identity and the political status of Taiwan, with both candidates endorsing the status quo in the short term.
But much like previous elections, this election was marked with island-wide mass rallies and much political mudslinging. The KMT ticket received a larger percentage and more votes than any other candidate in the previous three direct presidential elections; the election occurred as incumbent President Chen Shui-bian's popularity remained at record lows following mass rallies in September 2006 urging him to resign amid implications of corruption. Amid general economic malaise, as unemployment had risen under Chen's presidency and Taiwan's per capita GDP was surpassed by that of South Korea, Ma won on a platform of economic revitalization and a promise to improve cross-straits relations, in contrast to Chen's confrontational style, as "a peacemaker not a troublemaker"; the election occurred in the wake of the KMT's landslide victory in the 2008 legislative elections in which the Pan-Blue Coalition won a three-quarters majority in the Legislative Yuan. On the same day two referenda on joining the United Nations, the first supported by the DPP of President Chen and the second supported by the KMT, failed due to low turnout.
Prior to the vote, the KMT had encouraged its supporters to boycott the DPP referendum, expressed its "understanding" if supporters boycotted both. Candidates were to register with their respective parties March 5 -- 2007, for a primary election. Selection of candidates for President in Taiwan, unlike most other nations, were weighed; the actual primary election results accounted for 30% of the final outcome while public opinion polls accounted for the other 70%. Final tallies were announced May 30, 2007. Leading candidates for the Democratic Progressive Party "Four Heavenly Kings" sans incumbent President Chen Shui-bian —Frank Hsieh, Su Tseng-chang, Yu Shyi-kun—and incumbent vice president Annette Lu. All three of the men had served as premier under Chen Shui-bian and as DPP chairman during part of the Chen presidency. In addition, Hsieh has been a popular mayor of Kaohsiung, Su has been county magistrate of Taipei County and Pingtung County, Yu served as Secretary-General in the Office of the President.
On May 6, 2007, the DPP primaries took place in all 24 counties in Taiwan. There were 254,963 eligible voters, with voter turnout at 56.06%. Former premier Frank Hsieh emerged as the winner of the DPP primaries, winning 17 of 24 cities and counties with 62,849 votes, about 44% of the votes cast. Despite the fact that the primary results only account for 30% of the final outcome in determining the nominee, fellow DPP candidates Su, who got 46,994 votes; the junior partner in the pan-green coalition, the Taiwan Solidarity Union, neither fielded nor endorsed a candidate. TSU Chairman Shu Chin-chiang endorsed Ma on September 19, 2007 when he referred to Ma as "our President-to-be." At the same time, several TSU legislators stated. In December, Lee Teng-hui, considered the "spiritual leader" of the TSU, rescinded his support of Chen in 2004, urged citizens against voting for the DPP in upcoming legislative elections. While Lee denounced supporting the ruling DPP party, he stopped short of endorsing any party or candidate and waited until March 20, 2008 to endorse Hsieh.
Following the KMT's defeat in 2004 and before the 2005 KMT chairman election, Taipei Mayor Ma Ying-jeou and Legislative Yuan President Wang Jin-pyng were both considered leading candidates for the nomination. Ma's landslide victory over Wang in the 2005 KMT chairman election made him the frontrunner, his position was furthered bolstered by the KMT's victories in the 2005 3-in-1 local elections. Ma Ying-jeou began his campaign before his announcement for candidacy, taking trips Europe and Japan in 2006, nominally to obtain business deals for Taipei, but covered by the media for his foreign policy remarks, he met with numerous politicians in Washington, DC, including U. S. Deputy Secretary of State Robert Zoellick. Ma Ying-jeou became the first head of a pan-Blue coalition party to state that declaring de jure Taiwanese independence was a legitimate choice of the Taiwanese people, though he qualified it saying that this was not a position of the KMT, after receiving much criticism from pan-Blue politicians.
He stated that Taiwan should form a common market with mainland China and establish direct transportation links. On February 13, 2
Chen Chu or Kiku Chen is a Taiwanese politician who served as Mayor of Kaohsiung between 2006 and 2018. She was one of the "Kaohsiung Eight," prominent dissidents arrested after the Kaohsiung Incident in 1979, she spent six years in jail during the martial law period in Taiwan. Chen, who holds a master's degree from National Sun Yat-sen University, held senior appointed posts in Taipei City and Kaohsiung City governments between 1995 and 2000, she served as minister of the Council of Labor Affairs between 2000 and 2005. In 2006, Chen Chu won the Kaohsiung mayoral elections and became the city's first elected female mayor, she was re-elected in 2010 with 52% of the vote in a three-way race. On 30 August 2009, the 14th Dalai Lama accepted an invitation from Chen Chu to visit Taiwan. Chen served as Acting Chair of the Democratic Progressive Party in 2012. On 9 December 2006, Chen narrowly won the 2006 Kaohsiung mayoral elections over Kuomintang candidate Huang Jun-ying by just 1,120 votes. Huang filed two lawsuits against Chen's camp.
He argued. The Kaohsiung District Court ruled in favor of Huang Jun-ying in one of the cases, thereby nullifying the elections. Soon after hearing the news, Chen expressed, she said. While her DPP colleague and legislator Kuan Bi-ling advised Chen to give up the appeal and allow a by-election, Chen nonetheless appealed the case; some wondered. The High Court overturned the earlier decision and validated Chen's election victory on 17 November 2007. In December 2007, after her mayoralty was proven indisputable, she announced that her new goal is to focus on improving the city's transportation, public construction, environmental protection. In April 2009, mayor Chen promised to improve the water quality of Chienchen River, a river that the locals called "Heilungchiang", she said. She vowed to make Kaohsiung a city, not just notable for the beauty of its Love River. Kaohsiung was the host city of World Games 2009. Chen Chu visited the People's Republic of China to promote the Games. During a meeting with Beijing mayor Guo Jinlong, Chen addressed President Ma Ying-jeou with his formal title, which garnered much support from the DPP and the Kaohsiung City Council.
Chen's trip to China was criticized by several localization activist groups including the Taiwan Solidarity Union. However, Chen said. During her trip, she met with not only the mayor of Beijing, but Shanghai mayor Han Zheng and Chinese Olympic Committee chairman Liu Pong; the main venue for the Games, the World Games Stadium, was designed by Japanese architect Toyo Ito. The groundbreaking and completion of the stadium both occurred during Chen's term as mayor; the closing ceremony was held at the sold-out World Games Stadium, where International World Games Association President Ron Froehlich called it a "fantastic success" and declared it the "best ever." Kaohsiung's tourism bureau announced that the Games generated US$61 million in revenue for the city. The city's department stores reported a 15 percent growth in sales. Mayor Chen said that Kaohsiung would no longer be known only as the second largest city in Taiwan, but as the city that hosted the best World Games ever. Chen Chu was criticized for napping in her residence while parts of Kaohsiung flooded when Typhoon Fanapi ripped through Taiwan on 19 September 2010.
Chen tearfully admitted to feeling guilty for taking a rest. She stressed that she returned home to change her wet clothes and was keeping a close eye on the storm. Critics called for Chen to resign from her post, compared Chen's napping to former Premier Liu Chao-Shiuan's getting a haircut and former Executive Yuan Secretary-General Hsieh Hsiang-chuan's attending a Father's Day dinner during August 2009's Typhoon Morakot. Chen Chu and the City Government were sued by Benhe borough chief Lin Chi-mei, a fellow DPP member, in the aftermath of the flooding, alleging that the city government did not maintain proper facilities that might have prevented flooding. On 27 November 2010, Chen ran for reelection, opposing the KMT's Huang Chao-shun and independent candidate Yang Chiu-hsing, she won the 2010 Kaohsiung mayoral election with 52.80% of votes. This was the first time elections were held for the special municipality of Kaohsiung, a merger of Kaohsiung City and Kaohsiung County that became official on December 25.
Citizens of Kaohsiung have criticized Chen for a slow reaction to the 2014 Kaohsiung gas explosions. The Kuomintang caucus of the Kaohsiung City Council sued her for negligence that led to loss of life. A subpoena was issued for three other city officials on 22 September; the Kaohsiung District Prosecutors' Office decided not to indict Chen on 18 December. On 29 November 2014, Chen Chu ran for a third mayoral term in the 2014 elections as the DPP candidate, she faced Yang Chiu-hsing of the KMT. She won with 68.09% of votes
Su Tseng-chang is a Taiwanese politician. He was the chairman of the Democratic Progressive Party from 2012 to 2014. Su served as Premier of the Republic of China from 2006 to 2007 and again since January 2019 and was Chief of Staff to President Chen Shui-bian in 2004. Su campaigned for the DPP presidential nomination In 2008, but finished second to Frank Hsieh. Su teamed with Hsieh as the vice presidential nominee. Su ran for Taipei City Mayor in November 2010, but lost to the incumbent Hau Lung-pin by a 12-point margin. Su campaigned for the 2012 presidential candidacy of the DPP in 2011, but lost to Tsai Ing-wen by a narrow margin. Following the loss of Tsai to Ma Ying-jeou, Su was elected to succeed Tsai as DPP chairman in 2012. Su, along with politicians Annette Lu, Frank Hsieh and Yu Shyi-kun are collectively known as the "Big Four of the Democratic Progressive Party". Su is nicknamed the "Lightbulb" by the Taiwanese media and DPP voters, a nickname he earned in the 1980s for his charismatic approach to campaigning during election season, in addition to being an affectionate reference to the balding Su.
Born in Pingtung, Su studied at the National Taiwan University. During his college years, he was vice captain of the rugby team, he was a practicing lawyer from 1973 to 1983 and became a defense lawyer in the Kaohsiung Incident trials. In September 1986, Su and seventeen others founded the Democratic Progressive Party, he was the magistrate of Pingtung County and magistrate of Taipei County. His first election as the Taipei magistrate was aided by a split between the New Party and the Kuomintang, his subsequent reelection occurred by a wide margin despite the ability of the Pan-Blue Coalition to present a united candidate, Wang Chien-shien. He was Secretary-General to the Office of the President of the Republic of China under President Chen Shui-bian. After President Chen resigned as DPP chairman following the 2004 legislative elections, he was elected the 10th-term DPP chairman. Following DPP losses in the 2005 municipal elections on December 3, Su announced that he would, pursuant to a pre-election promise, resign from the chairmanship.
Su is married to Chan Hsiu-ling with whom he has three daughters, one of, Su Chiao-hui. Su was announced as the new premier on January 19, 2006 and took his oath of office, along with his cabinet, on January 25, 2006. Soon after, Su promised to step down. Su faced calls for his resignation after the Rebar Chinese Bank run, but refused to leave his post at the time. Su was a contender for the DPP nomination in the 2008 presidential election, he formally announced his candidacy on Feb. 25. In the DPP primary vote on May 6, 2007, Su received 46,994 votes, coming in second to former Premier Frank Hsieh. Conceding defeat in the primary, Su announced. On May 12, 2007, Su submitted his letter of resignation to President Chen Shui-bian, ending his tenure on May 21. With the resignation of Su and with ten months left in Chen's presidency, that would mean Chen's eight years as President will have seen at least six Premiers. Su stated that he submitted resignations numerous times over his sixteen-month tenure, but all were rejected by President Chen.
Su ran for Vice President alongside Frank Hsieh, the DPP Nomination. Together, Su and Hsieh ran against Siew. On March 22, they lost in Siew's 7,659,014 votes with their 5,444,949 votes. Although Su had been considered a strong candidate to helm the newly created New Taipei City, because he had served the area as Taipei County Magistrate, he instead ran for the mayoralty of Taipei City. Su vowed that should he win, he would serve out the entire term ending any talks of a presidential run in 2012. Su lost the race to the incumbent mayor Hau Lung-pin. Su declared his candidacy for the 2012 presidential candidacy, but lost a DPP party primary held in April 2011 to Tsai Ing-wen and Hsu Hsin-liang, by a margin of 1.35 percent. He was subsequently elected DPP chairman in May 2012, was succeed by Tsai in 2014, after dropping out of the chairmanship election in the wake of the Sunflower Student Movement. On 14 February of 2019, Su is approved by Legislative Yuan as the Premier of Taiwan, to succeed William Lai, who had resigned because his poor performance in 2018 Taiwanese Local Elections.
It is Su's second tenure of Premier, the first tenure being from 2006 to 2007. Due to his poor popularity, his nomination was not in favour of the people, he air pollution affairs. In the past, He supported with Taiwan Independence, but in his two premierships, he is more moderate on the communication between PRC and ROC, he is one of the oldest person to assume the office, at the age of 71. Politics of the Republic of China Su Tseng-chang on Facebook Premier biography timeline at the Government Information Office, Republic of China ]]|after=Chang Chun-hsiung|years=2006–2007}}
Politics of the Republic of China
The politics of the Republic of China take place in a framework of a representative democratic republic, whereby the President is head of state and the Premier is head of government, of a multi-party system. Executive power is exercised by the government. Legislative power is vested in with the parliament and limited by government; the Judiciary is independent of the legislature. The party system is dominated by the Kuomintang, which favors closer links to mainland China, the Democratic Progressive Party, which favors Taiwanese independence; the ROC consists of Taiwan and Penghu as well as portions of the Fujian Province and several smaller islands. Taiwan's six major cities, New Taipei, Tainan and Taoyuan, are special municipalities; the rest of the territories are divided into 13 counties. The ROC is governed under the Constitution of the Republic of China, drafted in 1947 before the fall of the Chinese mainland to the Communist Party of China and outlined a government for all of China. Significant amendments were made to the Constitution in 1991, there have been a number of judicial interpretations made to take into account the fact that the Constitution covers a much smaller area than envisioned.
The government in Taipei asserts to be the sole legitimate government of all of China, which it defined as including Taiwan, mainland China, outer Mongolia. In keeping with that claim, when the KMT fled to Taipei in 1949, they re-established the full array of central political bodies, which had existed in mainland China in the de jure capital of Nanjing. While much of this structure remains in place, the President Lee Teng-hui in 1991 unofficially abandoned the government's claim of sovereignty over mainland China, stating that they do not "dispute the fact that the Communists control mainland China." However, the National Assembly has not changed the national borders, as doing so may be seen as a prelude to formal Taiwanese independence. The People's Republic of China has several times threatened to start a war if the government of Taiwan formalizes independence, it should be noted that neither the National Assembly nor the Supreme Court has defined what the term "existing national boundaries," as stated in the constitution means.
The latter refused to do so claiming that it is a "major political issue". The original founding of the Republic centered on the Three Principles of the People: nationalism and people's livelihood. Nationalism meant the Han Chinese race standing up against Manchu rule and Japanese and Western interference, democracy meant elected rule modeled after Japan's parliament, people's livelihood or socialism, meant government regulation of the means of production. Another lesser known principle that the Republic was founded upon was five races under one union", which emphasized the harmony of the five major ethnic groups in China as represented by the colored stripes of the original Five-Colored Flag of the Republic. However, this five races under one union principle and the corresponding flag were abandoned in 1927. In reality these three principles were left unrealized. Republican China was marked by warlordism, foreign invasion, civil war. Although there were elected legislators, from its inception, it was a one-party dictatorship apart from some minor parties, including the Chinese Youth Party, the National Socialist Party and the Rural Construction Party, with suppression of dissent within the KMT of communists.
As the central government was quite weak, little could be done in terms of land reform or redistribution of wealth either. Politics of this era consisted of the political and military struggle between the KMT and the Communist Party of China in between bouts of active resistance against Japanese invasion; the first national government of the Chinese Republic was established on 1 January 1912, in Nanjing, with Sun Yat-sen as the provisional president. Provincial delegates were sent to confirm the authority of the national government, they also formed the first parliament; the power of this national government was both limited and short-lived, with generals controlling all of central and northern China. The limited acts passed by this government included the formal abdication of the Qing dynasty and some economic initiatives. Shortly after the rise of Yuan Shikai, the parliament's authority became nominal. Yuan maintained power locally by sending military generals to be provincial governors or by obtaining the allegiance of those in power.
Foreign powers came to recognize Yuan's power as well: when Japan came to China with Twenty-One Demands, it was Yuan that submitted to them, on 25 May 1915. After the death of Yuan in 1916, the parliament of 1913 was reconvened to give legitimacy to a new government. However, the real power of the time passed to military leaders. Still, the powerless government had its use—when World War I began, several Western powers and Japan wanted China to declare war on Germany, in order to liquidate the latter's holdings there. From the beginning to the end of Republican China, political power was exercised through both legal and non-legal means. Yuan ruled as a dictator.