Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill, was a British politician, army officer, writer. He was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945, when he led Britain to victory in the Second World War, again from 1951 to 1955. Churchill represented five constituencies during his career as a Member of Parliament. Ideologically an economic liberal and imperialist, for most of his career he was a member of the Conservative Party, which he led from 1940 to 1955, but from 1904 to 1924 was instead a member of the Liberal Party. Of mixed English and American parentage, Churchill was born in Oxfordshire to a wealthy, aristocratic family. Joining the British Army, he saw action in British India, the Anglo–Sudan War, the Second Boer War, gaining fame as a war correspondent and writing books about his campaigns. Elected an MP in 1900 as a Conservative, he defected to the Liberals in 1904. In H. H. Asquith's Liberal government, Churchill served as President of the Board of Trade, Home Secretary, First Lord of the Admiralty, championing prison reform and workers' social security.
During the First World War, he oversaw the Gallipoli Campaign. In 1917, he returned to government under David Lloyd George as Minister of Munitions, was subsequently Secretary of State for War, Secretary of State for Air Secretary of State for the Colonies. After two years out of Parliament, he served as Chancellor of the Exchequer in Stanley Baldwin's Conservative government, returning the pound sterling in 1925 to the gold standard at its pre-war parity, a move seen as creating deflationary pressure on the UK economy. Out of office during the 1930s, Churchill took the lead in calling for British rearmament to counter the growing threat from Nazi Germany. At the outbreak of the Second World War, he was re-appointed First Lord of the Admiralty before replacing Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain in 1940. Churchill oversaw British involvement in the Allied war effort against Germany and the Axis powers, resulting in victory in 1945, his wartime leadership was praised, although acts like the Bombing of Dresden and his wartime response to the Bengal famine generated controversy.
After the Conservatives' defeat in the 1945 general election, he became Leader of the Opposition. Amid the developing Cold War with the Soviet Union, he publicly warned of an "iron curtain" of Soviet influence in Europe and promoted European unity. Re-elected Prime Minister in 1951, his second term was preoccupied with foreign affairs, including the Malayan Emergency, Mau Mau Uprising, Korean War, a UK-backed Iranian coup. Domestically his government developed a nuclear weapon. In declining health, Churchill resigned as prime minister in 1955, although he remained an MP until 1964. Upon his death in 1965, he was given a state funeral. Considered one of the 20th century's most significant figures, Churchill remains popular in the UK and Western world, where he is seen as a victorious wartime leader who played an important role in defending liberal democracy from the spread of fascism. Praised as a social reformer and writer, among his many awards was the Nobel Prize in Literature. Conversely, his imperialist views and comments on race, as well as his sanctioning of human rights abuses in the suppression of anti-imperialist movements seeking independence from the British Empire, have generated considerable controversy.
Churchill was born at the family's ancestral home, Blenheim Palace in Oxfordshire, on 30 November 1874, at which time the United Kingdom was the dominant world power. A direct descendant of the Dukes of Marlborough, his family were among the highest levels of the British aristocracy, thus he was born into the country's governing elite, his paternal grandfather, John Spencer-Churchill, 7th Duke of Marlborough, had been a Member of Parliament for ten years, a member of the Conservative Party who served in the government of Prime Minister Benjamin Disraeli. His own father, Lord Randolph Churchill, had been elected Conservative MP for Woodstock in 1873, his mother, Jennie Churchill, was from an American family whose substantial wealth derived from finance. The couple had met in August 1873, were engaged three days marrying at the British Embassy in Paris in April 1874; the couple lived beyond their income and were in debt. In 1876 John Spencer-Churchill was appointed Viceroy of Ireland, with Randolph as his private secretary, resulting in the Churchill family's relocation to Dublin, when the entirety of Ireland was part of the United Kingdom.
It was here that Jennie's second son, was born in 1880. Throughout much of the 1880s Randolph and Jennie were estranged, during which she had many suitors. Churchill had no relationship with his father, his relationship with Jack would be warm, they were close at various points in their lives. In Dublin, he was educated in reading and mathematics by a governess, while he and his brother were cared for by their nanny, Elizabeth Everest. Churchill was devoted to her and nicknamed her "Woomany". Visits home were to Connaught Place in L
Churchill war ministry
The Churchill war ministry was a Conservative-led coalition government in the United Kingdom that lasted for most of the Second World War. It was led by Winston Churchill, appointed by King George VI as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. Formed in 1940 in the aftermath of the Norway Debate and within a year of declaring war on Nazi Germany, it persisted until May 1945, when Churchill resigned and an election was called; the war ministry was followed by the Churchill caretaker ministry which in turn lasted until 26 July 1945 when the results of the general election brought Labour into government, led by Clement Attlee. Members of the War Cabinet are in bold face. August 1940: Lord Beaverbrook, Minister of Aircraft Production, joins the War Cabinet October 1940: Sir John Anderson succeeds Neville Chamberlain as Lord President. Sir Kingsley Wood, the Chancellor of the Exchequer, Ernest Bevin, the Minister of Labour, enter the War Cabinet. Lord Halifax assumes the additional job of Leader of the House of Lords.
December 1940: Anthony Eden succeeds Lord Halifax as Foreign Secretary. Halifax remains nominally in the Cabinet as Ambassador to the United States, his successor as Leader of the House of Lords is not in the War Cabinet. May 1941: Lord Beaverbrook ceased to be Minister of Aircraft Production, but remains in the Cabinet as Minister of State, his successor was not in the War Cabinet. June 1941: Lord Beaverbrook becomes Minister of Supply, remaining in the War Cabinet. 1941: Oliver Lyttelton enters the Cabinet as Minister Resident in the Middle East. 4 February 1942: Lord Beaverbrook becomes Minister of War Production. 19 February 1942: Beaverbrook resigns and no replacement Minister of War Production is appointed for the moment. Clement Attlee becomes Secretary of State for Deputy Prime Minister. Sir Stafford Cripps succeeds Attlee as Lord Privy Seal and takes over the position of Leader of the House of Commons from Churchill. Sir Kingsley Wood leaves the War Cabinet. 22 February 1942: Arthur Greenwood resigns from the War Cabinet.
March 1942: Oliver Lyttelton fills the vacant position of Minister of Production. Richard Gardiner Casey succeeds Oliver Lyttelton as Minister Resident in the Middle East. October 1942: Sir Stafford Cripps retires as Lord Privy Seal and Leader of the House of Commons and leaves the War Cabinet, his successor as Lord Privy Seal is not in the Cabinet, Anthony Eden takes the additional position of Leader of the House of Commons. The Home Secretary, Herbert Morrison, enters the Cabinet. September 1943: Sir John Anderson succeeds Sir Kingsley Wood as Chancellor of the Exchequer, remaining in the War Cabinet. Clement Attlee succeeds Anderson as Lord President, remaining Deputy Prime Minister. Attlee's successor as Dominions Secretary is not in the Cabinet. November 1943: Lord Woolton enters the Cabinet as Minister of Reconstruction. January to November 1944: Lord Moyne replaces Richard Gardiner Casey as Minister Resident in the Middle East. D. Butler and G. Butler, Twentieth Century British Political Facts 1900–2000.
Photo of the Churchill Coalition Government 1940–45 from the website of the Imperial War Museum. Cabinet papers, 1939–1945 Roger Hermiston, All Behind You, Winston – Churchill's Great Coalition 1940–45, Aurum Press 2016
Stanley Baldwin, 1st Earl Baldwin of Bewdley, was a British Conservative Party statesman who dominated the government of the United Kingdom between the world wars, serving as Prime Minister on three occasions. Born to a prosperous family in Bewdley, Baldwin was educated at Hawtreys, Harrow School and Trinity College, Cambridge, he joined the family iron and steel making business and entered the House of Commons in 1908 as the Member of Parliament for Bewdley, succeeding his father Alfred. He served as Financial Secretary to the Treasury and President of the Board of Trade in the coalition ministry of David Lloyd George and rose rapidly: in 1922, Baldwin was one of the prime movers in the withdrawal of Conservative support from Lloyd George. Upon Bonar Law's resignation due to health reasons in May 1923, Baldwin became Prime Minister and Leader of the Conservative Party, he called an election in December 1923 on the issue of tariffs and lost the Conservatives' parliamentary majority, after which Ramsay MacDonald formed a minority Labour government.
After winning the 1924 general election Baldwin formed his second government, which saw important tenures of office by Sir Austen Chamberlain, Winston Churchill and Neville Chamberlain. The latter two ministers strengthened Conservative appeal by reforms in areas associated with the Liberal Party, they included industrial conciliation, unemployment insurance, a more extensive old-age pension system, slum clearance, more private housing and expansion of maternal and childcare. However, continuing sluggish economic growth and declines in mining and heavy industry weakened Baldwin's base of support and his government saw the General Strike in 1926 and the Trade Disputes and Trade Unions Act 1927 to curb the powers of trade unions. Baldwin narrowly lost the 1929 general election and his continued leadership of the party was subject to extensive criticism by the press barons Lord Rothermere and Lord Beaverbrook. In 1931, with the onset of the Great Depression Labour Prime Minister Ramsay MacDonald formed a National Government, most of whose ministers were Conservatives, which won an enormous majority at the 1931 general election.
As Lord President of the Council, one of four Conservatives among the small ten-member Cabinet, Baldwin took over many of the Prime Minister's duties due to MacDonald's failing health. This government saw an Act delivering increased self-government for India, a measure opposed by Churchill and by many rank-and-file Conservatives; the Statute of Westminster 1931 gave Dominion status to Canada, New Zealand and South Africa, while establishing the first step towards the Commonwealth of Nations. As party leader, Baldwin made many striking innovations, such as clever use of radio and film, that made him visible to the public and strengthened Conservative appeal. In 1935, Baldwin replaced MacDonald as Prime Minister of the National Government, won the 1935 general election with another large majority. During this time, he oversaw the beginning of the rearmament process of the British military, as well as the abdication crisis of King Edward VIII. Baldwin's third government saw a number of crises in foreign affairs, including the public uproar over the Hoare–Laval Pact, the Remilitarisation of the Rhineland and the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War.
Baldwin was succeeded by Neville Chamberlain. At that time, Baldwin was regarded as a popular and successful Prime Minister, but for the final decade of his life, for many years afterwards, he was vilified for having presided over high unemployment in the 1930s and as one of the "Guilty Men" who had tried to appease Adolf Hitler and who had – – not rearmed sufficiently to prepare for the Second World War. Today, modern scholars rank him in the upper half of British prime ministers. Baldwin was born at Lower Park House, Lower Park, Bewdley in Worcestershire, England to Alfred and Louisa Baldwin, through his Scottish mother was a first cousin of the writer and poet Rudyard Kipling, with whom he was close for their entire lives; the family was prosperous, owned the eponymous iron and steel making business that in years became part of Richard Thomas and Baldwins. Baldwin's schools were St Michael's School, at the time located in Slough, followed by Harrow School, he wrote that "all the king's horses and all the king's men would have failed to have drawn me into the company of school masters, in relation to them I once had every qualification as a passive resister."
Baldwin went on to the University of Cambridge, where he studied history at Trinity College. His time at university was blighted by the presence, as Master of Trinity, of Montagu Butler, his former headmaster who had punished him at Harrow for writing a piece of schoolboy smut, he was asked to resign from the Magpie & Stump for never speaking, after receiving a third-class degree in history, he went into the family business of iron manufacturing. His father sent him to Mason College for one session of technical training in metallurgy as preparation; as a young man he served as a Second Lieutenant in the Artillery Volunteers at Malvern, in 1897 became a JP for the county of Worcestershire. Baldwin married Lucy Ridsdale on 12 September 1892; the couple had six children. One child, was injured by shrapnel in March 1941 as a result of a bombing raid which destroyed the Café de Paris nightclub she was attending and decapitated the famous bandleader Ke
Arthur Neville Chamberlain was a British Conservative Party statesman who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from May 1937 to May 1940. Chamberlain is best known for his foreign policy of appeasement, in particular for his signing of the Munich Agreement in 1938, conceding the German-speaking Sudetenland region of Czechoslovakia to Germany; when Adolf Hitler invaded Poland, the UK declared war on Germany on 3 September 1939, Chamberlain led Britain through the first eight months of the Second World War. After working in business and local government, after a short spell as Director of National Service in 1916 and 1917, Chamberlain followed his father, Joseph Chamberlain, older half-brother, Austen Chamberlain, in becoming a Member of Parliament in the 1918 general election for the new Birmingham Ladywood division at the age of 49, he declined a junior ministerial position, remaining a backbencher until 1922. He was promoted in 1923 to Minister of Health and Chancellor of the Exchequer.
After a short-lived Labour-led government, he returned as Minister of Health, introducing a range of reform measures from 1924 to 1929. He was appointed Chancellor of the Exchequer in the National Government in 1931; when Stanley Baldwin retired in May 1937, Chamberlain took his place as Prime Minister. His premiership was dominated by the question of policy towards an aggressive Germany, his actions at Munich were popular among the British at the time; when Hitler continued his aggression, Chamberlain pledged Britain to defend Poland's independence if the latter were attacked, an alliance that brought his country into war when Germany and the Soviet Union invaded Poland in 1939. Chamberlain resigned the premiership on 10 May 1940 as the Allies were being forced to retreat from Norway, as he believed that a government supported by all parties was essential, the Labour and Liberal parties would not join a government he headed, he was succeeded by Winston Churchill but remained well regarded in Parliament among Conservatives.
Before ill health forced him to resign, he was an important member of Churchill's War Cabinet as Lord President of the Council, heading the Cabinet in the new premier's absence. Chamberlain died of cancer six months after leaving the premiership. Chamberlain's reputation remains controversial among historians, the initial high regard for him being eroded by books such as Guilty Men, published in July 1940, which blamed Chamberlain and his associates for the Munich accord and for failing to prepare the country for war. Most historians in the generation following Chamberlain's death held similar views, led by Churchill in The Gathering Storm; some historians have taken a more favourable perspective of Chamberlain and his policies, citing government papers released under the Thirty Year Rule and arguing that going to war with Germany in 1938 would have been disastrous as the UK was unprepared. Nonetheless, Chamberlain is still unfavourably ranked amongst British Prime Ministers. Chamberlain was born on 18 March 1869 in a house called Southbourne in the Edgbaston district of Birmingham.
He was the only son of the second marriage of Joseph Chamberlain, who became Mayor of Birmingham and a Cabinet minister. His mother was Florence Kenrick, cousin to William Kenrick MP. Joseph Chamberlain had had Austen Chamberlain, by his first marriage. Neville Chamberlain was educated at Rugby School. Joseph Chamberlain sent Neville to Mason College. Neville Chamberlain had little interest in his studies there, in 1889 his father apprenticed him to a firm of accountants. Within six months he became a salaried employee. In an effort to recoup diminished family fortunes, Joseph Chamberlain sent his younger son to establish a sisal plantation on Andros Island in the Bahamas. Neville Chamberlain spent six years there but the plantation was a failure, Joseph Chamberlain lost £50,000. On his return to England, Neville Chamberlain entered business, purchasing Hoskins & Company, a manufacturer of metal ship berths. Chamberlain served as managing director of Hoskins for 17 years during which time the company prospered.
He involved himself in civic activities in Birmingham. In 1906, as Governor of Birmingham's General Hospital, along with "no more than fifteen" other dignitaries, Chamberlain became a founding member of the national United Hospitals Committee of the British Medical Association. At forty, Chamberlain was expecting to remain a bachelor, but in 1910 he fell in love with Anne Cole, a recent connection by marriage, married her the following year, they met through his Aunt Lilian, the Canadian-born widow of Joseph Chamberlain's brother Herbert, who in 1907 had married Anne Cole's uncle Alfred Clayton Cole, a director of the Bank of England. She encouraged and supported his entry into local politics and was to be his constant companion and trusted colleague sharing his interests in housing and other political and social activities after his election as an MP; the couple had a daughter. Chamberlain showed little interest in politics, though his father and half-brother were in Parliament. During the "Khaki election" of 1900 he made speeches in support of Joseph Chamberlain's Liberal Unionists.
The Liberal Unionists were allied with the Conservatives and merged with them under the name "Unionist Party", which in 1925 became known as the "Conservative and Unionist Party". In 1911, Neville Chamberlain stood as a Liberal Unionist for Birmingham City Council for the All Saints' Ward, located within his father's parliamentary constituency. Chamberlain was ma
Andrew Bonar Law called Bonar Law, was a British Conservative politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1922 to 1923. Born in the British colony of New Brunswick, Law is the only British prime minister to have been born outside the British Isles. Law was of Scottish and Ulster Scots descent, having moved to Scotland in 1870, he left school aged sixteen to work in the iron industry, becoming a wealthy man by the age of thirty, he entered the House of Commons at the 1900 general election late in life for a front-rank politician, was made a junior minister, Parliamentary Secretary to the Board of Trade, in 1902. Law joined the Shadow Cabinet in opposition after the 1906 election. In 1911, he was appointed a Privy Councillor, stood for the vacant party leadership. Despite never having served in the Cabinet, despite trailing third after Walter Long and Austen Chamberlain, Law became leader when the two frontrunners withdrew rather than risk a draw splitting the party; as Leader of the Conservative Party and Leader of the Opposition, Law focused his attentions in favour of tariff reform and against Irish Home Rule.
His campaigning helped turn Liberal attempts to pass the Third Home Rule Bill into a three-year struggle halted by the start of the First World War, with much argument over the status of the six counties which would become Northern Ireland, four of which were predominantly Protestant. Law first held Cabinet office as Secretary of State for the Colonies in Asquith's Coalition Government. Upon Asquith's fall from power, he declined to form a government, instead serving as Chancellor of the Exchequer in Lloyd George's Coalition Government, he resigned on grounds of ill health in early 1921. In October 1922, with Lloyd George's Coalition having become unpopular with the Conservatives, he wrote an anonymous letter to the press giving only lukewarm support to the Government's actions over Chanak. After Conservative MPs voted to end the Coalition, he again became Party Leader and, this time, Prime Minister. In November he won a clear majority at the 1922 general election, his brief premiership saw negotiation with the United States over Britain's war loans.
Ill with throat cancer, Law resigned in May 1923, died that year. He was the shortest-serving Prime Minister of the twentieth century, is sometimes called "The Unknown Prime Minister". Law was born on 16 September 1858 in Kingston, New Brunswick, to Eliza Kidston Law and the Reverend James Law, a minister of the Free Church of Scotland with Scottish and Irish ancestry. At the time of his birth, New Brunswick was still a separate colony, as Canadian confederation did not occur until 1867, his mother wanted to name him after Robert Murray M'Cheyne, a preacher she admired, but as his older brother was called Robert, he was instead named after the Reverend Andrew Bonar, a biographer of M'Cheyne. Throughout his life he was always called Bonar by his close friends, never Andrew, he signed his name as A. B. Law, changing to A. Bonar Law in his thirties, he was referred to as Bonar Law by the public as well. James Law was the minister for several isolated townships, had to travel between them by horse, boat and on foot.
To supplement the family income, he bought a small farm on the Richibucto River, which Bonar helped tend along with his brothers Robert and John, his sister Mary. Studying at the local village school, Law excelled at his studies, it is here that he was first noted for his excellent memory. After Eliza Law died in 1861, her sister Janet travelled to New Brunswick from her home in Scotland to look after the Law children; when James Law remarried in 1870, his new wife took over Janet's duties, Janet decided to return home to Scotland. She suggested that Bonar Law should come with her, as the Kidston family were wealthier and better connected than the Laws, Bonar would have a more privileged upbringing. Both James and Bonar accepted this, Bonar left with Janet, never to return to Kingston. Law went to live near Glasgow, her brothers Charles and William were partners in the family merchant bank Kidston & Sons, as only one of them had married it was accepted that Law would inherit the firm, or at least play a role in its management when he was older.
Upon arriving from Kingston, Law began attending Gilbertfield School, a preparatory school in Hamilton. In 1873, aged fourteen, he transferred to the High School of Glasgow, where with his excellent memory he showed a talent for languages, excelling in Greek and French. During this period, he first began to play chess – he would carry a board on the train between Helensburgh and Glasgow, challenging other commuters to matches, he became an excellent amateur player, competed with internationally renowned chess masters. Despite his excellent academic record, it became obvious at Glasgow that he was better suited to business than to university, when he was sixteen, Law left school to become a clerk at Kidston & Sons. At Kidston & Sons, Law received a nominal salary, on the understanding that he would gain a "commercial education" from working there that would serve him well as a businessman. In 1885 the Kidston brothers decided to retire, agreed to merge the firm with the Clydesdale Bank; the merger would have left Law without a job and with poor career-prospects, but the retiring brothers found him a job with William Jacks, an iron merchant who had started pursuing a parliamentary career.
The Kidston brothers lent Law t
Sir Clement Anderson Montague-Barlow, 1st Baronet, KBE was an English barrister and Conservative Party politician. He was born Clement Anderson Barlow at St Bartholomew's Vicarage, Clifton and preferred to be known under his second name, rather than his first, Clement, he received a Master's degree and an LL. D. from the University of Cambridge and practised at the bar. Between 1910 and 1923 he represented Salford South in the House of Commons. In 1922 he was admitted to the Privy Council upon becoming Minister of Labour, a position he served in until 1924, he was made a Knight Commander of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire in 1918 and in 1924 he was created a baronet, of Westminster in the County of London. In 1938, Neville Chamberlain's government asked Barlow to chair a royal commission into the urban concentration of population and industry, "The Royal Commission on the Distribution of the Industrial Population", which became known as the Barlow Commission, its report, published in 1940, raised the problem of large towns as a public issue for the first time, concluded that "planned decentralisation" was favourable.
The report was ignored at the time, as it came shortly after the outbreak of World War II, but its conclusions were a major factor behind the new towns movement after the war, which led to the creation of 27 new towns. In 1946 Barlow changed his last name to Montague-Barlow. Montague-Barlow died in May 1951, aged 83. Patrick Abercrombie Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by Mr Anderson Barlow Royal Commission on the Distribution of the Industrial Population. Leigh Rayment's list of baronets Leigh Rayment's Historical List of MPs
Lloyd George ministry
Liberal David Lloyd George formed a coalition government in the United Kingdom in December 1916, was appointed Prime Minister of the United Kingdom by King George V. It replaced the earlier wartime coalition under H. H. Asquith, held responsible for losses during the Great War; those Liberals who continued to support Asquith served as the Official Opposition. The government continued in power after the end of the war in 1918, though Lloyd George was reliant on the Conservatives for support. After several scandals including allegations of the sale of honours, the Conservatives withdrew their support after a meeting at the Carlton Club in 1922, Bonar Law formed a government. Lord Curzon of Kedleston – Lord President of the Council and Leader of the House of Lords Bonar Law – Chancellor of the Exchequer and Leader of the House of Commons Arthur Henderson – Minister without Portfolio Lord Milner – Minister without Portfolio May – August 1917 – In temporary absence of Arthur Henderson, George Barnes, Minister of Pensions acts as a member of the War Cabinet.
June 1917 – Jan Smuts enters the War Cabinet as a Minister without Portfolio July 1917 – Sir Edward Carson enters the War Cabinet as a Minister without Portfolio August 1917 – George Barnes succeeds Arthur Henderson as Minister without Portfolio and Labour Party member of the War Cabinet. January 1918 – Carson resigns and is not replaced April 1918 – Austen Chamberlain succeeds Lord Milner as Minister without Portfolio. January 1919 – Law becomes Lord Privy Seal, remaining Leader of the House of Commons, is succeeded as Chancellor of the Exchequer by Chamberlain. Smuts is succeeded by Sir Eric Geddes as Minister without Portfolio. Note: The War Cabinet was formally maintained for much of 1919, but as Lloyd George was out of the country for many months this made little difference. David Lloyd George – Prime Minister Lord Birkenhead – Lord Chancellor Lord Curzon of Kedleston – Lord President of the Council and Leader of the House of Lords Bonar Law – Lord Privy Seal and Leader of the House of Commons Austen Chamberlain – Chancellor of the Exchequer Edward Shortt – Secretary of State for the Home Department Arthur Balfour – Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs Lord Milner – Secretary of State for the Colonies Winston Churchill – Secretary of State for War and Air Edwin Samuel Montagu – Secretary of State for India Walter Hume Long – First Lord of the Admiralty Sir Albert Stanley – President of the Board of Trade Robert Munro – Secretary for Scotland James Ian Macpherson – Chief Secretary for Ireland Lord French – Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland Christopher Addison – President of the Local Government Board Rowland Edmund Prothero – President of the Board of Agriculture Herbert Fisher – President of the Board of Education Lord Inverforth – Minister of Munitions Sir Robert Horne – Minister of Labour George Nicoll Barnes – Minister without Portfolio Sir Eric Geddes – Minister without Portfolio May 1919 – Sir Auckland Geddes succeeds Sir Albert Stanley as President of the Board of Trade.
Sir Eric Geddes becomes Minister of Transport. October 1919 – Lord Curzon of Kedleston succeeds Balfour as Foreign Secretary. Balfour succeeds Curzon as Lord President; the Local Government Board is abolished. Christopher Addison becomes Minister of Health; the Board of Agriculture is abolished. Lord Lee of Fareham becomes Minister of Agriculture. Sir Eric Geddes becomes Minister of Transport. January 1920 – George Barnes leaves the cabinet. March 1920 – Sir Robert Horne succeeds Sir Auckland Geddes as President of the Board of Trade. Thomas James McNamara succeeds Horne as Minister of Labour. April 1920 – Sir Hamar Greenwood succeeds Ian Macpherson as Chief Secretary for Ireland. Sir Laming Worthington-Evans joins the Cabinet as Minister without Portfolio. February 1921 – Winston Churchill succeeds Lord Milner as Colonial Secretary. Sir Laming Worthington-Evans succeeds Churchill as War Secretary. Churchill's successor as Air Secretary was not in the Cabinet. Lord Lee of Fareham succeeds Walter Long at the Admiralty.
Sir Arthur Griffith-Boscawen succeeds Lee as Minister of Agriculture. March 1921 – Austen Chamberlain succeeds Bonar Law as Lord Privy Seal and Leader of the Commons. Sir Robert Horne succeeds Chamberlain at the Exchequer. Stanley Baldwin succeeds Horne at the Board of Trade. April 1921 – Lord French resigns from the cabinet, remaining Lord Lieutenant. Christopher Addison becomes a Minister without Portfolio. Sir Alfred Mond succeeds him as Minister of Health; the Ministry of Munitions is abolished. November 1921 – Sir Eric Geddes resigns from the cabinet, his successor as Minister of Transport is not in the Cabinet. The Attorney General, Sir Gordon Hewart, enters the Cabinet. March 1922 – Lord Peel succeeds Edwin Montagu as India Secretary. April 1922 – The First Commissioner of Works, Lord Crawford, enters the Cabinet. Members of the Cabinet are listed in boldface. Members of the War Cabinet, 6 December 1916 to 31 October 1919, are indicated. Burk. K. M. ed. War and the State: The Transformation of British Government 1914–1918.
Burk. K. M. Britain and the Sinews of War 1914–1918. Butler, G. Butler, Twentieth Century British Political Facts. Cassar, George H. Lloyd George at War, 1916–1918 full text online at JSTOR; the Strategy of the Lloyd George Coalition, 1916–1918 online Fry, Michael. "Political Change in Britain, August 1914 to December 1916: Lloyd George Replaces Asquith: The Issues Underlying the Drama." Historical Journal 31.03: 609–627. Gardner, Lloyd C. Safe for Democracy: The Anglo-American Response to Revolution, 1913-1923 diplomatic history Grieves, Keith; the politics of manpower, 1914–18 (Manchester