Sedan (automobile)

A sedan, or saloon, is a passenger car in a three-box configuration with separate compartments for engine and cargo. Sedan's first recorded use as a name for a car body was in 1912; the name comes from a 17th-century development of a litter, the sedan chair, a one-person enclosed box with windows and carried by porters. Variations of the sedan style of body include: close-coupled sedan, club sedan, convertible sedan, fastback sedan, hardtop sedan, notchback sedan and sedanet/sedanette; the current definition of a sedan is a car with a closed body with the engine and cargo in separate compartments. This broad definition does not differentiate sedans from various other car body styles, but in practice the typical characteristics of sedans are: a B-pillar that supports the roof two rows of seats a three-box design with the engine at the front and the cargo area at the rear a less steeply sloping roofline than a coupé, which results in increased headroom for rear passenger and a less sporting appearance.

A rear interior volume of at least 33 cu ft It is sometimes suggested that sedans must have four doors. However, several sources state that a sedan can have four doors. In addition, terms such as sedan and coupé have been more loosely interpreted by car manufacturers since 2010; when a manufacturer produces two-door sedan and four-door sedan versions of the same model, the shape and position of the greenhouse on both versions may be identical, with only the B-pillar positioned further back to accommodate the longer doors on the two-door versions. A sedan chair, a sophisticated litter, was an enclosed box with windows used to transport one seated person. Porters at the front and rear carried the chair with horizontal poles. Litters date back to long before ancient Egypt and China. Sedan chairs were developed in the 1630s. Etymologists suggest the name of the chair probably came through Italian dialects from the Latin sedere meaning to sit; the first recorded use of sedan for an automobile body occurred in 1912 when the Studebaker Four and Studebaker Six models were marketed as sedans.

There were enclosed automobile bodies before 1912. Long before that time the same enclosed but horse-drawn carriages were known as a "brougham" in the United Kingdom, "berline" in France and "berlina" Italy, it is sometimes stated that the 1899 Renault Voiturette Type B was the first sedan, since it is the first known car to be produced with a roof. However, a sedan is considered to be a fixed roof car with at least 4 seats. Based on this definition, the earliest sedan was the 1911 Speedwell, manufactured in the United States. In American English and Latin American Spanish, the term sedan is used. In British English, a car of this configuration is called a saloon. Hatchback sedans are known as hatchbacks. An equivalent term for Sports sedan in the United Kingdom is "super saloon". In Australia and New Zealand sedan is now predominantly used, they were simply cars. In the 21st century saloon is still found in the long-established names of particular motor races. In other languages, sedans are known as berlina though they may include hatchbacks.

These names, like sedan, all come from forms of passenger transport used before the advent of automobiles. In German, a sedan is called a limousine is a Stretch-Limousine. In the United States two-door sedan models were punningly called "Tudor". In the United States notchback sedan distinguishes models with a horizontal trunklid; the term is only referred to in the marketing when it is necessary to distinguish between two sedan body styles of the same model range. Several sedans have a fastback profile, but instead of a trunk lid, the entire back of the vehicle lifts up. Examples include the Chevrolet Malibu Maxx, Audi A5 Sportback and Tesla Model S; the names "hatchback" and "sedan" are used to differentiate between body styles of the same model. Therefore the term "hatchback sedan" is not used, to avoid confusion. There have been many sedans with a fastback style. Hardtop sedans were a popular body style in the United States from the 1950s to the 1970s. Hardtops are manufactured without a B-pillar leaving uninterrupted open space or, when closed, glass along the side of the car.

The top was intended to look like a convertible's top but it was fixed and made of hard material that did not fold. All manufacturers in the United States from the early 1950s into the 1970s provided at least a 2-door hardtop model in their range and, if their engineers could manage it, a 4-door hardtop as well; the lack of side-bracing demanded a strong and heavy chassis frame to combat unavoidable flexing. The pillarless design was available in four-door models using unibody construction. For example, Chrysler moved to unibody designs for most of its models in 1960 and American Motors offered four-door sedans, as well a four-door station wagon from 1958 to 1960 Ambassador. In 1973 the US government passed Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard 216 creating a standard roof strength test to measure the integrity of roof structure in motor vehicles to come into effect some years later. Production of hardtop sedan body style ended with the 1978 Chrysl

Battle of Piotrków Trybunalski

The Battle of Piotrków Trybunalski was a battle in the Invasion of Poland from the 5 to 6 September 1939, which involved Polish and German tank formations. The core of the Polish force consisted of most of "Prusy" Army's Northern Group; the army, created as the main operational reserve of Polish commander in chief Marshall Edward Rydz-Śmigły was the last to be mobilised in the summer of 1939. Intended as a reserve of Łódź Army and Kraków Army, the Prusy Army was to support its neighbours and relieve them once the main German attacks are slowed down. However, the Battle of the Border did not gain the Poles enough time to mobilise the reserves. While most of Polish Army had been mobilised prior to 1 September 1939, on that date many sub-units of Prusy Army were still being formed or transported. By 4 September 1939, when the German forces broke through the overstretched Polish defences, the Prusy army was far from battle-ready, its Northern Group at that date consisted of 29th Infantry Division and Wileńska Cavalry Brigade, with 19th Infantry Division still being formed in the forests to the north-east of Piotrków Trybunalski while the 13th Infantry Division was still waiting for some of its sub-units near the railway hub of Koluszki and did not become available until 6 September.

The army was strengthened by a mobile reserve formed by the 1st Light Tank Battalion stationed between Opoczno and Końskie, the 81st Motorised Sappers Battalion. Apart from units of the Prusy Army, the Polish side included a number of smaller units from Łódź Army. In the city of Piotrków Trybunalski itself the 146th Infantry Regiment was being mobilised for the 44th Reserve Infantry Division and was dispatched to the front as part of an improvised battle group under Col. Ludwik Czyżewski. In addition, elements of the Wołyńska Cavalry Brigade and the 2nd Legions' Infantry Regiment of the 2nd Legions Infantry Division took part in the battle as part of Col. Czyżewski's group; the German force fighting in the battle consisted of the entire XVI Panzer Corps. The unit, part of German 10th Army, was the strongest Panzer corps in the Wehrmacht and on 1 September 1939 included between 616 and 650 tanks of all types; the XVI Corps included the 1st and 4th Panzer Divisions as well as the 14th and 31st Infantry Divisions.

As the Germans advanced through Silesia, the 4th and 1st Panzer Divisions headed towards Piotrkow. The Polish 19th Infantry Division tried to counter-attack on 5 September, but there were many gaps in their lines. However, the Polish 2nd Tank Battalion entered the defense of the city and their 7TP tanks were successful in destroying 17 Panzers, 2 self-propelled guns and 14 armoured cars, with the loss of only 2 tanks. However, there were too few Polish tanks and could not prevent the Germans from breaking through the gap between Army Lodz and Army Kraków with help from Army Prusy; that evening, Marshal Rydz-Smigly ordered the Polish forces to withdraw to the east bank of the Vistula

List of Royal Holloway, University of London people

The following is a list of Royal Holloway, University of London people, including alumni, members of faculty and fellows. It is not exhaustive. Royal Holloway College, Bedford College and RHUL have over 80,000 alumni. Chris Aldridge, British radio newsreader Debra Barr Apprentice candidate, Series 5 David Benson, English comedian and actor Peter Bramley, British actor and theatre director Mark Carwardine, Writer, wildlife photographer, TV and radio presenter Candace Chong Mui Ngam, Hong Kong playwright Richard Clarke, English radio presenter James Dagwell, British journalist Isabel Fay, English comedy writer and character comedian Emma Freud OBE, English broadcaster and cultural commentator Pippa Guard, English actress Janice Hadlow, controller of BBC Two Lenny Henry, Television presenter Alex Hyndman British newsreader Robin Ince, English comedian Anthony Jabre, film producer and financier Karena Johnson, English theatre director Roxanne McKee, British actress and model John Moloney and comedy writer Mary Nightingale, British newsreader Jeremy Northam, actor Simon Nye, English comic television writer Lucy Owen, Welsh newsreader Ben Richardson, British cinematographer Mark Strong English actor Francis Wheen British journalist and broadcaster Roger Wright Controller of BBC Radio 3 and director of the BBC Proms Tahmima Anam, Bangladeshi-born writer and novelist Ivy Compton-Burnett, English novelist Richmal Crompton, English writer of Just William George Eliot, British novelist Jane Gardam OBE FRSL, novelist Rosemary Manning, British author Gerda Mayer, English poet Jojo Moyes, British novelist Redell Olsen, poet and academic Sophie Robinson, contemporary English poet Miranda Seymour, novelist Jacqueline Simpson, British author and folklorist Carol Townend English author Richard Baker, British composer and conductor Susan Bullock CBE, English soprano Jonathan Cole, British composer Tansy Davies, British composer Example, British singer and songwriter Sarah Fox English operatic soprano Geoff Hannan, British composer Dame Felicity Lott DBE, English soprano Paul Newland, British composer Ewan Pearson, British music producer Andrew Poppy, British composer and music producer China Soul American-British singer/songwriter Joby Talbot British composer KT Tunstall Scottish singer and songwriter John Scott Whiteley York Minster organist and composer David Bellamy OBE Botanist, environmentalist and broadcaster Martin Buck FRS microbiologist John B.

Cosgrave, Irish mathematician Jackie Hunter chief executive BBSRC Dame Kathleen Lonsdale DBE FRS, crystallographer Rosalind Pitt-Rivers FRS biochemist Helen Porter FRS botanist, first female professor of Imperial College London Eva Germaine Rimington Taylor, English geographer, historian of science Derek Yalden English zoologist, reader at the University of Manchester Sophie Christiansen, gold medal winner, Paralympics equestrian events Jessica Eddie, British rower, Olympic silver medalist Helene Raynsford, British paralympic rower and gold medallist Andy Sheridan, Rugby Union, Sale Sharks and England Joe Saward, British Formula One journalist Alex Lewington English rugby player Theo Brophy-Clews English rugby player The following is a list of notable office-holders and other teachers or researchers: List of Principals of Royal Holloway, University of London