Airport security refers to the techniques and methods used in an attempt to protect passengers, staff and airport property from accidental/malicious harm and other threats. Aviation security is a combination of human and material resources to safeguard civil aviation against unlawful interference. Unlawful interference could be acts of terrorism, threat to life and property, communication of false threat, etc. Large numbers of people pass through airports every day; this presents potential targets for terrorism and other forms of crime because of the number of people located in one place. The high concentration of people on large airliners increases the high death rate with attacks on aircraft, the ability to use a hijacked airplane as a lethal weapon may provide an alluring target for terrorism. Airport security attempts to prevent any threats or dangerous situations from arising or entering the country. If airport security does succeed the chances of any dangerous situation, illegal items or threats entering into an aircraft, country or airport are reduced.
As such, airport security serves several purposes: To protect the airport and country from any threatening events, to reassure the traveling public that they are safe and to protect the country and their people. Monte R. Belger of the U. S. Federal Aviation Administration notes "The goal of aviation security is to prevent harm to aircraft and crew, as well as support national security and counter-terrorism policy." While some countries may have an agency that protects all of their airports, in other countries the protection is controlled at the state or local level. The primary personnel will vary and can include: A police force hired and dedicated to the airport e.g. the Irish Airport Police Service A branch of the local police department stationed at the airport Members of the local police department assigned to the airport as their normal patrol area Members of a country's airport protection service Police dog services for explosive detection, drug detection and other purposesOther resources may include: Security guards Paramilitary forces Military forces Some incidents have been the result of travelers carrying either weapons or items that could be used as weapons on board aircraft so that they can hijack the plane.
Travelers millimeter wave scanners. Explosive detection machines used include X-ray machines and explosives trace-detection portal machines. In the United States, the TSA is working on new scanning machines that are still effective searching for objects that aren't allowed in the airplanes but that don't depict the passengers in a state of undress that some find embarrassing. Explosive detection machines can be used for both carry-on and checked baggage; these detect volatile compounds given off from explosives using gas chromatography. A recent development is the controversial use of backscatter X-rays to detect hidden weapons and explosives on passengers; these devices, which use Compton scattering, require that the passenger stand close to a flat panel and produce a high resolution image. A technology released in Israel in early 2008 allows passengers to pass through metal detectors without removing their shoes, a process required as walk-through gate detectors are not reliable in detecting metal in shoes or on the lower body extremities.
Alternately, the passengers step shoed onto a device which scans in under 1.2 seconds for objects as small as a razor blade. In some countries, specially trained individuals may engage passengers in a conversation to detect threats rather than relying on equipment to find threats. A single backscatter scan exposes the target to between 0.1 microsievert of radiation. In comparison, the exposure from a standard chest x-ray is 100 times higher. People are screened through airport security into areas where the exit gates to the aircraft are located; these areas are called "secure", "sterile" and airside. Passengers are discharged from airliners into the sterile area so that they will not have to be re-screened if disembarking from a domestic flight. Airport food outlets have started using plastic glasses and utensils as opposed to glasses made out of glass and utensils made out of metal to reduce the usefulness of such items as weapons. In the United States non-passengers were once allowed on the concourses to meet arriving friends or relatives at their gates, but this is now restricted due to the terrorist attacks.
Non-passengers must obtain a gate pass to enter the secure area of the airport. The most common reasons that a non-passenger may obtain a gate pass is to assist children and the elderly as well as for attending business meetings that take place in the secure area of the airport. In the United States, at least 24 hours notice is required for those planning to attend a business meeting inside the secure area of the airport. Other countries, such as Australia do not restrict non-travellers from accessing the airside area, however non-travellers are subject to the same security scans as travellers. Sensitive areas in airports, including airport ramps and operational spaces, are restricted from the general public. Called a SIDA, these spaces require special qualifications to enter. Systems can consist of physical access control gates or more passive systems that monitor people moving through restricted areas and sound an alert if an restricted area is entered. Throughout the world, there have been a few doz
Civil liberties or personal freedoms are personal guarantees and freedoms that the government cannot abridge, either by law or by judicial interpretation, without due process. Though the scope of the term differs between countries, civil liberties may include the freedom of conscience, freedom of press, freedom of religion, freedom of expression, freedom of assembly, the right to security and liberty, freedom of speech, the right to privacy, the right to equal treatment under the law and due process, the right to a fair trial, the right to life. Other civil liberties include the right to own property, the right to defend oneself, the right to bodily integrity. Within the distinctions between civil liberties and other types of liberty, distinctions exist between positive liberty/positive rights and negative liberty/negative rights. Many contemporary states have a constitution, a bill of rights, or similar constitutional documents that enumerate and seek to guarantee civil liberties. Other states have enacted similar laws through a variety of legal means, including signing and ratifying or otherwise giving effect to key conventions such as the European Convention on Human Rights and the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights.
The existence of some claimed civil liberties is a matter of dispute, as are the extent of most civil rights. Controversial examples include property rights, reproductive rights, civil marriage; the degree that democracies have involved themselves in needs to take into fact the influence of terrorism. Whether the existence of victimless crimes infringes upon civil liberties is a matter of dispute. Another matter of debate is the suspension or alteration of certain civil liberties in times of war or state of emergency, including whether and to what extent this should occur; the formal concept of civil liberties is dated back to Magna Carta, an English legal charter agreed in 1215 which in turn was based on pre-existing documents, namely the Charter of Liberties. The Constitution of People's Republic of China its Fundamental Rights and Duties of Citizens, claims to protect many civil liberties. Taiwan, separated from China, has its own Constitution; the Fundamental Rights—embodied in Part III of the constitution—guarantee liberties such that all Indians can lead their lives in peace as citizens of India.
The six fundamental rights are right to equality, right to freedom, right against exploitation, right to freedom of religion and educational rights and right to constitutional remedies. These include individual rights common to most liberal democracies, incorporated in the fundamental law of the land and are enforceable in a court of law. Violations of these rights result in punishments as prescribed in the Indian Penal Code, subject to discretion of the judiciary; these rights are neither immune from constitutional amendments. They have been aimed at overturning the inequalities of pre-independence social practices, they resulted in abolishment of un-touchability and prohibit discrimination on the grounds of religion, caste, sex, or place of birth. They forbid unfree labour, they protect cultural and educational rights of ethnic and religious minorities by allowing them to preserve their languages and administer their own educational institutions. All people, irrespective of race, caste or sex, have the right to approach the High Courts or the Supreme Court for the enforcement of their fundamental rights.
It is not necessary. In public interest, anyone can initiate litigation in the court on their behalf; this is known as "Public interest litigation". High Court and Supreme Court judges can act on their own on the basis of media reports; the Fundamental Rights emphasize equality by guaranteeing to all citizens the access and use of public institutions and protections, irrespective of their background. The rights to life and personal liberty apply for persons of any nationality, while others, such as the freedom of speech and expression are applicable only to the citizens of India; the right to equality in matters of public employment cannot be conferred to overseas citizens of India. Fundamental Rights protect individuals from any arbitrary State actions, but some rights are enforceable against private individuals too. For instance, the constitution prohibits begar; these provisions act as a check both on State action and actions of private individuals. Fundamental Rights are not absolute and are subject to reasonable restrictions as necessary for the protection of national interest.
In the Kesavananda Bharati vs. state of Kerala case, the Supreme Court ruled that all provisions of the constitution, including Fundamental Rights can be amended. However, the Parliament cannot alter the basic structure of the constitution like secularism, federalism, separation of powers. Called the "Basic structure doctrine", this decision is regarded as an important part of Indian history. In the 1978 Maneka Gandhi v. Union of India case, the Supreme Court extended the doctrine's importance as superior to any parliamentary legislation. According to the verdict, no act of parliament can be considered a law if it violated the basic structure of the constitution; this landmark guarantee of Fundamental Rights was regarded as a unique example of judicial independence in preserving the sanctity of Fundamental Rights. The Fundamental Rights can only be altered by a constitutional amendment, hence their inclusion is a check not only on the executive branch, but on the Parliament and state legislatures.
The imposition of a state of em
The public domain consists of all the creative works to which no exclusive intellectual property rights apply. Those rights may have been forfeited, expressly waived, or may be inapplicable; the works of William Shakespeare and Beethoven, most early silent films, are in the public domain either by virtue of their having been created before copyright existed, or by their copyright term having expired. Some works are not covered by copyright, are therefore in the public domain—among them the formulae of Newtonian physics, cooking recipes, all computer software created prior to 1974. Other works are dedicated by their authors to the public domain; the term public domain is not applied to situations where the creator of a work retains residual rights, in which case use of the work is referred to as "under license" or "with permission". As rights vary by country and jurisdiction, a work may be subject to rights in one country and be in the public domain in another; some rights depend on registrations on a country-by-country basis, the absence of registration in a particular country, if required, gives rise to public-domain status for a work in that country.
The term public domain may be interchangeably used with other imprecise or undefined terms such as the "public sphere" or "commons", including concepts such as the "commons of the mind", the "intellectual commons", the "information commons". Although the term "domain" did not come into use until the mid-18th century, the concept "can be traced back to the ancient Roman Law, as a preset system included in the property right system." The Romans had a large proprietary rights system where they defined "many things that cannot be owned" as res nullius, res communes, res publicae and res universitatis. The term res nullius was defined as things not yet appropriated; the term res communes was defined as "things that could be enjoyed by mankind, such as air and ocean." The term res publicae referred to things that were shared by all citizens, the term res universitatis meant things that were owned by the municipalities of Rome. When looking at it from a historical perspective, one could say the construction of the idea of "public domain" sprouted from the concepts of res communes, res publicae, res universitatis in early Roman law.
When the first early copyright law was first established in Britain with the Statute of Anne in 1710, public domain did not appear. However, similar concepts were developed by French jurists in the 18th century. Instead of "public domain", they used terms such as publici juris or propriété publique to describe works that were not covered by copyright law; the phrase "fall in the public domain" can be traced to mid-19th century France to describe the end of copyright term. The French poet Alfred de Vigny equated the expiration of copyright with a work falling "into the sink hole of public domain" and if the public domain receives any attention from intellectual property lawyers it is still treated as little more than that, left when intellectual property rights, such as copyright and trademarks, expire or are abandoned. In this historical context Paul Torremans describes copyright as a, "little coral reef of private right jutting up from the ocean of the public domain." Copyright law differs by country, the American legal scholar Pamela Samuelson has described the public domain as being "different sizes at different times in different countries".
Definitions of the boundaries of the public domain in relation to copyright, or intellectual property more regard the public domain as a negative space. According to James Boyle this definition underlines common usage of the term public domain and equates the public domain to public property and works in copyright to private property. However, the usage of the term public domain can be more granular, including for example uses of works in copyright permitted by copyright exceptions; such a definition regards work in copyright as private property subject to fair-use rights and limitation on ownership. A conceptual definition comes from Lange, who focused on what the public domain should be: "it should be a place of sanctuary for individual creative expression, a sanctuary conferring affirmative protection against the forces of private appropriation that threatened such expression". Patterson and Lindberg described the public domain not as a "territory", but rather as a concept: "here are certain materials – the air we breathe, rain, life, thoughts, ideas, numbers – not subject to private ownership.
The materials that compose our cultural heritage must be free for all living to use no less than matter necessary for biological survival." The term public domain may be interchangeably used with other imprecise or undefined terms such as the "public sphere" or "commons", including concepts such as the "commons of the mind", the "intellectual commons", the "information commons". A public-domain book is a book with no copyright, a book, created without a license, or a book where its copyrights expired or have been forfeited. In most countries the term of protection of copyright lasts until January first, 70 years after the death of the latest living author; the longest copyright term is in Mexico, which has life plus 100 years for all deaths since July 1928. A notable exception is the United States, where every book and tale published prior to 1924 is in the public domain.
In statistics, quality assurance, survey methodology, sampling is the selection of a subset of individuals from within a statistical population to estimate characteristics of the whole population. Statisticians attempt for the samples to represent the population in question. Two advantages of sampling are lower cost and faster data collection than measuring the entire population; each observation measures one or more properties of observable bodies distinguished as independent objects or individuals. In survey sampling, weights can be applied to the data to adjust for the sample design in stratified sampling. Results from probability theory and statistical theory are employed to guide the practice. In business and medical research, sampling is used for gathering information about a population. Acceptance sampling is used to determine if a production lot of material meets the governing specifications. Successful statistical practice is based on focused problem definition. In sampling, this includes defining the "population".
A population can be defined as including all people or items with the characteristic one wishes to understand. Because there is rarely enough time or money to gather information from everyone or everything in a population, the goal becomes finding a representative sample of that population. Sometimes what defines. For example, a manufacturer needs to decide whether a batch of material from production is of high enough quality to be released to the customer, or should be sentenced for scrap or rework due to poor quality. In this case, the batch is the population. Although the population of interest consists of physical objects, sometimes it is necessary to sample over time, space, or some combination of these dimensions. For instance, an investigation of supermarket staffing could examine checkout line length at various times, or a study on endangered penguins might aim to understand their usage of various hunting grounds over time. For the time dimension, the focus may be on discrete occasions.
In other cases, the examined'population' may be less tangible. For example, Joseph Jagger studied the behaviour of roulette wheels at a casino in Monte Carlo, used this to identify a biased wheel. In this case, the'population' Jagger wanted to investigate was the overall behaviour of the wheel, while his'sample' was formed from observed results from that wheel. Similar considerations arise when taking repeated measurements of some physical characteristic such as the electrical conductivity of copper; this situation arises when seeking knowledge about the cause system of which the observed population is an outcome. In such cases, sampling theory may treat the observed population as a sample from a larger'superpopulation'. For example, a researcher might study the success rate of a new'quit smoking' program on a test group of 100 patients, in order to predict the effects of the program if it were made available nationwide. Here the superpopulation is "everybody in the country, given access to this treatment" – a group which does not yet exist, since the program isn't yet available to all.
Note that the population from which the sample is drawn may not be the same as the population about which information is desired. There is large but not complete overlap between these two groups due to frame issues etc.. Sometimes they may be separate – for instance, one might study rats in order to get a better understanding of human health, or one might study records from people born in 2008 in order to make predictions about people born in 2009. Time spent in making the sampled population and population of concern precise is well spent, because it raises many issues and questions that would otherwise have been overlooked at this stage. In the most straightforward case, such as the sampling of a batch of material from production, it would be most desirable to identify and measure every single item in the population and to include any one of them in our sample. However, in the more general case this is not possible or practical. There is no way to identify all rats in the set of all rats. Where voting is not compulsory, there is no way to identify which people will vote at a forthcoming election.
These imprecise populations are not amenable to sampling in any of the ways below and to which we could apply statistical theory. As a remedy, we seek a sampling frame which has the property that we can identify every single element and include any in our sample; the most straightforward type of frame is a list of elements of the population with appropriate contact information. For example, in an opinion poll, possible sampling frames include an electoral register and a telephone directory. A probability sample is a sample in which every unit in the population has a chance of being selected in the sample, this probability can be determined; the combination of these traits makes it possible to produce unbiased estimates of population totals, by weighting sampled units according to their probability of selection. Example: We want to estimate the total income of adults living in a given street. We visit each household in that street, identify all adults living there, randomly select one adult from each household..
We interview the selected person and find their income
Transportation Security Administration
The Transportation Security Administration is an agency of the U. S. Department of Homeland Security that has authority over the security of the traveling public in the United States, it was created as a response to the September 11 attacks. Chiefly concerned with air travel, the TSA employs screening officers in airports, armed Federal Air Marshals on planes, mobile teams of dog handlers and explosives specialists; the TSA was created in response to the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, which revealed weaknesses in existing airport security procedures. At the time, a myriad of private security firms managed air travel security under contract to individual airlines or groups of airlines that used a given airport or terminal facility. Proponents of placing the government in charge of airport security, including Transportation Secretary Norman Mineta, argued that only a single federal agency could best protect passenger aviation. Congress agreed, authorized the creation of the TSA in the Aviation and Transportation Security Act, signed into law by President George W. Bush on November 19, 2001.
Bush nominated John Magaw on December 10, he was confirmed by the Senate the following January. The agency was placed under the United States Department of Transportation, but was moved to the Department of Homeland Security when that department was formed on March 9, 2003; the new agency's effort to hire screeners to begin operating security checkpoints at airports represents a case of a large-scale staffing project completed over a short period. The only effort in U. S. history that came close to it was the testing of recruits for the armed forces in World War II. During the period from February to December 2002, 1.7 million applicants were assessed for 55,000 screening jobs. The TSA develops broad policies to protect the U. S. transportation system, including highways, buses, mass transit systems and pipelines. It fulfills this mission in conjunction with state partners. However, the TSA's primary focus is on the prevention of aircraft hijacking, it is responsible for screening passengers and baggage at more than 450 U.
S. airports. When TSA was part of the Department of Transportation, the head of the agency was referred to as the Under Secretary of Transportation for Security. Following the move to the Department of Homeland Security, the position was reclassified as the Administrator of the Transportation Security Administration. There have been six acting administrators in the TSA's 18-year history. Following the passage of the FAA Reauthorization Act of 2018 which included a provision known as the TSA Modernization Act, the Administrator's term was set as a five year term retroactive to the start of current Administrator David Pekoske's term, it made the Deputy Administrator a politically appointed position. All offices are headed by an Assistant Administrator, except for the offices of Enterprise Support, Law Enforcement/Federal Air Marshal Service, Operations Support and Security Operations, which are headed by an Executive Assistant Administrator; the Investigations office and Strategy, Policy Coordination and Innovation office are referred to as a Director for the former and Executive Director for the latter.
The Executive Assistant Administrator for Law Enforcement is the Director of the Federal Air Marshal Service. Administrator Deputy Administrator Chief Financial Officer Chief Counsel Civil Rights and Liberties and Traveler Engagement Investigations Chief of Staff Legislative Affairs Strategic Communications and Public Affairs Strategy, Policy Coordination and Innovation Enterprise Support Chief Administrative Officer Acquisition Program Manangement Contracting and Procurement Human Capital Information Technology Inspection Professional Responsibility Training and Development Law Enforcement / Federal Air Marshal Service Operations Support Global Strategies Intelligence and Analysis Requirements and Capabilities Analysis Security Policy and Industry Engagement Security Operations In August 2017, the General Services Administration announced a new headquarters for the TSA would be built in Springfield, Virginia; the new, 625,000-square-foot headquarters will be a short distance from the Franconia-Springfield Metro station and is projected to cost $316 million for a 15-year lease.
The facility is expected to open in mid-2020. For fiscal year 2012, the TSA had a budget of $7.6 billion. Part of the TSA budget comes from a $2.50 per-passenger tax. The Obama administration had proposed tripling this fee by 2019, with most of the increase going to reduce the national debt. Travelers left about half a million dollars behind at airport checkpoints in 2012 and 2013. TSA keeps the money for security operations. Private screening did not disappear under the TSA, which allows airports to opt out of federal screening and hire firms to do the job instead; such firms must still get TSA approval under its Screening Partnership Program and follow TSA procedures. Among the U. S. airports with operated checkpoints are San Francisco International Airport. However, the bulk of airport screening in the U. S. is done by the TSA's 47,000 Transportation Security Officers referred to as officers or agents. They examine passengers and their baggage, perform other security duties within airports, including controlling entry and exit points and monitoring the areas near their checkpoints.
Among the types of TSA employees are: In 2008, TSA officer
American Civil Liberties Union
The American Civil Liberties Union is a nonprofit organization whose stated mission is "to defend and preserve the individual rights and liberties guaranteed to every person in this country by the Constitution and laws of the United States." Nonpartisan, the organization has been supported and criticized by liberal and conservative organizations alike. The ACLU works through litigation and lobbying and it has over 1,200,000 members and an annual budget of over $100 million. Local affiliates of the ACLU are active in all 50 states, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico; the ACLU provides legal assistance in cases. Legal support from the ACLU can take the form of direct legal representation or preparation of amicus curiae briefs expressing legal arguments when another law firm is providing representation. In addition to representing persons and organizations in lawsuits, the ACLU lobbies for policy positions that have been established by its board of directors. Current positions of the ACLU include: opposing the death penalty.
The ACLU consists of two separate but affiliated nonprofit organizations: the American Civil Liberties Union, a 501 social welfare group, the ACLU Foundation, a 501 public charity. Both organizations engage in civil rights litigation and education, but only donations to the 501 foundation are tax deductible, only the 501 group can engage in unlimited political lobbying; the two organizations share employees. The ACLU was founded in 1920 by a committee including Helen Keller, Roger Baldwin, Crystal Eastman, Walter Nelles, Morris Ernst, Albert DeSilver, Arthur Garfield Hays, Jane Addams, Felix Frankfurter, Elizabeth Gurley Flynn, Rose Schneiderman, its focus was on freedom of speech for anti-war protesters. During the 1920s, the ACLU expanded its scope to include protecting the free speech rights of artists and striking workers, working with the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People to decrease racism and discrimination. During the 1930s, the ACLU started to engage in work combating police misconduct and supporting Native American rights.
Many of the ACLU's cases involved Jehovah's Witnesses. In 1940, the ACLU leadership voted to exclude Communists from its leadership positions, a decision rescinded in 1968. During World War II, the ACLU defended Japanese-American citizens, unsuccessfully trying to prevent their forcible relocation to internment camps. During the Cold War, the ACLU headquarters was dominated by anti-communists, but many local affiliates defended members of the Communist Party. By 1964, membership had risen to 80,000, the ACLU participated in efforts to expand civil liberties. In the 1960s, the ACLU continued its decades-long effort to enforce separation of state, it defended several anti-war activists during the Vietnam War. The ACLU was involved in the Miranda case, which addressed conduct by police during interrogations, in the New York Times case, which established new protections for newspapers reporting on government activities. In the 1970s and 1980s, the ACLU ventured into new legal areas, involving the rights of homosexuals, students and the poor.
In the twenty-first century, the ACLU has fought the teaching of creationism in public schools and challenged some provisions of anti-terrorism legislation as infringing on privacy and civil liberties. Fundraising and membership spiked after the 2016 election; the ACLU is led by a president and an executive director, Susan N. Herman and Anthony Romero in 2015; the president acts as chairman of the ACLU's board of directors, leads fundraising, facilitates policy-setting. The executive director manages the day-to-day operations of the organization; the board of directors consists of 80 persons, including representatives from each state affiliate, as well as at-large delegates. The organization has its headquarters in 125 Broad Street, a 40-story skyscraper located in Lower Manhattan, New York City; the leadership of the ACLU does not always agree on policy decisions. In 1937, an internal debate erupted over whether to defend Henry Ford's right to distribute anti-union literature. In 1939, a heated debate took place over whether to prohibit communists from serving in ACLU leadership roles.
During the early 1950s and Cold War McCarthyism, the board was divided on whether to defend communists. In 1968, a schism formed over. In 1973, there was internal conflict over. In 2005, there was internal conflict about whether or not a gag rule should be imposed on ACLU employees to prevent publication of internal disputes. In the year ending March 31, 2014, the ACLU and the ACLU Foundation had a combined income from support and revenue of $100.4 million, originating from grants, membership donations, donated legal services and revenue. Membership dues are treated as donations. In the year ending March 31, 2014, the combined expenses of the ACLU and ACLU Foundation were $133.4 million, s