The Indonesian–Malaysian confrontation or Borneo confrontation was a violent conflict from 1963–66 that stemmed from Indonesia's opposition to the creation of Malaysia. The creation of Malaysia was the amalgamation of the Federation of Malaya and the crown colony/British protectorates of North Borneo and Sarawak in September 1963. Important precursors to the conflict included Indonesia's policy of confrontation against Netherlands New Guinea from March–August 1962 and the Brunei Revolt in December 1962; the confrontation was an undeclared war with most of the action occurring in the border area between Indonesia and East Malaysia on the island of Borneo. The conflict was characterised by restrained and isolated ground combat, set within tactics of low-level brinkmanship. Combat was conducted by company- or platoon-sized operations on either side of the border. Indonesia's campaign of infiltrations into Borneo sought to exploit the ethnic and religious diversity in Sabah and Sarawak compared to that of Malaya and Singapore, with the intent of unraveling the proposed state of Malaysia.
The challenging jungle terrain of Borneo and lack of roads straddling the Malaysia/Indonesia border forced both Indonesian and Commonwealth forces to conduct long foot patrols. Both sides relied on light infantry operations and air transport, although Commonwealth forces enjoyed the advantage of better helicopter deployment and resupply to forward operating bases. Rivers were used as a method of transport and infiltration. Although combat operations were conducted by ground forces, aerial forces played a vital support role and naval forces ensured the security of the sea flanks; the British provided most of the defensive effort, although Malaysian forces increased their contributions, there were periodic contributions from Australian and New Zealand forces within the combined Far East Strategic Reserve stationed in West Malaysia and Singapore. Initial Indonesian attacks into East Malaysia relied on local volunteers trained by the Indonesian Army. With the passage of time infiltration forces became more organised with the inclusion of a larger component of Indonesian forces.
To deter and disrupt Indonesia's growing campaign of infiltrations, the British responded in 1964 by launching their own covert operations into Indonesian Kalimantan under the code name Operation Claret. Coinciding with Sukarno announcing a'year of dangerous living' and the 1964 race riots in Singapore, Indonesia launched an expanded campaign of operations into West Malaysia on 17 August 1964, albeit without military success. A build-up of Indonesian forces on the Kalimantan border in December 1964 saw the UK commit significant forces from the UK-based Army Strategic Command and Australia and New Zealand deployed roulement combat forces from West Malaysia to Borneo in 1965–66; the intensity of the conflict began to subside following the events of the 30 September Movement and Suharto's rise to power. A new round of peace negotiations between Indonesia and Malaysia began in May 1966 and a final peace agreement was signed on 11 August 1966 with Indonesia formally recognising Malaysia. Before Indonesia's Confrontation of Malaysia, Sukarno had sought to develop an independent Indonesian foreign policy, focused on the acquisition of Netherlands New Guinea as a residual issue from the Indonesian National Revolution, establishing Indonesia's credentials as a notable international power operating distinct interests from those of the West and East.
Indonesia had relentlessly pursued its claim to Netherlands New Guinea during the period 1950–1962, despite facing multiple setbacks in the UN General Assembly to have its claim recognised by the international community. Indonesia was an important country in developing the Non-Aligned Movement, hosting the Bandung Conference in 1955. Following the Indonesian crisis in 1958, which had included the Permesta rebellion in eastern Indonesia and the declaration of the PRRI, a rebel revolutionary government based in Sumatra. With the influx of Soviet arms aid, Indonesia was able to advance its diplomatic claims to Netherlands New Guinea more forcefully; the diplomatic dispute reached its climax in 1962 when Indonesia launched a substantial campaign of airborne and seaborne infiltrations upon Netherlands New Guinea. While the infiltration forces were soundly defeated by Dutch and indigenous forces, Indonesia was able to lend credence to the threat of an Indonesian invasion of Netherlands New Guinea.
The Dutch, facing mounting diplomatic pressure from the Indonesians and the Americans, who were anxious to keep Indonesia from becoming Communist aligned and agreed to a diplomatic compromise, allowing the Indonesians to gain control of the territory in exchange for pledging to hold a self-determination plebiscite in the territory by 1969. Thus by the close of 1962 Indonesia had achieved a considerable diplomatic victory, which emboldened its self perception as a notable regional power, it was in the context of Indonesia's recent diplomatic victory in the Netherlands New Guinea dispute, that Indonesia cast its attention to the British proposal for a unified Malaysian state. Prior to the British Government announcing the East of Suez policy in 1968, the British Government had begun to re-evaluate in the late 1950s its force commitment in the Far East; as a part of its withdrawal from its Southeast Asian colonies, the UK moved to combine its colonies in North Borneo with the Federation of Malaya, Singapore (which
Ministry of State Security (China)
The Ministry of State Security is the intelligence and security agency of the People's Republic of China, responsible for counter-intelligence, foreign intelligence and political security. It is headquartered in Beijing. Article 4 of the Criminal Procedure Law gives the MSS the same authority to arrest or detain people as regular police for crimes involving state security with identical supervision by the procuratorates and the courts; the National Intelligence Law of 2017 grants the MSS broad powers to conduct many types of espionage both domestically and abroad, it gives the MSS the power to administratively detain those who impede or divulge information on intelligence work for up to 15 days. The network of state security bureaus and the Ministry of State Security should not be confused with the separate but parallel network of public security bureaus, administered by the Ministry of Public Security. A document from the U. S. Department of Justice described the agency as being like a combination of the U.
S. CIA and FBI; the precursor of the modern MSS was the Central Department of Social Affairs, the primary intelligence organ of the Communist Party of China before its accession to power in 1949. The CDSA operated from the communist base area of Yan'an in Shaanxi Province in northern China during the 1937–45 Second Sino-Japanese War; the CDSA provided the CPC with assessments of the world situation based on news reports and furnished the Communists with intelligence that proved important in the 1946–49 Chinese Civil War against the Nationalist forces. The CDSA was reorganized in the summer of 1949, it ceased to exist in name, some of its most prominent officers were transferred to senior positions in the new Ministry of Public Security of the CCP Central Revolutionary Military Affairs Commission. After an extended transition during which segments of the former CDSA came within the purview of the People's Liberation Army, it was re-established as an organ directly under the Communist Party Central Committee in 1955, now with the new name Central Investigation Department.
The MSS was established in 1983 as the result of the merger of the CID and the counter-intelligence elements of the Ministry of Public Security of the People's Republic of China. One of its longest-serving chiefs was Jia Chunwang, a native of Beijing and a 1964 graduate of Tsinghua University, an admirer of the U. S. Central Intelligence Agency, he served as Minister of State Security from 1985 until March 1998, when the MSS underwent an overhaul and Xu Yongyue was appointed the new head of the organization. Jia was appointed to the Minister of Public Security post, after a decade of distinguished service as head of the MSS. In October 2018, the deputy director of the Ministry of State Security, Yanjun Xu, was charged with economic espionage by the United States prosecutors. According to Liu Fuzhi, Secretary-General of the Commission for Politics and Law under the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China and Minister of Public Security, the mission of the MSS is to ensure "the security of the state through effective measures against enemy agents and counter-revolutionary activities designed to sabotage or overthrow China's socialist system."
In March 2009 former MSS operative Li Fengzhi told the Washington Times in an interview that the MSS was engaged in counterintelligence, the collection of secrets and technology from other countries, repressing internal dissent within China. The internal repression, according to Li, includes efforts against nonofficial Christian churches and the outlawed Falun Gong religious group, plus censoring the Internet to prevent China's population from knowing what is going on outside the country. Li emphasized that MSS's most important mission is, "to control the Chinese people to maintain the rule of the Communist Party". Chinese intelligence agents under the control of the MSS, have achieved success in penetrating the U. S. Intelligence Community in the past. In the 1980s, Larry Wu-Tai Chin, a translator for the Foreign Broadcast Information Service of the CIA, was arrested and charged with espionage in the service of the PRC, he had been recruited in 1944 while stationed in China as a U. S. Army officer and went undetected for four decades.
More in 2003, Chinese-American Federal Bureau of Investigation source and Republican Party fundraiser Katrina Leung was arrested and accused of being a double agent for both the FBI and the Chinese government, although she was acquitted of charges of copying classified information, convicted only of tax charges and of lying to the FBI. In 2012, an executive assistant to MSS vice minister Lu Zhongwei was found to have been passing information to the CIA. Lu Zhongwei was not formally charged, but that incident was said to have infuriated Hu Jintao and led to a tightening on information dissemination and increased counterintelligence activities in Beijing and abroad; the Shanghai State Security Bureau of the MSS has been involved in both failed and successful attempts to recruit foreign agents. In 2010, the SSSB directed US citizen Glenn Duffie Shriver to apply for a position at the National Clandestine Service of the CIA. In 2017, SSSB case workers were implicated in the recruitment of US Department of State employee Candace Claiborne, charged with obstruction of justice.
In 2013, a Chinese driver was employed by Senator Dianne Feinstein, notified that the driver was being investigated for possible Chinese spying. At some point, he visited China and was recruited by China's MSS, he worked for Senator Feinstein for several years. The FB
Lee Kuan Yew
Lee Kuan Yew referred to by his initials LKY, was the first Prime Minister of Singapore, governing for three decades. Lee is recognised as the nation's founding father, with the country described as transitioning from the "third world to first world in a single generation" under his leadership. After attending the London School of Economics, Lee graduated from Fitzwilliam College, with double starred-first-class honours in law. In 1950, he became a barrister of the Middle Temple and practised law until 1959. Lee co-founded the People's Action Party in 1954 and was its first secretary-general until 1992, leading the party to eight consecutive victories. After Lee chose to step down as Prime Minister in 1990, he served as Senior Minister under his successor, Goh Chok Tong until 2004 as Minister Mentor until 2011, under his son Lee Hsien Loong. In total, Lee held successive ministerial positions for 56 years, he continued to serve his Tanjong Pagar constituency for nearly 60 years as a member of parliament until his death in 2015.
From 1991, he helmed the 5-member Tanjong Pagar GRC, remained unopposed for a record five elections. Lee campaigned for Britain to relinquish its colonial rule, attained through a national referendum to merge with other former British territories to form Malaysia in 1963, but racial strife and ideological differences led to its separation to become a sovereign city-state two years later. With overwhelming parliamentary control at every election, Lee oversaw Singapore's transformation from a British crown colony with a natural deep harbour to a developed economy. In the process, he forged a system of meritocratic effective and incorrupt government and civil service. Many of his policies are now taught at the Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy. Lee eschewed populist policies in favour of long-term economic planning, he championed meritocracy and multiracialism as governing principles, making English the common language to integrate its immigrant society and to facilitate trade with the West, whilst mandating bilingualism in schools to preserve students' mother tongue and ethnic identity.
His rule was criticised for curtailing civil liberties and bringing libel suits against political opponents. He argued that such disciplinary measures were necessary for political stability which, together with rule of law, were essential for economic progress, famously saying:Anybody who decides to take me on needs to put on knuckle-dusters. If you think you can hurt me more than I can hurt you, try. There is no other way. On 23 March 2015, Lee Kuan Yew died of pneumonia, at 91. In a week of national mourning, 1.7 million residents and guests paid tribute to him at his lying-in-state at Parliament House and at community tribute sites around the island. Lee was a fourth-generation Singaporean of ethnic Chinese ancestry of Hakka and Peranakan descent, his Hakka great-grandfather, Lee Bok Boon, born in 1846, emigrated from Dabu County, China, to Singapore in 1863. He married a shopkeeper's daughter, Seow Huan Nio, but returned to China in 1882, leaving behind his wife and three children, he died just two years after his return.
Lee Kuan Yew's grandfather Lee Hoon Leong, was born in Singapore in 1871. He was educated in English at Raffles Institution, graduated with the top mark among Malay and other Singaporean students in the school. Lee Hoon Leong worked as a dispenser, an unqualified pharmacist, as a purser on a steamship of the Heap Eng Moh Shipping Line owned by a Chinese Indonesian businessman, Oei Tiong Ham. While working as a purser, Lee Hoon Leong, aged 26, married 16-year-old Ko Liem Nio, an Indonesian Peranakan, in Semarang, Dutch East Indies, it was an arranged marriage, as was the custom. Both families were middle-class, the bride and groom were both English-educated. Lee Hoon Leong's maternal grandfather owned the Katong market, a few rubber estates and houses at Orchard Road. Lee Hoon Leong became managing director of the Heap Eng Moh Steamship Company Ltd. Lee Hoon Leong had two wives, common at that time, fathered five daughters and three sons, his son Lee Chin Koon was educated in English too. He married Chua Jim Neo, a Peranakan, who gave birth to Lee Kuan Yew, their first child, in 1923, in Singapore.
Lee Kuan Yew had three younger brothers: Dennis Lee Kim Yew, Freddy Lee Thiam Yew and Dr Lee Suan Yew. Like Lee Kuan Yew, his brother Dennis read law at the University of Cambridge, they set up a law firm, Lee & Lee. Edmund W. Barker, Lee's close friend joined the law firm. Lee and Barker left the law firm to enter politics. Lee's brother Freddy became a stockbroker. Lee Kuan Yew's grandfathers' wealth declined during the Great Depression. However, his father had a secure job as a shopkeeper at Shell, where he was promoted to depot manager and provided with a chauffeured car and house, his aunt, Lee Choo Neo, was the first female doctor to practice in Singapore. Lee Kuan Yew once described his father as a man who affected his family negatively due to his nasty temper, Lee Kuan Yew learned from a young age to keep his temper in check. Lee's English-educated parents named him'Kuan Yew', which stands for'light and brightness', with an alternate meaning'bringing great glory to one's ancestors', his paternal grandfather gave him the
Ministry of National Security of Azerbaijan
The Azerbaijan Ministry of National Security was an intelligence agency within the cabinet of Azerbaijan. The MNS was a central executive authority that carried out the competencies designated to it by the legislation of the Republic of Azerbaijan in the field of obtaining and analyzing information about foreign affairs, individuals; the MNS carried out intelligence, counter-intelligence, protection of state secrets, preventing and detection of crimes. On 14 December 2015, President Ilham Aliyev signed a decree dissolving the ministry and creating a National Security Service with domestic duties and a foreign intelligence service. Ministry of National Security of Azerbaijan was established on the material-technical and personnel basis of the Soviet Committee of State Security on November 1, 1991. Within a short period of time, representatives of other nationalities had left the Ministry and Azerbaijan, the process of staffing Ministry only by the national specialists had begun. Not only the name and the personnel of the security body had changed, but primary change the Ministry faced was its mission and duties.
The Ministry was guided by the Constitution of the Republic of Azerbaijan, the laws of the Republic of Azerbaijan, the decrees of President, the decisions and decrees of the Cabinet of Ministers, the international treaties of which Azerbaijan was a part, its statute, other normative-legal acts of the MNS. The MNS headquarters were in the following cities: Baku Ganja Nakhchivan In 2008, the MNS arrested a dozen of Al-Qaeda members who were involved in terrorist attack on Abu Bakr Mosque; the MNS has ties to several foreign intelligence agencies including National Intelligence Organization and others. Politics of Azerbaijan Terrorism in Azerbaijan Official site of Ministry of National Security Regulations Extract
Security and Intelligence Agency
The Security and Intelligence Agency is the Croatian security and intelligence service founded in 2006 upon the passing of the Security and Intelligence System of the Republic of Croatia Act and by combining the former Counterintelligence Agency, the Intelligence Agency which both ceased to operate. The current Director of SOA, appointed with the consent of the President Kolinda Grabar-Kitarović and the Prime Minister Tihomir Orešković is Daniel Markić. During the 1990s the central body for conducting national security was Office for the Protection of Constitutional Order, established by the President Franjo Tuđman on May 27, 1991. UZUP was decommissioned on March 21, 1993 when the National Security Office was established by the second President's decision. UNS was put into the legal framework on May 17, 1995 by the enactment of the Law on the National Security Office. Goals and tasks of the intelligence community in Croatia were determined by the Joint National Security Committee and the Intelligence Community Coordination Committee.
The task of SONS was directed and coordinated by the work of government ministries in matters of national security, while KOOZ was responsible for the implementation of tasks received from SONS. The core of the intelligence community consisted of four departments that were involved in intelligence work: Croatian Intelligence Service Service for the Protection of the Constitutional Order of the Ministry of Interior Security Intelligence Service of the Ministry of Defense Intelligence Directorate of the General Staff of the Armed Forces Croatian President was giving guidelines for the work of UNS and the Croatian intelligence community; the director of UNS and state ministers were determining tasks of the services for which they were responsible. KOOZ was preparing the annual plan of the intelligence community which consisted of projects and operative actions in which performance had to be attend by two or more services. SONS supervised its execution. Apart from the above-mentioned UNS and other agencies, a wider range of security system consisted of the criminal police, military police, customs service, the financial police, whose representatives could call the session of KOOZ.
In 2002 Croatian Parliament passed a Law on Security Services of the Republic of Croatia and the National Security Strategy of the Republic of Croatia. The law established three security services: Intelligence Agency Counterintelligence Agency Military Security Agency In order to achieve cooperation between the President and the Croatian Government in guiding the work of the security services as well as to harmonize the operational work of the security services, the Council for National Security established the Council for Coordination of Security Agencies. Special Office of the Council for National Security was established to perform professional and administrative work for the National Security Council and the Council for Coordination of Security Agencies. Security and intelligence system in Croatia was reformed in mid-2006 by adopting the Law on Security and Intelligence System; the law established two security services that are still active today: Security and Intelligence Agency Military Security and Intelligence Agency.
SOA is focused on prevention of activities or actions undertaken to endanger the constitutional order, endangering the security of state bodies and national interests by: terrorism and other forms of organized violence, intelligence activities of foreign intelligence agencies and individuals, extremist organization and activities of groups and individuals, endangering the safety of the highest state officials and protected facilities and space and economic crime, unauthorized access to protected information and communication systems of government bodies, disclosure of classified information by heads and employees of state bodies, scientific institutions and legal persons with public authority, other activities aimed at threatening national security. SOA gathers, analyzes and evaluates data of political, scientific-technological and nature pertaining to the state, organizations and economic alliances and people those who indicate intentions, capabilities and hidden secret activities threatening national security, or data, of importance to national security of the Republic of Croatia.
Croatian security and intelligence system Security and Intelligence Agency
The Straits Times
The Straits Times is an English-language daily broadsheet newspaper based in Singapore owned by Singapore Press Holdings. Singapore Press Holdings claims that the print and digital editions of the newspaper have a daily average circulation of 383,600, it was established on 15 July 1845 as The Straits Times and Singapore Journal of Commerce, There are specific Myanmar and Brunei editions published, with a newsprint circulation of 5,000 and 2,500 respectively. The Straits Times was started by an Armenian, Catchick Moses. Moses's friend, Martyrose Apcar, had intended to start a local paper, but met with financial difficulties. To fulfil his friend's dream, Moses appointed Robert Carr Woods as editor. On 15 July 1845, The Straits Times was launched as an eight-page weekly, published at 7 Commercial Square using a hand-operated press; the subscription fee was Sp.$1.75 per month. In September 1846, he sold the paper to Robert Woods. On 20 February 1942, five days after the British had surrendered to the Japanese, The Straits Times became known as The Shonan Times and The Syonan Shimbun.
This name change lasted until 5 September 1945. During the early days of Singaporean self-governance, the paper had an uneasy relationship with some politicians, including the leaders of the People's Action Party. Editors were warned that any reportage that may threaten the merger between the Malayan Federation and Singapore may result in subversion charges, that they may be detained without trial under the Preservation of Public Security Ordinance Act; the Straits Times functions with 16 bureaus and special correspondents in major cities worldwide. The paper has five sections: the main section consist of Asian and international news, with sub-sections of columns and editorials and the Forum Page; the Home section consist of local news and topics on Education for Monday and Body for Tuesday, Digital for Wednesday, Community for Thursday and Science for Friday. There are a sports and finance section, a classified ads and job listing section and a lifestyle, style and the arts section titled "Life!".
The newspaper publishes special editions for primary and secondary schools in Singapore. The primary-school version contains a special pull-out, titled "Little Red Dot" and the secondary-school version contains a pull-out titled "In". A separate edition The Sunday Times is published on Sundays. Owing to political sensitivities, The Straits Times is not sold in neighboring Malaysia, the Malaysian newspaper New Straits Times is not sold in Singapore; the ban was imposed before independence in Malaysia. A specific Myanmar and Brunei edition of this paper was launched on 25 Mar 2014 and 30 October 2014, it is published daily with local newspaper printers on licence with SPH. This paper is distributed on ministries, major hotels, airlines and supermarkets on major cities and target sales to local and foreign businessmen in both countries. Circulation of the Myanmar edition stands at 5,000 and 2,500 for the Brunei edition; the Brunei edition is sold at B$1 per copy and an All-in-One Straits Times package consisting of the print edition and full digital access via online and smartphones, will be introduced in Brunei.
Launched on 1 January 1994, The Straits Times' website was free of charge and granted access to all the sections and articles found in the print edition. On 1 January 2005, the online version began requiring registration and after a short period became a paid-access-only site. Only people who subscribe to the online edition can read all the articles on the Internet, including the updated "Latest News" section. A free section, featuring a selection of news stories, is available at the site. Regular podcast and twice-daily—mid-day and evening updates—radio-news bulletins are available for free online; the Straits Times School Pocket Money Fund was initiated on October 1, 2000 by The Straits Times, to heighten public awareness of the plight of children from low-income families who were attending school without proper breakfast, or pocket money to sustain their day in school. The aim is to alleviate the financial burden faced by parents in providing for their children's education. At the same time the funds will help children who are facing difficulties in remaining in school to stay on.
The Straits Times Media Club is a youth programme to encourage youth readership and interest in news and current affairs. Schools will have to subscribe for at least 500 copies, will receive their papers every Monday. A youth newspaper, IN, is slotted in together with the main paper for the students; the newspaper is sometimes referred as "the mouthpiece" of the ruling party or at least "mostly pro-government" and "close to the government". Chua Chin Hon ST’s bureau chief for the United States, was quoted as saying that SPH’s “editors have all been groomed as pro-government supporters and are careful to ensure that reporting of local events adheres to the official line” in a 2009 US diplomatic cable leaked by WikiLeaks. Past chairpersons of Singapore Press Holdings have been public servants. Current SPH Chairman Lee Boon Yang is a former PAP cabinet minister who took over from Tony Tan, former Deputy Prime Minister. Many current ST management and senior editors have close links to the government as well.
SPH CEO Alan Chan was a former top civil servant and Principal Private Secretary of Senior Minister Lee Kuan Yew. Current editor-in-chief Warren Fernandez was considered as a PAP candidate for the 2006 elections. In his memoir OB Markers: My Straits Times Story, former edi
State Security Committee of the Republic of Belarus
The State Security Committee of the Republic of Belarus is the national intelligence agency of Belarus. Along with its counterparts in Transnistria and South Ossetia, it is one of the few intelligence agencies that kept the Russian name "KGB" after the dissolution of the Soviet Union, albeit it is lost in translation when written in Belarusian, it is the Belarusian successor organization to the KGB of the Soviet Union. Felix Edmundovich Dzerzhinsky, who founded the Cheka – the original Bolshevik intelligence police – was born in what is now Belarus and remains an important figure in the state ideology of Belarus under president Alexander Lukashenko as well as a patron of the KGB of Belarus, it is governed by the law About State Security Bodies of the Republic of Belarus. Major General Vadim Zaitsev, in charge of Lukashenko's personal security, was appointed its leader in July 2008, his tenure lasted until November 2012 and he was replaced by Valery Vakulchik. The KGB is formally controlled by the president of Alexander Lukashenko.
According to human rights organisations, the United States, the European Union, the KGB and its senior leadership play a key role in human rights violations and political repressions in Belarus. The KGB has maintained both the name, the symbols and some of the repressive functions of its Soviet predecessor, the KGB of the Soviet Union. Several dozens former Chairmen and senior officers of the KGB of Belarus have been included in the sanctions lists of the European Union and the United States following the brutal crackdown of peaceful protests that followed the falsified presidential elections of 2006 and 2010. Against most of them, the sanctions have been lifted in 2016 following an improvement of the Belarus–European Union relations. Stepan Sukhorenko, Chairman of the KGB in 2005–2007, including during the Belarusian presidential election, 2006. On EU sanctions list in 2006–2016. Vadim Zaitsev, Chairman of the KGB. According to the decision of the European Union, he is “responsible for transforming the KGB into the main organ of repression of civil society and of the democratic opposition” and for state propaganda accusing the protesters of bringing weapons to their rally.”
According to the EU, Zaitsev “personally threatened the lives and health of the wife and child of former presidential candidate, Andrei Sannikov. He is the main initiator of orders for unlawful harassment of democratic opposition, the torture of political opponents and the mistreatment of prisoners.” Vasily Dementei, First Deputy Chairman of the KGB. Igor Andreevich Bakhmatov, former Deputy Chairman of the KGB in charge of the staff and the organisation of their tasks, responsible for the repressive work of the KGB against civil society and democratic opposition. Vasili Ivanovich Dementey, former First deputy Chairman of the KGB. Viktor Pavlovich Vegera, First Deputy Chairman of the KGB. Leonid Nikolaevich Dedkov, Deputy Chairman of the KGB. Nikolai Zinovievich Smolenski, former Deputy Chairman of the KGB. Nikolai Konstantinovich Svorob, former Deputy Chairman of the KGB. Petr Vladimirovich Tretiak, former Deputy Chairman of the KGB and Member of the Commission of the Security Council on radio frequencies.
Ivan Stanislavovich Tertel, Deputy Chairman of the KGB, in charge of economic crime and the fight against corruption. Colonel Orlov, Alexandr Vladimirovich, head of the KGB detention centre in Minsk: according to the EU, he was responsible for "cruel and degrading treatment or punishment of detainees" in the weeks and months after the crackdown on the protests in Minsk on 19 December 2010, on the eve of the 2010 presidential election, he has been on EU sanctions list between 2011 and 2016 Colonel Chernyshev, Oleg Anatolievich. He is accused of falsifying evidence and using threats in order to extort confessions from opposition activists in the KGB detention centre in Minsk after 19 December 2010. According to the EU, he was directly responsible for the use of “cruel and degrading treatment or punishment and for denying the right to a fair trial” Yaruta, Viktor Gueorguevich, Head of the KGB Board on State Communications Maslakov, Valeri Anatolievich, Head of the KGB Board of Intelligence Shugaev, Sergei Mikhailovich, Head of the KGB Counter-Intelligence Division and former Deputy Head of the KGB Counter-Intelligence Board Sanko, Ivan Ivanovich, senior investigator of the KGB Tolstashov, Aleksandr Olegovich, Head of the KGB Board on Protection of the Constitutional Order and Fight Against Terrorism Voropaev, Igor Grigorievich, former Head of the KGB Board on