420 (cannabis culture)
420, 4:20, or 4/20 is slang in cannabis culture for the consumption of cannabis smoking cannabis around the time 4:20 p.m. and refers to cannabis-oriented celebrations that take place on annually on April 20. In 1971, five high school students – Steve Capper, Dave Reddix, Jeffrey Noel, Larry Schwartz, Mark Gravich – in San Rafael, calling themselves the Waldos because "their chosen hang-out spot was a wall outside the school", used the term in connection with a 1971 plan to search for an abandoned cannabis crop that they had learned about, based on a treasure map made by the grower; the Waldos designated the Louis Pasteur statue on the grounds of San Rafael High School as their meeting place, 4:20 p.m. as their meeting time. The Waldos referred to this plan with the phrase "4:20 Louis". After several failed attempts to find the crop, the group shortened their phrase to "4:20", which evolved into a code-word that the teens used to mean consuming cannabis. Mike Edison says that Steven Hager of High Times was responsible for taking the story about the Waldos to "mind-boggling, cult-like extremes" and "suppressing" all other stories about the origin of the term.
Hager wrote "Stoner Smart or Stoner Stupid?", in which he attributed the early spread of the phrase to Grateful Dead followers – after Reddix became a roadie for the Dead's bassist, Phil Lesh – and called for 4:20 p.m. to be the accepted hour of the day to consume cannabis. April 20 has become an international counterculture holiday, where people gather to celebrate and consume cannabis. Many such events have a political nature to them, advocating the liberalization / legalization of cannabis. Vivian McPeak, a founder of Seattle's Hempfest states that 4/20 is "half celebration and half call to action". Paul Birch suggests that one can't stop events like these. On that day many marijuana users protest in civil disobedience by gathering in public to light up at 4:20 p.m. As marijuana continues to be decriminalized and legalized around the world, Steve DeAngelo, cannabis activist and founder of California's Harborside Health Center, notes that "even if our activist work were complete, 420 morphs from a statement of conscience to a celebration of acceptance, a celebration of victory, a celebration of our amazing connection with this plant" and that he thinks that "it will always be worthy of celebration".
North American observances have been held at many locations, including: "Hippie Hill" in San Francisco's Golden Gate Park near the Haight-Ashbury district, The University of Colorado's Boulder campus, Ontario, at Parliament Hill and Major's Hill Park, Quebec, at Mount Royal monument, Alberta, at the Alberta Legislature Building, British Columbia, at the Vancouver Art Gallery, but as of 2016 at Sunset Beach. Washington Square Park in Manhattan, the largest and most notable of a number of gatherings and demonstrations on April 20 in New York City. Mile High 420 Festival in Denver's Civic Center Park The National Cannabis Festival in Washington D. C. has been running since 2016 and includes live music, educational sessions, history, local vendors. The University of California, Santa Cruz, where the growing size of the unofficial event there caused the Vice Chancellor of Student Affairs to send an e-mail to parents in 2009 stating: "The growth in scale of this activity has become a concern for both the university and surrounding community."
Events have occurred in Hyde Park in London and Dunedin, New Zealand, at the University of Otago. In Ljubljana, the University of Ljubljana's student organization has carried out several annual cannabis-themed protests that have contributed to the debate on cannabis status in Slovenia and the subsequent legislation proposals in 2018 by gathering responses from various political parties in Slovenia and ranking them accordingly. Using 25 years of U. S. national data, one study found a 12% increase in the risk of fatal motor vehicle crash between 4:20 p.m. and midnight on April 20 compared to identical time intervals on control days. Among the subgroup of drivers less than 21 years of age, risks were 38% higher on April 20 than on control days. Signs bearing the number 420 have been stolen. In Colorado, the Colorado Department of Transportation replaced the Mile Marker 420 sign on I-70 east of Denver with one reading 419.99 in an attempt to stop the thievery. The Idaho Department of Transportation replaced the Mile Marker 420 sign on U.
S. Highway 95, just south of Coeur d'Alene, with Mile Marker 419.9. The Washington State Department of Transportation implemented similar measures. In Goodhue County, officials have changed "420 St" street signs to "42x St". In 2003, California Senate Bill 420 was introduced to regulate medical marijuana use, in deliberate reference to the status of 420 in marijuana culture. An unsuccessful 2010 bill to legalize cannabis in Guam was called Bill 420. On January 9, 2019, H. R. 420 was introduced into the 116th Congress by Rep. Earl Blumenauer, named the Regulate Marijuana Like Alcohol Act, designed to remove cannabis from the Controlled Substances Act and return regulation to the states; as the country dial-code of the Czech Republic is 420 and the rate of cannabis use there is one of the highest in the world, some foreign visitors think that cannabis is legal in this Central European country. However, those smoking cannabis outdoors will be fined and possessing more than 10 grams of marijuana is considered a crime.
In 2016, Snoop Dogg displayed his knowledge of marijuana on The $100,000 Pyramid. Snoop replied without delay that the country
Acid throwing called an acid attack, a vitriol attack or vitriolage, is a form of violent assault defined as the act of throwing acid or a corrosive substance onto the body of another "with the intention to disfigure, torture, or kill". Perpetrators of these attacks throw corrosive liquids at their victims at their faces, burning them, damaging skin tissue exposing and sometimes dissolving the bones; the most common types of acid used in these attacks are nitric acid. Hydrochloric acid is much less damaging. Aqueous solutions of alkaline materials, such as caustic soda, are used as well in areas where strong acids are controlled substances; the long term consequences of these attacks may include blindness, as well as permanent scarring of the face and body, along with far-reaching social and economic difficulties. Today, acid attacks are reported in many parts of the world, though more in developing countries. Since the 1990s, Bangladesh has been reporting the highest number of attacks and highest incidence rates for women, with 3,512 Bangladeshi people acid attacked between 1999 and 2013, in Pakistan and India acid attacks are at an all-time high and increasing every year.
Although acid attacks occur all over the world, this type of violence is most common in South Asia. The UK has one of the highest rates of acid attacks per capita in the world, according to Acid Survivors Trust International. In 2016 there were over 601 acid attacks in the UK based on ASTI figures, 4 out of 5 of the victims were male. Over 1,200 cases were recorded over the past five years. From 2011 to 2016 there were 1,464 crimes involving corrosive substance in London alone; the intention of the attacker is to humiliate rather than to kill the victim. In Britain such attacks those against men, are believed to be underreported, as a result many of them do not show up in official statistics; some of the most common motivations of perpetrators include: Personal conflict regarding intimate relationships, sexual rejection Racial motivations Sexual related jealousy and lust Social and religious motivations Gang violence and rivalry Attacks against minorities Conflicts over land ownership, farm animals and property Revenge for refusal of sexual advances, proposals of marriage and demands for dowryAcid attacks occur as revenge against a woman who rejects a proposal of marriage or a sexual advance.
Gender inequality and women's position in the society, in relation to men, plays a significant role in these types of attacks. Attacks against individuals based on their religious beliefs or social or political activities occur; these attacks may be targeted against a specific individual, due to their activities, or may be perpetrated against random persons because they are part of a social group or community. In Europe, Konstantina Kouneva a member of the European Parliament, had acid thrown on her in 2008, in what was described as "the most severe assault on a trade unionist in Greece for 50 years." Female students have had acid thrown in their faces as a punishment for attending school. Acid attacks due to religious conflicts have been reported. Both males and females have been victims of acid attacks for refusing to convert to another religion. Conflicts regarding property issues, land disputes, inheritance have been reported as motivations of acid attacks. Acid attacks related to conflicts between criminal gangs occur in many places, including the UK, Indonesia.
According to researchers and activists, countries associated with acid assault include Bangladesh, Nepal, Vietnam, China, United Kingdom, South Africa, Uganda and Afghanistan. However, acid attacks have been reported in countries around the world, including: Additionally, anecdotal evidence for acid attacks exists in other regions of the world such as South America and North Africa, the Middle East, Central Asia. However, South Asian countries maintain the highest incidence of acid attacks. Police in the United Kingdom have noted that many victims are afraid to come forward to report attacks, meaning the true scale of the problem may be unknown. An accurate estimate of the gender ratio of victims and perpetrators is difficult to establish because many acid attacks are not reported or recorded by authorities. According to a 2010 study in The Lancet, there are "no reliable statistics" on the prevalence of acid attacks in Pakistan. A 2007 literature review analyzed 24 studies in 13 countries over the past 40 years, covering 771 cases.
According to the London-based charity Acid Survivors Trust International 60% of acid attacks are on women, acid assaults are grossly under-estimated. In some regions, assaults perpetrated on female victims by males are driven by the mentality "If I can't have you, no one shall."In Bangladesh, throwing acid has been labeled as a "gender crime", as there is a dominance of female victims who are assaulted by males, for the reason of refusing to marry, or refusing sexual advances from male perpetrators In Jamaica, women throwing acid on other women in relation to fights over male partners is a common cause. In the UK, the majority of victims are men, many of these attacks are related to gang violence. Another factor that puts victims at increased risk for an acid assault is their socioeconomic status, as those living in poverty are more to be attacked; as of 2013, the three nations with the most noted incidence of acid attacks – Bangladesh and Cambodia – were ranked 75th, 101st, 104th out of 136 countries on the Global Gender Gap Index, a scale that measures equality in opportu
Pakistan the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country in South Asia. It is the world’s sixth-most populous country with a population exceeding 212,742,631 people. In area, it is the 33rd-largest country. Pakistan has a 1,046-kilometre coastline along the Arabian Sea and Gulf of Oman in the south and is bordered by India to the east, Afghanistan to the west, Iran to the southwest, China in the far northeast, it is separated narrowly from Tajikistan by Afghanistan's Wakhan Corridor in the northwest, shares a maritime border with Oman. The territory that now constitutes Pakistan was the site of several ancient cultures and intertwined with the history of the broader Indian subcontinent; the ancient history involves the Neolithic site of Mehrgarh and the Bronze Age Indus Valley Civilisation, was home to kingdoms ruled by people of different faiths and cultures, including Hindus, Indo-Greeks, Turco-Mongols and Sikhs. The area has been ruled by numerous empires and dynasties, including the Persian Achaemenid Empire, Alexander III of Macedon, the Seleucid Empire, the Indian Maurya Empire, the Gupta Empire, the Arab Umayyad Caliphate, the Delhi Sultanate, the Mongol Empire, the Mughal Empire, the Afghan Durrani Empire, the Sikh Empire and, most the British Empire.
Pakistan is the only country to have been created in the name of Islam. It is an ethnically and linguistically diverse country, with a diverse geography and wildlife. A dominion, Pakistan adopted a constitution in 1956, becoming an Islamic republic. An ethnic civil war and Indian military intervention in 1971 resulted in the secession of East Pakistan as the new country of Bangladesh. In 1973, Pakistan adopted a new constitution which stipulated that all laws are to conform to the injunctions of Islam as laid down in the Quran and Sunnah. A regional and middle power, Pakistan has the sixth-largest standing armed forces in the world and is a nuclear power as well as a declared nuclear-weapons state, the second in South Asia and the only nation in the Muslim world to have that status. Pakistan has a semi-industrialised economy with a well-integrated agriculture sector and a growing services sector, it is ranked among the emerging and growth-leading economies of the world, is backed by one of the world's largest and fastest-growing middle class.
Pakistan's political history since independence has been characterized by periods of military rule, political instability and conflicts with India. The country continues to face challenging problems, including overpopulation, poverty and corruption. Pakistan is a member of the UN, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, the OIC, the Commonwealth of Nations, the SAARC and the Islamic Military Counter Terrorism Coalition; the name Pakistan means "land of the pure" in Urdu and Persian. It alludes to the word pāk meaning pure in Pashto; the suffix ـستان is a Persian word meaning the place of, recalls the synonymous Sanskrit word sthāna स्थान. The name of the country was coined in 1933 as Pakstan by Choudhry Rahmat Ali, a Pakistan Movement activist, who published it in his pamphlet Now or Never, using it as an acronym referring to the names of the five northern regions of British India: Punjab, Kashmir and Baluchistan; the letter i was incorporated to ease pronunciation. Some of the earliest ancient human civilisations in South Asia originated from areas encompassing present-day Pakistan.
The earliest known inhabitants in the region were Soanian during the Lower Paleolithic, of whom stone tools have been found in the Soan Valley of Punjab. The Indus region, which covers most of present day Pakistan, was the site of several successive ancient cultures including the Neolithic Mehrgarh and the Bronze Age Indus Valley Civilisation at Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro; the Vedic period was characterised by an Indo-Aryan culture. Multan was an important Hindu pilgrimage centre; the Vedic civilisation flourished in the ancient Gandhāran city of Takṣaśilā, now Taxila in the Punjab, founded around 1000 BCE. Successive ancient empires and kingdoms ruled the region: the Persian Achaemenid Empire, Alexander the Great's empire in 326 BCE and the Maurya Empire, founded by Chandragupta Maurya and extended by Ashoka the Great, until 185 BCE; the Indo-Greek Kingdom founded by Demetrius of Bactria included Gandhara and Punjab and reached its greatest extent under Menander, prospering the Greco-Buddhist culture in the region.
Taxila had one of the earliest universities and centres of higher education in the world, established during the late Vedic period in 6th century BCE. The school consisted of several monasteries without large dormitories or lecture halls where the religious instruction was provided on an individualistic basis; the ancient university was documented by the invading forces of Alexander the Great, "the like of which had not been seen in Greece," and was recorded by Chinese pilgrims in the 4th or 5th century CE. At its zenith, the Rai Dynasty of Sindh ruled the surrounding territories; the Pala Dynasty was the last Buddhist empire, under Dharmapala and Devapala, stretched across South Asia from what is now Bangladesh through Northern India to Pakistan. The Arab conqueror Muhammad bin Qasim conquered Sindh in 711 CE; the Pakistan government's official chronol
Chachi 420 is a 1997 Indian Hindi comedy film, co-written, co-produced and directed by Kamal Haasan. The film is a remake of the Tamil film Avvai Shanmughi, inspired from the Hollywood film Mrs. Doubtfire, it was the first film directed by Kamal Haasan who starred in the film playing double roles. The film starred Tabu, Amrish Puri, Om Puri, Johnny Walker, Paresh Rawal, Rajendranath Zutshi, Ayesha Jhulka and Fatima Sana Shaikh. Jaiprakash Paswan a.k.a. Jai and Janki Paswan are fighting a divorce case. Janaki is the only daughter of a staunch Hindu Brahmin businessman. Jaiprakash, a Hindu Dusadh, is an assistant dance director in films; the duo married against the will of Durgaprasad. However, Janki buckles under the pressure of middle-class life. Other differences crop up between the couple and Janki walks out; the court grants the divorce. Jai is allowed to meet his beloved daughter Bharti once a week, but when he sneaks into the Bhardwaj house to steal Bharti, he loses visitation rights. Meanwhile, Durgaprasad puts ads in local newspapers for a nanny for Bharti.
Jai calls Durgaprasad. Impersonating a female, he introduces himself as'Shrimati Lakshmi Godbole' and applies for the position. With the help of a drunkard makeup artist Joseph, Jai undergoes a complete transformation into Lakshmi Godbole, a dignified elderly Marathi woman, he goes to the interview, where he is viewed as the last pick. But Bharti has an accident, Lakshmi acts promptly to give first aid. Lakshmi gets the respect of the Bhardwaj family. Jai begins the job but creates plausible stories so that his real work schedule does not clash with the job in Bhardwaj's home. Apart from Joseph, only Bharti knows the real identity of Lakshmi. Jai learns that Durgaprasad's secretary Banwarilal Pandit is not thrilled at Lakshmi's entry; the reasons are various, such as Banwa's womanizing nature and his desire to siphon off Durgaprasad's money via friendly maids. Meanwhile, Durgaprasad decides to get Janki remarried to her childhood friend. One day, when Rohit get attacked by goons in the market, the doctor scampers.
Lakshmi saves Janki's modesty. Durgaprasad tells Lakshmi that he has changed his mind about the marriage on learning of Rohit's cowardice. Lakshmi exposes the thefts committed by the maid in the Bhardwaj house; the maid is fired. Banwa has no other option. Jai runs into his old friend Shiraz, a Muslim restaurant chef, now doing menial jobs as he lost his job trying to help Jai. Lakshmi introduces Shiraz to the Bhardwaj household as a mute Brahmin cook. Shiraz does not know that Lakshmi and Jai are the same people. Jai learns that although Janki likes Lakshmi, who by now has earned the affectionate title of Chachi, she still loathes Jai. Meanwhile, Jai has other problems in his own home, his landlord Hari is after him for his rent. After he sees Lakshmi, Hari falls for her; as if, not enough, a struggler named Ratna tries to cozy up to Jai. Meanwhile, Durgaprasad falls for Lakshmi and goes to the extent of proposing to her. Jai, as Lakshmi, buys time by telling Durgaprasad that'she' is married but'her' husband has left'her' and got converted into a Christian named Joseph.
Lakshmi convinces Durgaprasad that'she' is still waiting for'her' husband. On the other hand, Jai tells Hari, he tells Hari to harbour no feelings for Lakshmi. At the same time, Jai tells Banwa that Lakshmi's husband calls himself Haribhai. Banwa intensifies his efforts to discredit Lakshmi in vain. Meanwhile and Durgaprasad realize that they have punished Jai too hard for all the things he has done. Banwa gets a small victory, but Lakshmi makes Durgaprasad see sense that caste do not matter. Durgaprasad shows mercy on Shiraz, giving a verdict that the cook can stay and need not put up his act anymore. However, now Durgaprasad ends up hurting Janki's feelings. Banwa and Janki see. Meanwhile, Shiraz tries to force Lakshmi to marry Durgaprasad. Shiraz threatens ` her' by covering himself in kerosene. But, owing to a misunderstanding about this scene, Banwa is able to convince Janki that Lakshmi is a promiscuous woman, seducing the cook as well as Durgaprasad. Janki, hurt by the turn of events, leaves her father's home and goes to reconcile with Jai.
But on seeing Ratna waiting for him, Lakshmi's clothes strewn about his home, Janki gets the wrong idea that her husband is promiscuous. Janki goes to commit suicide. Jai/Lakshmi jumps into the river to save her. There, Jai/Lakshmi reveals his/'her' true self. Janki hears the whole story and reconciles with him, they come up with a story. To tie up other loose ends, they convince Banwari, they blackmail Banwa with his secrets to ensure his silence. They tell Hari to let it go. Joseph accidentally betrays some part of the truth, but Jai hushes up the matter by saying that Lakshmi will always remain alive in the hearts of everybody who knew her. Jai and Janki remarry. Kamal Haasan – Jaiprakash Paswan/Lakshmi Godbole T
Mutiny is a criminal conspiracy among a group of people to oppose, change, or overthrow a lawful authority to which they are subject. The term is used for a rebellion among members of the military against their superior officers, but it can occasionally refer to any type of rebellion against authority figures or governances. During the Age of Discovery, mutiny meant open rebellion against a ship's captain; this occurred, for example, during Ferdinand Magellan's journeys around the world resulting in the killing of one mutineer, the execution of another, the marooning of others. Mutiny carried capital punishment; until 1689, mutiny was regulated in England by Articles of War instituted by the monarch and effective only in a period of war. In 1689, the first Mutiny Act was passed which passed the responsibility to enforce discipline within the military to Parliament; the Mutiny Act, altered in 1803, the Articles of War defined the nature and punishment of mutiny until the latter were replaced by the Army Discipline and Regulation Act in 1879.
This, in turn, was replaced by the Army Act in 1881. Today the Army Act 1955 defines mutiny as follows: Mutiny means a combination between two or more persons subject to service law, or between persons two at least of whom are subject to service law— to overthrow or resist lawful authority in Her Majesty's forces or any forces co-operating therewith or in any part of any of the said forces, to disobey such authority in such circumstances as to make the disobedience subversive of discipline, or with the object of avoiding any duty or service against, or in connection with operations against, the enemy, or to impede the performance of any duty or service in Her Majesty's forces or in any forces co-operating therewith or in any part of any of the said forces; the same definition applies in the Royal Royal Air Force. The military law of England in early times existed, like the forces to which it applied, in a period of war only. Troops were disbanded upon the cessation of hostilities; the crown, by prerogative, made laws known as Articles of War for the government and discipline of the troops while thus embodied and serving.
Except for the punishment of desertion, made a felony by statute in the reign of Henry VI, these ordinances or Articles of War remained the sole authority for the enforcement of discipline until 1689 when the first Mutiny Act was passed and the military forces of the crown were brought under the direct control of parliament. The Parliamentary forces in the time of Charles I and Oliver Cromwell were governed, not by an act of the legislature, but by articles of war similar to those issued by the king and authorized by an ordinance of the Lords and Commons exercising in that respect the sovereign prerogative; this power of law-making by prerogative was however held to be applicable during a state of actual war only, attempts to exercise it in time of peace were ineffectual. Subject to this limitation, it existed for more than a century after the passing of the first Mutiny Act. From 1689 to 1803, although in peacetime the Mutiny Act was suffered to expire, a statutory power was given to the crown to make Articles of War to operate in the colonies and elsewhere beyond the seas in the same manner as those made by prerogative operated in time of war.
In 1715, in consequence of the rebellion, this power was created in respect of the forces in the kingdom but apart from and in no respect affected the principle acknowledged all this time that the crown of its mere prerogative could make laws for the government of the army in foreign countries in time of war. The Mutiny Act of 1803 effected a great constitutional change in this respect: the power of the crown to make any Articles of War became altogether statutory, the prerogative merged in the act of parliament; the Mutiny Act 1873 was passed in this manner. Such matters remained until 1879 when the last Mutiny Act was passed and the last Articles of War were promulgated; the Mutiny Act legislated for offences in respect of which death or penal servitude could be awarded, the Articles of War, while repeating those provisions of the act, constituted the direct authority for dealing with offences for which imprisonment was the maximum punishment as well as with many matters relating to trial and procedure.
The act and the articles were found not to harmonize in all respects. Their general arrangement was faulty, their language sometimes obscure. In 1869, a royal commission recommended that both should be recast in a simple and intelligible shape. In 1878, a committee of the House of Commons endorsed this view and made recommendations as to how the task should be performed. In 1879, passed into law a measure consolidating in one act both the Mutiny Act and the Articles of War, amending their provisions in certain important respects; this measure was called the Army Discipline and Regulation Act 1879. After one or two years experience finding room for improvement, it was superseded by the Army Act 1881, which hence formed the foundation and the main portion of the military law of England, containing a proviso saving the right of the crown to make Articles of War, but in such a manner as to render the power in effect a nullity by enacting that no crime made punishable by the act shall be otherwise punishable by such articles.
As the punishment of every conceivable offence was provided, any articles made under the act could be no more than an empty formality having no practical effect. Thus the history of English
Mrs. Doubtfire is a 1993 American comedy-drama film, directed by Chris Columbus and written for the screen by Randi Mayem Singer and Leslie Dixon, based on the novel Alias Madame Doubtfire by Anne Fine, it stars Robin Williams, Sally Field, Pierce Brosnan, Harvey Fierstein, Robert Prosky. It follows a divorced actor who dresses up as a female housekeeper to be able to interact with his children; the film addresses themes of divorce and the effect they have on a family. The film was released in the United States on November 24, 1993, it won the Academy Award for Best Makeup and the Golden Globe Award for Best Motion Picture – Musical or Comedy. Robin Williams was awarded the Golden Globe for Best Actor, it grossed $441.3 million on a $25 million budget, becoming the second-highest-grossing film of 1993 worldwide. Though the film received mixed reviews; the original music score was composed by Howard Shore. Although Daniel Hillard, a freelance voice actor, is a devoted father to his three children, Lydia and Natalie, his wife Miranda considers him unreliable.
Daniel quits his job after a disagreement over a questionable script and returns home to throw an expensive birthday party for Chris despite Miranda's objections. This proves to be the final straw for Miranda; the court grants sole custody of the children to Miranda. As Daniel works to rebuild his life, he learns, he secretly alters her classified ad form barring any communication between Miranda and potential candidates for the position. Utilizing his voice acting skills, he calls Miranda while posing as a series of undesirable applicants, he calls Miranda as a Scottish-accented nanny, whom he names Mrs. Euphegenia Doubtfire, with strong credentials. Miranda invites her for an interview. Daniel asks his brother Frank, a makeup artist, Frank's partner, Jack, to create a Mrs. Doubtfire costume, including a prosthetic mask to make him appear as an older woman. Miranda hires Mrs. Doubtfire after a successful interview; the children struggle under Mrs. Doubtfire's authority but soon come around and thrive, further, Miranda learns to become closer with her children.
Daniel, as Mrs. Doubtfire, learns several household skills as part of the role, further improving himself. However, this creates another barrier for Daniel to see his children, as Miranda has put more trust into Mrs. Doubtfire than him, she cannot bring herself to dismiss her. One night and Chris discover Daniel is Mrs. Doubtfire and, thrilled to have their father back, agree to keep his secret. While working at the station, Daniel is seen by the station's CEO Jonathan Lundy playing with toy dinosaurs on the set of a cancelled children's show. Impressed by his voice acting and imagination, Lundy invites Daniel for a dinner to discuss giving him his own children's show to host. Daniel discovers this is to be on the same place and time as a planned birthday dinner for Miranda by her new boyfriend Stuart Dunmeyer, which Mrs. Doubtfire is expected to attend. Unable to change either appointment, Daniel changes in and out of the Mrs. Doubtfire costume to attend both events. Daniel becomes drunk and slips up after changing in and out of costume.
When returning to Lundy in his costume, he claims that "Mrs. Doubtfire" is his idea for the show. Daniel overhears that Stu is allergic to pepper and seasons Stu's order of jambalaya with powdered cayenne pepper. Stu chokes on his dinner, Daniel, feeling guilty, gives him the Heimlich maneuver as Mrs. Doubtfire; the action causes the prosthetic mask to peel off Daniel's face, revealing his identity and horrifying Miranda. At their next custody hearing, Daniel points out that he has met the judge's requirements explains his actions; the judge, while sympathetic to Daniel, grants Miranda full custody. Without Mrs. Doubtfire and her children become miserable, acknowledging how much Mrs. Doubtfire improved their lives, they are surprised when the local station starts a new children's show Euphegenia's House which Daniel, as Mrs. Doubtfire, hosts; the show starts airing across the country. Miranda visits Daniel on set, admitting that things were better when he was involved, agrees to change the custody arrangement.
Soon after and Daniel share joint custody, allowing Daniel to take the children after school, an arrangement he had requested when Miranda told him she was going to hire a housekeeper. As Daniel takes the kids out, Miranda watches an episode of Euphegenia's House where Mrs. Doubtfire answers a letter from a young girl whose parents have separated, saying that love makes a family a family, no matter the distance between its members. Chicago was the studio's first choice for filming. However, as two new television series had a lease with the city during the subsequent time period, production was relocated to San Francisco. Various locations in the city were used during filming. Parts were filmed at the studios of television station KTVU in Oakland. Street signs for the intersection near the "Painted Lady" home and Broadway, were visible onscreen; the exact address 2640 Steiner Street 37°47′38.07″N 122°26′10.78″W became a tourist attraction for some time after the film's release. Following Williams's death by suicide on August 11, 2014, the house became an impromptu memorial.
All interior filming for
A confidence trick is an attempt to defraud a person or group after first gaining their confidence, used in the classical sense of trust. Confidence tricks exploit characteristics of the human psyche, such as credulity, naïveté, vanity and greed. Researchers Lindsey Huang and Barak Orbach defined the scheme as "a distinctive species of fraudulent conduct... intending to further voluntary exchanges that are not mutually beneficial", as they "benefit con operators at the expense of their victims". The perpetrator of a confidence trick is referred to as a confidence man, con-artist, or a "grifter". Samuel Thompson was the original "confidence man". Thompson was a clumsy swindler who asked his victims to express confidence in him by giving him money or their watch rather than gaining their confidence in a more nuanced way. A few people watches. Thompson was arrested in July 1849. Reporting about this arrest, Dr. James Houston, a reporter of the New York Herald, publicized Thompson by naming him the "Confidence Man".
Although Thompson was an unsuccessful scammer, he gained reputation as a genius operator because Houston's satirical writing wasn't understood as such. The National Police Gazette coined the term "confidence game" a few weeks after Houston first used the name "confidence man". A confidence trick is known as a con game, a con, a scam, a grift, a hustle, a bunko, a swindle, a flimflam, a gaffle, or a bamboozle; the intended victims are known as marks, stooges, rubes, or gulls. When accomplices are employed, they are known as shills. A short con or small con is a fast swindle, it aims to rob the victim of everything in his wallet. A long con or big con is a scam that unfolds over several days or weeks and involves a team of swindlers, as well as props, extras and scripted lines, it aims to rob the victim of huge sums of money or valuable things by getting him or her to empty out banking accounts and borrow from family members. In Confessions of a Confidence Man, Edward H. Smith lists the "six definite steps or stages of growth" of a confidence game.
He notes. Foundation Work Preparations are made in advance of the game, including the hiring of any assistants required. Approach The victim is contacted. Build-up The victim is given an opportunity to profit from a scheme; the victim's greed is encouraged, such that their rational judgment of the situation might be impaired. Pay-off or Convincer The victim receives a small payout as a demonstration of the scheme's effectiveness; this faked in some way. In a gambling con, the victim is allowed to win several small bets. In a stock market con, the victim is given fake dividends; the Hurrah A sudden crisis or change of events forces the victim to act immediately. This is the point at which the con fails; the In-and-In A conspirator puts an amount of money into the same scheme as the victim, to add an appearance of legitimacy to the scheme. This can reassure the victim, give the con man greater control when the deal has been completed. In addition, some games require a "corroboration" step those involving a "rare item".
This includes the use of an accomplice who plays the part of an uninvolved third party, who confirms the claims made by the con man. Confidence tricks exploit typical human characteristics such as greed, vanity, lust, credulity, desperation, naïvety; as such, there is no consistent profile of a confidence trick victim. Victims of investment scams tend to show an incautious level of greed and gullibility, many con artists target the elderly, but alert and educated people may be taken in by other forms of a confidence trick. Researchers Huang and Orbach argue: Cons succeed for inducing judgment errors—chiefly, errors arising from imperfect information and cognitive biases. In popular culture and among professional con men, the human vulnerabilities that cons exploit are depicted as ‘dishonesty,’ ‘greed,’ and ‘gullibility’ of the marks. Dishonesty represented by the expression ‘you can’t cheat an honest man,’ refers to the willingness of marks to participate in unlawful acts, such as rigged gambling and embezzlement.
Greed, the desire to ‘get something for nothing,’ is a shorthand expression of marks’ beliefs that too-good-to-be-true gains are realistic. Gullibility reflects beliefs that marks are ‘suckers’ and ‘fools’ for entering into costly voluntary exchanges. Judicial opinions echo these sentiments. Accomplices known as shills, help manipulate the mark into accepting the perpetrator's plan. In a traditional confidence trick, the mark is led to believe that he will be able to win money or some other prize by doing some task; the accomplices may pretend to be strangers. Bell, J. Bowyer. Cheating and Deception. New Brunswick & London: Transaction Publishers. ISBN 978-0887388682. Blundell, Nigel; the World's Greatest Crooks and Conmen and other mischievous malefactors. London: Octopus Books. ISBN 978-0706421446. Dillon, Eamon; the Fraudsters: Sharks and Charlatans – How Con Artists Make Their Money. Merlin Publishing. ISBN 978-1903582824. Ford, Charl