Francisco Castillo Nájera
Francisco Castillo Nájera was a Mexican diplomat and politician. He was president of the Assembly of League of Nations from 1934 to 1935, ambassador to China and the United States as the Dean of the Diplomatic Corps in the last year of his tenure, 1945, Secretary of Foreign Affairs from 1945 to 1946. League of Nations Photo Archive: Mexican Delegation
Patricia Espinosa Cantellano is a Mexican politician and diplomat, serving as the executive secretary of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. She was Mexican Ambassador to Austria, Germany and Slovakia and served as Secretary of Foreign Affairs in the cabinet of President Felipe Calderón, she graduated with a bachelor's degree in International Relations from El Colegio de México and earned a diploma in International Law at the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies in Switzerland. She has two children. Espinosa joined the Foreign Service on September 16, 1981, serving at the Mexican delegation to the United Nations in Geneva. From 1992 to 1997 she worked at the Mexican delegation to the United Nations at New York City and served as general director of the Ibero-American Summit and the Summit of the Americas, she was promoted to Ambassador within the Foreign Service in 2000 and served at the Mexican Embassy in Germany from January 2001 to June 2002, leaving the post to serve as Ambassador to Austria, concurrently with a number of international organizations based in Vienna, from June 2002 to November 2006.
On November 28, 2006, President-elect Felipe Calderón announced that she would serve as his Secretary of Foreign Affairs starting on December 1, 2006. Her priorities included the diversification of the United States-Mexico agenda and the rebuilding of diplomatic relations with Cuba and Venezuela, which were strained during the previous administration. In May 2016, she was selected by United Nations Secretary-General Ban ki-Moon to be the Executive Secretary of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. International Gender Champions, Member Secretariat of Foreign Affairs
Marcelo Luis Ebrard Casaubón is a Mexican politician, affiliated with the Party of the Democratic Revolution until 2015. On 1st December 2018 he was appointed Foreign Secretary by Mexican President Andrés Manuel López Obrador, he has served as president of the United Nations Global Network on Safer Cities. He was the successful candidate of the PRD-led electoral alliance to serve as Head of Government of the Federal District in the 2006 Federal District election, a position he held until 2012, he served as secretary-general of the former Mexican Federal District Department, minister of public security, minister of social development of the Mexican capital. In 2010, Ebrard was nominated as the "world's best mayor" by the Project World Mayor. From 2009 to 2012, he was the chair of the World Mayors Council on Climate Change. A descendant of the French emigrant wave from Barcelonette in 1915, Ebrard is the son of architect Marcelo Ebrard Maure and Marcela Casaubón, he received a bachelor's degree in international relations from El Colegio de México, specialized in public administration and planning at the École nationale d'administration of France.
He was married to Francesca Ramos Morgan and had two daughters and one son: Francesca, Anne Dominique, Marcelo Ebrard Ramos. He divorced and married Mexican soap-opera actress Mariagna Pratts. In April 2011, Marcelo Ebrard announced his divorce from Mariagna Pratts through an official press release. In October 7, 2011, Ebrard married for the third time to Rosalinda Bueso, the former Honduran ambassador to Mexico. Ebrard became a member of the Institutional Revolutionary Party in 1978. After volunteering in the presidential campaigns of 1976 and 1982, serving as an advisor to the secretary-general in 1988, being elected to the Chamber of Deputies, he left the PRI with Manuel Camacho Solís in 1995 to found the now-extinct Party of the Democratic Center. In 2000 he campaigned for the 2000 Head of Government election for the PCD before stepping down in March 2000 and throwing his support behind Andrés Manuel López Obrador as the candidate of the multi-party Alliance for Mexico City. Following the election, he joined López Obrador's cabinet as secretary of public security in 2000 and became a member of the Party of the Democratic Revolution on September 12, 2004.
On July 8, 2006, the French newspaper Le Monde ran an article indicating that Ebrard was an emerging leader of the Mexican Left. Manuel Camacho Solís, for whom Ebrard is a political protégé, has a reputation for running articles in foreign newspapers to indicate his political intentions. Many have seen this as an attempt to dismiss López Obrador and now rely on Ebrard to win the presidency in the 2012 presidential elections. On December 7, 2010, he was awarded the World Mayor prize in recognition of his environmental and civil-rights initiatives within the Federal District. Ebrard ran as the PRD's candidate for Head of Government in the Federal District election held on 2 July 2006, which he won with 47% of the votes, he expanded programs that Manuel López Obrador has initiated. A new initiative was the Prepa Sí program; this reduced the school-dropout rate in the city to 6% and raised the grade point average from 7.2 to 8.2. He expanded pensions for the elderly, so that it was a right of every inhabitant of Mexico City who had reached 68 years of age, sending an initiative to the Legislative Assembly of the Federal District, to elevate it to the status of law.
Among his actions having the greatest impact according to public opinion was the expropriation of properties and buildings that functioned as operational centers of crime. This included a property in the Tepito neighborhood a drug-trafficking center. Although some in the business sector criticized these actions as an attack on private property — actions that received the support of the federal government — the initiative to seize ownership of these properties, as well as the introduction of video surveillance cameras, together with social development, helped reduce the crime index by 11% in Mexico City compared to 2006, he created a special intelligence unit to fight against money laundering. Ebrard made significant changes to the Historic Center, returning it to the citizens of Mexico City and its visitors, by relocating the street vendors beginning in mid-2007, his action was classified by the press as one of his government's successes, since informal traders had increased their numbers in recent years.
Some people criticized the decision of one of its dependencies to demolish historic buildings in the first square of the city to enable the relocation of street vendors, although it was supported by the National Institute of Anthropology and History. He rehabilitated the Monument to the Revolution and the Alameda. In the area of health, he built hospitals in Tláhuac and Tlalpan and promoted the development of medical specialties that did not exist in Mexico City's public health system. During his mandate, he was recognized for his actions in the fight against climate change, the construction of a mobility infrastructure, through the transformation of public transport with the EcoBici system. In 2009 he was named president of the World Mayors Council on Climate Change and in 2010 he received the World Mayor award from the City Mayors Foundation. Ebrard has stated, his plan calls for city workers to
Federal government of Mexico
The Federal government of Mexico is the national government of the United Mexican States, the central government established by its constitution to share sovereignty over the republic with the governments of the 31 individual Mexican states, to represent such governments before international bodies such as the United Nations. The Mexican federal government has three branches: executive and judicial and functions per the Constitution of the United Mexican States, as enacted in 1917, as amended; the executive power is exercised by the executive branch, headed by the president and his Cabinet, together, are independent of the legislature. Legislative power is vested upon the Congress of the Union, a bicameral legislature comprising the Senate and the Chamber of Deputies. Judicial power is exercised by the judiciary, consisting of the Supreme Court of Justice of the Nation, the Council of the Federal Judiciary, the collegiate and district courts; the federal government, known as the Supreme Power of the Federation, is constituted by the Powers of the Union: the legislative, the executive, the judicial.
Mexico City, as the capital, the seat of the powers of the Union. All branches of government are independent; the legislative power is vested upon the Congress of the Union, a bicameral congress comprising the Senate and the Chamber of Deputies. The powers of the Congress include the right to pass laws, impose taxes, declare war, approve the national budget, approve or reject treaties and conventions made with foreign countries, ratify diplomatic appointments; the Senate addresses all matters that concern foreign policy, approves international agreements, confirms presidential appointments. The Chamber of Deputies is formed by 500 representatives of the nation. All deputies are elected in free universal elections every three years, in parallel voting: 300 deputies are elected in single-seat constituencies by first-past-the-post plurality, the remaining 200 are elected by the principle of proportional representation with closed-party lists for which the country is divided into five constituencies or plurinominal circumscriptions.
Deputies cannot be reelected for the next immediate term. Being a supplementary system of parallel voting, proportionality is only confined to the plurinominal seats. However, to prevent a party to be overrepresented, several restrictions to the assignation of plurinominal seats are applied: A party must obtain at least 2% of votes to be assigned a plurinominal seat; the Senate consists of 128 representatives of the constituent states of the federation. All senators are elected in free universal elections every six years through a parallel voting system as well: 64 senators are elected by first-past-the-post plurality, two per state and two for Mexico City elected jointly; the judiciary consists of The Supreme Court of Justice, composed of eleven judges or ministers appointed by the President with Congress approval, who interpret laws and judge cases of federal competency. Other institutions of the judiciary are the Electoral Tribunal, collegiate and district tribunals, the Council of the Federal Judiciary.
The ministers of the Supreme Court will serve for 15 years and cannot be appointed to serve more than once. Mexico City does not belong to any state in particular, but to the federation, being the capital of the country and seat of the powers of the Union; as such, it is constituted as a special jurisdiction administered by the Powers of the Union. Nonetheless, since the late 1990s certain autonomy and powers have been devolved; the executive power is vested upon a head of government elected by first-past-the-post plurality. The legislative power is vested upon a unicameral Legislative Assembly; the judicial power is exercised by the Supreme Tribunal of the Judiciary Council. Mexico City was divided into boroughs. Though not equivalent to a municipality in that they do not have regulatory powers, they have gained limited autonomy in recent years, the representatives to the head of government are now elected by the citizens as well. In 2016, the name was changed to Mexico City and the 16 delegations were transformed into municipalities, each one with its own mayor.
State governments of Mexico Constitution of Mexico Politics of Mexico Law of Mexico Presidency of the United Mexican States Congress of the Union Supreme Court of Justice of the Nation Mexican Council for Economic and Social Development
José López Portillo y Rojas
José López Portillo y Rojas, born in Guadalajara, was a Mexican lawyer and man of letters. He served as Governor of Jalisco in 1911 and as Secretary of Foreign Affairs in 1914 for coup leader and brief Mexican President Victoriano Huerta, during the United States occupation of Veracruz, he served as Director of the Mexican Academy of Language from 1916 to 1923. His grandson José López Portillo y Pacheco, was the president of Mexico from 1976 to 1982. NovelsLa Parcela Los Precursores Fuertes y débiles"La Horma de Su Zapato" Essays & storiesSeis Leyendas Novelas Cortas Sucesos y Novelas Cortas Historias, Historietas y Cuentecillos José López Portillo y Rojas Works by or about José López Portillo y Rojas at Internet Archive
Claudia Ruiz Massieu
Claudia Ruiz Massieu Salinas is a Mexican lawyer and politician affiliated with the Institutional Revolutionary Party. She served as Secretary of Foreign Affairs following her appointment by President Enrique Peña Nieto in 2015 to which she resigned on 4 January 2017, she served as Secretary of Tourism from 2012 to 2015, having as a major achievement taking Mexico from the 15th to the 10th place for international tourist arrivals according to WTO. During President Peña Nietos transition period she was in charge of Human Rights and Transparency Affairs, she has served two terms as Congresswoman, for the LIX and LXI Legislatures of the Mexican Congress. Claudia Ruiz Massieu Salinas is daughter of José Francisco Ruiz Massieu, niece to former president Carlos Salinas de Gortari, her father served as Governor for the State of Guerrero, as well as Secretary General of the National Executive Committee of the Institutional Revolutionary Party. She´s a law graduate from the Universidad Iberoamericana, where she achieved her title with the thesis: "Jose Francisco Ruiz Massieu's Judiciary Theory on Constitutional and Administrative Law".
She holds a master's degree in Comparative Politics by FLACSO Mexico and is a Doctorate Candidate in Public Law and Philosophy by the University of Madrid, Spain. Ruiz Massieu served two terms as Congresswoman, for the LIX and LXI Legislatures of the Mexican Congress. On January 4, 2007 she was appointed as General Coordinator for Planning and Institutional Innovation at the Attorney General´s Office, and as of 2006 she served as Chief of Staff for the Executive Secretariat of the National Security System on the Secretary of Public Security. During the transition period of President Enrique Peña Nieto as President Elect, she was in charge of Human Rights and Transparency Affairs. After that, on November 30, 2012, President Peña Nieto appointed her as Secretary of Tourism, charge she left on August 21, 2015, when she was named as Secretary of Foreign Affairs, to which she resigned on January 4, 2017. At the Universidad Nacional Autonoma de México she worked as research assistant at the Instituto de Investigaciones Jurídicas from 1995 to 1997.
She integrated to the technical academic team on the International Commerce research unit at the Instituto de Investigaciones Jurídicas. In 1997 she became a Law professor at Universidad Anahuac Sur. Regular writer at the newspaper El Universal, as personal opinion writer, but with the column "México Global", during her time as Secretary of Foreign Affairs. During this time she was part of the following Committees: President of the Justice and Human Rights Committee Secretary of the Governance Committee Member of the Mexico City Committee Member of the State Reform Special Committee Member of the Jurisdictional Committee During this time she was part of the following Committees: Secretary of the Governance Committee Member of the Treasury Committee Member of the Appropriations Committee Member of the Budget Analysis Special Committee Member of the Center of Studies for Public Finances Committee Member of the Mexico-European Union Mixed Committee Member of the Mexico-United States of America Mixed Committee List of foreign ministers in 2015 List of foreign ministers in 2016 List of foreign ministers in 2017
Antonio Carrillo Flores
Antonio Carrillo Flores was a Mexican statesman, born in Mexico City. He was the second son of composer Julián Carrillo Trujillo, older brother of Nabor Carrillo, rector of the National University and a distinguished scientist, he received his bachelor's degree in 1929 and doctor's degree in 1950 in law from the National Autonomous University of Mexico. He formed an early friendship at UNAM with Miguel Alemán Valdés, his activities covered the fields of law enforcement, public finance and diplomacy. He is well known for being one of the founding judges of the Federal Fiscal Court in 1937, for being Secretary of Finance, ambassador to both the United States and the Soviet Union, Secretary of Foreign Affairs. Carrillo Flores participated in the constitutional amendments during Mexico's nationalization of petroleum in 1938, he was honored by more than 23 foreign governments, he was named Doctor Honoris Causa by Lincoln College, Southern Methodist University and Harvard University. He became a member of Mexico's National College, a prestigious honorary academy