A golf course is the grounds where the game of golf is played. It comprises a series of holes, each consisting of a teeing ground, a fairway, the rough and other hazards, a green with a flagstick and hole. A standard round of golf consists of 18 holes. Most courses contain 18 holes. Par-3 courses consist of 18 holes all of which have a par of three strokes. Many older courses are links coastal. Courses are private and municipally owned, feature a pro shop. Many private courses are found at country clubs. Although a specialty within landscape design or landscape architecture, golf course architecture is considered a separate field of study; some golf course architects become celebrities in their own right, such as Robert Trent Jones, Jr.. The field is represented by the American Society of Golf Course Architects, the European Institute of Golf Course Architects, the Society of Australian Golf Course Architects, although many of the finest golf course architects in the world choose not to become members of any such group, as associations of architects are not government-sanctioned licensing bodies, but private groups.
While golf courses follow the original landscape, some modification is unavoidable. This is the case as new courses are more to be sited on less optimal land. Bunkers and sand traps are always artificial, although other hazards may be natural; the layout of a course follows certain traditional principles, such as the number of holes, their par values, the number of holes of each par value per course. It is preferable to arrange greens to be close to the tee box of the next playable hole, to minimize travel distance while playing a round, to vary the mix of shorter and longer holes. Combined with the need to package all the fairways within what is a compact square or rectangular plot of land, the fairways of a course tend to form an oppositional tiling pattern. In complex areas, two holes may share the same tee box, fairway, or green, it is common for separate tee-off points to be positioned for men and amateurs, each one lying closer to the green. Eighteen-hole courses are traditionally broken down into a "front 9" and a "back 9".
On older courses, the holes may be laid out in one long loop and ending at the clubhouse, thus the front 9 is referred to on the scorecard as "out" and the back 9 as "in". More recent courses tend to be designed with the front 9 and the back 9 each constituting a separate loop beginning and ending at the clubhouse; this is for the convenience of the players and the club, as it is easier to play just a 9-hole round, if preferred, or stop at the clubhouse for a snack between the front 9 and the back 9. A successful design is as visually pleasing. With golf being a form of outdoor recreation, the strong designer is an adept student of natural landscaping who understands the aesthetic cohesion of vegetation, water bodies, grasses and woodwork, among other elements. Most golf courses have only par-3, −4, −5 holes, although some courses include par-6 holes; the Ananti CC and the Satsuki golf course in Sano, Japan are the only courses with par 7 holes. Typical distances for the various holes from standard tees are as follows.
Men Par 3 – 250 yards and below Par 4 – 251–450 yards Par 5 – 451–690 yards Women Par 3 – 210 yards and below Par 4 – 211–400 yards Par 5 – 401–575 yards Harder or easier courses may have longer- or shorter-distance holes, respectively. Terrain can be a factor, so that a long downhill hole might be rated par 4, but a shorter uphill or treacherous hole might be rated par 5. Tournament players will play from a longer-distance tee box, behind the standard men's tee, which increases the typical distance of each par; this compensates for the longer distance pro players can put on tee and fairway shots as compared to the average "bogey golfer". The game of golf is played in what is called a "round"; this consists of playing a set number of holes in an order predetermined by the course. When playing on an 18-hole course, each hole is played once. To begin a hole, players start by striking the ball off a tee. Playing the ball off a tee can only be used on the first shot of every hole although it is not required to use a tee on the first shot.
Tees are a small wooden or plastic peg used to hold the ball up, so that when hit by the club the ball travels as far as possible. The first section of every hole consists of tee-box. There is more than one available box where a player places his ball, each one a different distance from the hole to provide differing difficulty; the teeing ground is as level as feasible, with mown grass similar to that of a putting green, most are raised from the surrounding fairway. Each tee box has
Brandt Newell Snedeker is an American professional golfer who plays on the PGA Tour. He won the 2012 FedEx Cup with a victory in the season-ending Tour Championship at East Lake Golf Club. After this victory, he moved into the top ten of the Official World Golf Ranking for the first time in his career. In February 2013, after winning the AT&T Pebble Beach National Pro-Am, he moved to a career high of number four in the world. On August 16, 2018, he shot the tenth sub-60 round in the history of the PGA Tour, firing an opening round 59 at the Wyndham Championship. Snedeker was born in Tennessee to Larry and Candice Snedeker, he was introduced to golf by his maternal grandmother, who managed a golf course in West Plains, Missouri. He attended Harding Academy, Montgomery Bell Academy and Vanderbilt University, where he was initiated into Kappa Alpha Order by the Chi Chapter, he won the U. S. Amateur Public Links in 2003 before turning professional in 2004. Snedeker played on the Nationwide Tour from 2004 until 2006, when he finished 9th on the tour money list after victories at the Showdown at Somerby and the Permian Basin Charity Golf Classic, thus earning a PGA Tour spot for 2007.
While on the Nationwide Tour, Snedeker recorded two wins, two runners-up, 12 tops 10s and earned $549,564. Snedeker garnered immediate attention in January 2007 after shooting a course record equaling 61 in the first round of the Buick Invitational, he led the tournament by three strokes after 36 holes but due to a 74 in the third round he finished in third place. He made eight consecutive cuts starting at the Bob Hope Chrysler Classic in January and ending at the Arnold Palmer Invitational in March. In that span he recorded three top-25 finishes. In four tournaments in April, he made two cuts including a finish of T16 at the Verizon Heritage. From May to early June, Snedeker made the cut in two of the four tournaments he entered, including a T12 finish at the prestigious Players Championship. Snedeker went on a hot streak starting at the Stanford St. Jude Championship on June 10, he finished in a tie for fifth at that tournament and by doing so surpassed $1 million in earnings on tour in 2007.
He finished in a tie for 23rd at the U. S. Open the following week. In early July he recorded two top-10 finishes, including a tie for 10th at the Buick Open; this finish put Snedeker into the top 100 of the Official World Golf Ranking for the first time. In July, Snedeker finished in a tie for 7th at the Canadian Open. A fortnight he played in the PGA Championship for the first time and finished in a tie for 18th place. Snedeker picked up his first PGA Tour victory the next week at the Wyndham Championship in North Carolina; this win propelled him to a world ranking of 55th. The Wyndham Championship was the last regular season event before the FedEx Cup Playoffs. Snedeker entered the playoffs in 9th place in the point standings, he played in all four playoff events, recording finishes of missed cut, T47, T14 and T29. Snedeker finished in 20th place in the final points standings, which earned him a bonus check of $225,000. Due to his fine debut performance on tour, Snedeker was named the PGA Tour Rookie of the Year for 2007.
He entered 29 PGA Tour events in 2007. He had a third-place finish, six top-10 finishes and 13 top-25 finishes, he earned $2,836,643 which put him in 17th on the final money list and he finished 2007 ranked 47th in the world rankings. Snedeker began the 2008 season with a tied for 10th finish at the Mercedes-Benz Championship, he finished tied for 9th at the FBR Open in February and tied for 8th at the PODS Championship in March. Snedeker recorded his first top-10 in a major at the 2008 Masters, he went into the final round in second place, two strokes behind eventual winner Trevor Immelman but Snedeker shot a final round 77. Following his third-place finish at the 2008 Masters Tournament, Snedeker reached a new high of 32nd in the world rankings. Snedeker finished in the top-10 for the second time in a major at the 2008 U. S. Open where he finished tied for 9th. For the rest of the year Snedeker struggled to maintain his early season consistency and did not record another top-10 finish for the season.
Snedeker made 19 of 26 cuts on the year and recorded five top-10s, seven top-25s and earned $1,531,442 while finishing 34th in the FedEx Cup standings. Snedeker struggled in 2009, making only 14 of 26 cuts and failing to make the cut in 9 of his first 12 tournaments, his play improved in the summer as he had two consecutive top-5 finishes, a tie for 5th place at the AT&T National, a tie for 2nd place at the John Deere Classic. These were followed by two more top-5 finishes at the RBC Canadian Open and the Wyndham Championship. Despite this mid season form he missed the cut in all four of the years majors. One factor contributing to Snedeker's uneven play in 2009 was his health, he missed seven consecutive tournaments in the middle of the season due to a rib injury. Snedeker finished the season 55th on the money list. Snedeker started the 2010 season well with a top-10 finish at the Bob Hope Classic which he followed up with a runner-up finish at the Farmers Insurance Open. Snedeker played throughout the early season making eight consecutive cuts through to April.
However he missed five of his next seven cuts and did not record a single top-25 finish until the U. S. Open where Snedeker finished in a tie for 8th place at Pebble Beach Golf Links, his best finish in the U. S. Open. For the rest of season he played and recorded two more top-10s at the Wyndham Championship and the end of season playoff event the Deutsche Bank Championship. Snedeker ended the year 48th on the money list. Snedeker had an inconsistent start to the 2011 season missing his first cut
In golf, par is the predetermined number of strokes that a scratch golfer should require to complete a hole, a round, or a tournament. Pars are the central component of stroke play, the most common kind of play in professional golf tournaments; the term is used in golf-like sports such as disc golf, with the same meaning. The length of each hole from the tee placement to the pin determines par values for each hole. Invariably, holes are assigned par values between three and five strokes, which includes the drive and two putts. For a casual player from the middle tees, a par-three hole will be 100–250 yards from the tee to the pin. Par-four holes are 250–470 yards, but tournament players will encounter par-four holes 500 yards or more, as it is common for short par-five holes for normal play to be turned into par-four holes in championship play. Par-five holes are 470–600 yards, but in the modern game holes of over 600 yards are becoming more common in championship play. Other relevant factors in setting the par for the hole include the terrain and obstacles that may require a golfer to take more shots.
Some golf courses feature par-sixes and rarely, par-sevens, but the latter are not recognised by the United States Golf Association. Typical championship golf courses have par values of 72, comprising four par-threes, ten par-fours, four par-fives. Championship course par can be as high as 73 to as low as 69. Most 18-hole courses not designed for championships have a par close to 72. Courses with par above 73 are rare. Courses built on small parcels of land will be designed as "Par-3 Courses" in which every hole is a par-three. A golfer's score is compared with the par score. If a course has a par of 72 and a golfer takes 75 strokes to complete the course, the reported score is +3, or "three-over-par" and takes three shots more than par to complete the course. If a golfer takes 70 strokes, the reported score is −2, or "two-under-par". Tournament scores are reported by totalling scores relative to par in each round. If each of the four rounds has a par of 72, the tournament par would be 288. For example, a golfer could record a 70 in the first round, a 72 in the second round, a 73 in the third round, a 69 in the fourth round.
That would give a tournament score of 284, or "four-under-par". Scores on each hole are reported in the same way. Names are given to scores on holes relative to par. Bogey means one shot more than par. "Going round in bogey" meant an overall par score, starting at the Great Yarmouth Golf Club in 1890, based on the phrase "bogey man" and a popular music hall song Here Comes the Bogey Man. Notionally, players competed against Colonel Bogey, this gave the title to a 1914 marching tune, Colonel Bogey March; as golf became more standardised in the United States, par scores were tightened and recreational golfers found themselves scoring over par, with bogey changing meaning to one-over-par. Bogeys are common in professional play, common for many casual and club players. More than one shot over par is known as a double-bogey, triple-bogey, so on. However, it is more common to hear scores higher than a triple bogey referred to by the number of strokes rather than by name. For example, a player having taken eight shots to negotiate a par-three, would be far more to refer to it as an "eight" or being "five-over-par", rather than a "quintuple-bogey".
Double-bogeys and worse scores are uncommon for top performers in professional play. It is considered somewhat noteworthy. Scoring four bogey-free rounds in a tournament is rare. Examples are Lee Trevino at the 1974 Greater New Orleans Open; each of them won the tournament except Piñero. Par means scoring even; the golfer has taken as many strokes as the hole's par number. In theory, pars are achieved with the remaining shots being used to reach the green. Reaching the green in two strokes fewer than the hole's par is called achieving a "green in regulation". For example, to reach the green of a par-five hole in regulation, the player would take three strokes, with the other two strokes allocated for putting the ball into the hole. Par derives its name from the Latin for equal. Birdie means scoring one under par; this expression was coined at the Atlantic City Country Club in Northfield, New Jersey. According to a story, passed down, one day in 1899, three golfers, George Crump, William Poultney Smith, his brother Ab Smith, were playing together when Crump hit his second shot only inches from the cup on a par-four hole after his first shot had struck a bird in flight.
The Smith brothers exclaimed that Crump's shot was "a bird". Crump's short putt left him one-under-par for the hole, from that day, the three of them referred to such a score as a "birdie". In short order, the entire membership of the club began using the term; as the Atlantic City Country
BBC Sport is a department of the BBC North division providing national sports coverage for BBC Television and online. The BBC holds the television and radio UK broadcasting rights to several sports, broadcasting the sport live or alongside flagship analysis programmes such as Match of the Day, Test Match Special, Ski Sunday, Today at Wimbledon and Grandstand. Results and coverage is added to the BBC Sport Website and through the BBC Red Button interactive television service; the BBC has broadcast sport for several decades under individual programme names and coverage titles. Grandstand was one of the more notable Sport programmes, broadcasting sport since the programmes launch in 1958; the BBC first began to brand sport coverage as'BBC Sport' in 1988 for the 1988 Summer Olympics in Seoul, by introducing the programme with a short animation of a globe circumnavigated by four coloured rings. This practice continued throughout the next two decades. Upon the launch of the BBC News website in 1997, sport was included in the BBC's online presence for the first time.
In May 2007, the BBC Trust approved plans for several BBC departments, including BBC Sport, to be moved to a new development in Salford. The new development at MediaCityUK marks a major decentralisation of BBC departments from London and a key investment in the north of England where BBC spending in the region had been low; the department moved into Quay House, MediaCityUK in late 2011 and early 2012 with the first Sports bulletins being broadcast from the new BBC Sport Centre on 5 March 2012. In 2017, BBC Sport launched a new on-air identity, becoming the first BBC property to implement the broadcaster's new corporate typeface; the BBC shares the rights to the FIFA World Cup with ITV. A near equal split of group stage and knockout stage games are shown, including a semi-final and the final is shown on both networks; the BBC will broadcast all its matches from the 2018 World Cup in 4K UHD and VR to a limited number of viewers subject to bandwidth. The BBC shows highlights of the Premier League on Match of the Day, hosted by Gary Lineker since 1999.
Match of the Day 2 and Match of the Day 2 Extra, are presented by Mark Chapman. Dan Walker hosts Football Focus every Saturday lunchtime before Jason Mohammad presents Final Score every Saturday afternoon. Pundits for Match of the Day include Alan Shearer, Danny Murphy, Jermaine Jenas, Martin Keown and Ian Wright while commentators include Guy Mowbray, Steve Wilson, Jonathan Pearce, Steve Bower, Simon Brotherton, Alistair Mann, Martin Fisher, Mark Scott and John Roder; the BBC broadcasts live coverage of the FA Cup and will do so until 2021. BBC Sport holds the rights to broadcast the Wimbledon Tennis Championships and the Queen's Club Championships live on its television platforms; the Wimbledon contract has been held by the BBC since 1927 and the current contract lasts until 2024 making it the longest such contract in the world. The BBC produce over 900 hours of footage, distributed to broadcasters in 159 different countries. BBC Wimbledon coverage is presented by former British number one and 1976 French Open Champion Sue Barker.
Matches are broadcast live on BBC Two, the Red Button, or Online via the BBC Sport website. Highlights are shown on the long-running Today at Wimbledon, presented by Clare Balding, who replaced John Inverdale in 2015; the same year, the programme was renamed "Wimbledon 2day", with a new lighthearted magazine format, but after only one year, the format has been abandoned for 2016. Following on the trial which commenced with 2018 World Cup the BBC will broadcast all Centre Court matches from the 2018 Wimbledon Championships in 4K UHD via iPlayer. Commentators include Barry Davies, John McEnroe, Boris Becker, John Lloyd, Andy Roddick, Martina Navratilova, David Mercer, Nick Mullins, Jonathan Overend, Anne Keothavong, Virginia Wade, Sam Smith, Tracy Austin, Tim Henman, Andrew Castle, Lindsay Davenport, Pat Cash, John Inverdale, Chris Bradnam, Jamie Baker, Dan Lobb, Guy McCrea, Mark Petchey, Simon Reed, Matt Chilton, Peter Fleming, Elizabeth Smylie, Jo Durie, Louise Pleming, Andrew Cotter, Ronald McIntosh and Alison Mitchell.
Regular tournament weather updates are provided by Carol Kirkwood. The BBC broadcasts two traditional Grass warm up events in the fortnight before the Wimbledon Championships. First is the AEGON Championships from Queen's Club; the BBC has covered the tournament since 1979 and has a contract in place until 2024. Coverage is led by Sue Barker with commentary by Andrew Castle, Andrew Cotter, John Lloyd & Peter Fleming; the following week is the WTA AEGON International event from Eastbourne. In 2015, coverage was introduced by John Inverdale and Lee McKenzie with commentary from Andrew Cotter, Sam Smith, Chris Bradnam & Annabel Croft. Both events are shown on BBC Two; the BBC holds rights to show daily TV highlights from the Australian Open. Coverage is presented by Sue Barker with commentary from John Lloyd; the BBC has exclusive free to air TV rights for 8 singles matches from the ATP World Tour Finals which includes the semi final and the final. The BBC covered the event between 2009 and 2011, followed by an extension for 2012 and 2013.
This was extended again in 2013 through to 2015. It was extended again in 2016 for another 2 years before another deal was announced in 2017 and will run until 2020. With Sky Sports, showing one afternoon match per day including one semi-final and the final which are shown on BBC Two; the BBC has a joint deal with Eurosport to show all of Britain's Davis Cup matches for three years to 2017, with coverage predominately broadcast on BBC Two and the Red Button. BBC Radio covers the four Grand Slam tournaments - the A
Donald Ross (golfer)
Donald James Ross was a golf course designer. He was born in Dornoch, but became a citizen of and spent most of his adult life in the United States. Ross started his career by being an apprentice to Old Tom Morris at St Andrews in Scotland around 1899. With the help of an American agronomy student, fellow Scotsman Robert White from St. Andrews, Ross decided to move to America. Ross invested all his life savings to move to the United States and walked off the boat with only $2. In America, he got his first job at Oakley Country Club in Massachusetts, he rose to the position of golf professional at Pinehurst Resort in North Carolina, where he began his course designing career. Ross learned several skills related to golf throughout his life such as greens keeping, club making, golf pro, architect. Ross got his first job at the Royal Dornoch Golf Club, where he played while growing up, working as a greens keeper. Ross served an apprenticeship with Old Tom Morris in St Andrews before investing his life savings in a trip to the U.
S. After his year long apprenticeship he went back to the Royal Dornoch Golf Club where he honed his playing abilities while taking care of the greens and making clubs. In 1899, with the encouragement and support of Harvard astronomy professor and Salem and Petersham, Massachusetts resident Robert W. Willson, he obtained his first job in America at Oakley Country Club in Watertown, Massachusetts. In 1900 he was appointed as the golf professional at the Pinehurst Resort in North Carolina, where he began his course design career and designed four courses, he began running a substantial practice with summer offices in Little Compton, Rhode Island. At its height, Donald J. Ross and Associates, as his practice was known, oversaw the work of thousands of people. However, Ross always kept up his professional golf standing, his brother Alec won the 1907 U. S. Open. Ross's most famous designs are Pinehurst No. 2, Aronimink Golf Club, East Lake Golf Club, Seminole Golf Club, Oak Hill Country Club, Glen View Club, Memphis Country Club, Inverness Club, Miami Biltmore Golf Course and Oakland Hills Country Club.
Although Ross was a competitive golfer, he is known for his work as a course designer. As time moved on, his focus shifted towards designing courses rather than teaching. In his time as a designer he is credited with 400 course designs or redesigns between 1900-1948; some of his early work was in Virginia and includes Jefferson Lakeside Country Club and Sewell's Point Golf Course. He designed the Municipal Golf Course at Asheville, North Carolina in 1927. Ross designed one of Westchester, New York's best courses, Whippoorwill Country Club, in Armonk, New York, he designed a 9-hole course in northern New York, known as the Schroon Lake Municipal Golf Club in 1918. He designed the Hope Valley Country Club in Durham, North Carolina in 1927. In the 1930s, he revolutionized greenskeeping practices in the southern United States when he oversaw the transition of the putting surfaces at Pinehurst No. 2 from oiled sand to Bermuda grass. Ross designed the course at Sedgefield Country Club in Greensboro, North Carolina, home to the PGA Tour's Wyndham Championship.
Sedgefield Country Club is the only regular Donald Ross design on the PGA Tour. Aronimink Golf Club, located in Newtown Square, played host to the AT&T National in 2010 and 2011. Ross was a founding member and first president of the American Society of Golf Course Architects, formed at Pinehurst in 1947, he was admitted to the World Golf Hall of Fame in 1977, a high honor awarded for anything other than playing success. Ross died, he is buried in Newton Cemetery in Massachusetts. List of Donald Ross-designed courses What allows a Donald Ross golf course to stand out is the design principles and elements he used, he displayed great attention to detail. He created challenging courses with little earth moving; some of his designs include the "turtleback" greens, a Ross double plateau, The Punchbowl. The route the golfer had to take was an important decision Ross had to make and he favored clear routes that would not require much walking; when he would design a par-4 hole, he favored an uphill short hole.
Ross created holes which invited run-up shots but had severe trouble at the back of the green in the form of fall-away slopes. All of these exemplify his naturalness design philosophy which did not require intense earth moving, he let the lay of the land dictate what each and every hole should be. Ross would go into designing a new course with the thought to "make each hole present a different problem. So arrange it that every stroke must be made with a full concentration and attention necessary to good golf. Build each hole in such a manner that it waste none of the ground at my disposal and takes advantage of every possibility I can see." His most known trademark is the crowned or "turtleback" green, most famously seen on Pinehurst No. 2, though golf architecture writer Ron Whitten argued in Golf Digest in 2005 that the effect had become exaggerated compared to Ross's intention because greenkeeping practices at Pinehurst had raised the center of the greens. Ross had a successful playing career, winning three North and South Opens and two Massachusetts Opens, finishing fifth in the 1903 U.
S. eighth in the 1910 Open Championship. As his fame grew, he began to teach and play less and to focus on golf course de
Greensboro, North Carolina
Greensboro is a city in the U. S. state of North Carolina. It is the 3rd-most populous city in North Carolina, the 68th-most populous city in the United States, the county seat and largest city in Guilford County and the surrounding Piedmont Triad metropolitan region; as of the 2010 census, the city population was 269,666, in 2015 the estimated population was 285,342. Three major interstate highways in the Piedmont region of central North Carolina were built to intersect at this city. In 1808, "Greensborough" was planned around a central courthouse square to succeed Guilford Court House as the county seat; the county courts were thus placed closer to the geographical center of the county, a location more reached at the time by the majority of the county's citizens, who depended on horse and foot for travel. In 2003, the previous Greensboro – Winston-Salem – High Point metropolitan statistical area was re-defined by the U. S. Office of Management and Budget; this region was separated into the Greensboro–High Point MSA and the Winston-Salem MSA.
The 2010 population for the Greensboro–High Point MSA was 723,801. The combined statistical area of Greensboro–Winston-Salem–High Point, popularly referred to as the Piedmont Triad, had a population of 1,599,477. Among Greensboro's many notable attractions, some of the most popular include the Wet'n Wild Emerald Pointe water park, the Greensboro Science Center, the International Civil Rights Museum, the Weatherspoon Art Museum, the Greensboro Symphony, the Greensboro Ballet, Triad Stage, the Wyndham Golf Championship, the headquarters of the Atlantic Coast Conference, the Greensboro Coliseum Complex which hosts various sporting events and other events, the Greensboro Grasshoppers of the South Atlantic Baseball League, the Carolina Dynamo of the Premier Development Soccer League, the Greensboro Swarm of the NBA G League, the Greensboro Roller Derby, the National Folk Festival. At the time of European encounter, the inhabitants of the area that became Greensboro were a Siouan-speaking people called the Saura.
Other indigenous cultures had occupied this area for thousands of years settling along the waterways, as did the early settlers. Quaker migrants from Pennsylvania, by way of Maryland, arrived at Capefair in about 1750; the new settlers began organized religious services affiliated with the Cane Creek Friends Meeting in Snow Camp in 1751. Three years 40 Quaker families were granted approval to establish New Garden Monthly Meeting; the settlement grew during the next three years, adding members from as far away as Nantucket in Massachusetts. It soon became the most important Quaker community in North Carolina and mother of several other Quaker meetings that were established in the state and west of the Appalachians. After the Revolutionary War, the city of Greensboro was named for Major General Nathanael Greene, commander of the rebel American forces at the Battle of Guilford Court House on March 15, 1781. Although the Americans lost the battle, Greene's forces inflicted heavy casualties on the British Army of General Cornwallis.
Following this battle, Cornwallis withdrew his troops to a British coastal base in Wilmington, North Carolina. Greensboro was established near the geographic center of Guilford County, on land, "an unbroken forest with thick undergrowth of huckleberry bushes, that bore a finely flavored fruit." Property for the future village was purchased from the Saura for $98. Three north-south streets were laid out intersecting with three east-west streets; the courthouse was built at the center of the intersection of Market streets. By 1821, the town was home to 369 residents. In the early 1840s, Greensboro was designated by the state government as one of the stops on a new railroad line, at the request of Governor John Motley Morehead, whose plantation, was in Greensboro. Stimulated by rail traffic and improved access to markets, the city grew soon becoming known as the "Gate City" due to its role as a transportation hub for the Piedmont; the railroads transported goods to and from the cotton textile mills.
Many of the manufacturers developed workers' housing in mill villages near their facilities. Textile companies and related businesses continued into the 21st century, when most went bankrupt, and/or merged with other companies as textile manufacturing jobs moved offshore. Greensboro is still a major center of the textile industry, with the main offices of International Textile Group, Galey & Lord, VF Corporation. ITG Brands, maker of Kool and Salem brand cigarettes, is the third largest tobacco company in the United States and is headquartered in Greensboro. Rail traffic continues to be important for the city's economy, as Greensboro is a major regional freight hub. In addition, four Amtrak passenger trains stop in Greensboro daily on the main Norfolk Southern line between Washington and New Orleans by way of Atlanta. Though the city developed early wealth generated in the 18th and 19th centuries from cotton trade and merchandising resulted in owners' constructing several notable buildings; the earliest named Blandwood Mansion and Gardens, was built by a planter in 1795.
Additions to this residence in 1846, designed by Alexander Jackson Davis of New York City, made the house influential as America's earliest Tuscan-style villa. It has been designated as a
Cynodon dactylon known as Vilfa stellata, Bermuda grass, Dhoob, dūrvā grass, dog's tooth grass, Bahama grass, devil's grass, couch grass, Indian doab, grama and scutch grass, is a grass that originated in Africa. Although it is not native to Bermuda, it is an abundant invasive species there, it is presumed to have arrived in North America from Bermuda. In Bermuda it has been known as crab grass; the blades are a grey-green colour and are short 2–15 cm long with rough edges. The erect stems can grow 1–30 cm tall; the stems are flattened tinged purple in colour. The seed heads are produced in a cluster of two to six spikes together at the top of the stem, each spike 2–5 cm long, it has a deep root system. The grass creeps along roots wherever a node touches the ground, forming a dense mat. C. dactylon reproduces through seeds and rhizomes. Growth begins at temperatures above 15 °C with optimum growth between 24 and 37 °C. Growth is retarded by full shade, e.g. close to tree trunks. Cynodon dactylon is cultivated in warm climates all over the world between about 30° S and 30° N latitude, that get between 625 and 1,750 mm of rainfall a year.
It is found in the U. S. in the southern half of the country and in warm climates. Control/eradication It is fast-growing and tough, making it popular and useful for sports fields, as when damaged it will recover quickly, it is a desirable turf grass in warm temperate climates for those regions where its heat and drought tolerance enable it to survive where few other grasses do. This combination makes it a frequent choice for golf courses in the southern and southeastern U. S, it has a coarse-bladed form with numerous cultivars selected for different turf requirements. It is highly aggressive, crowding out most other grasses and invading other habitats, has become a hard-to-eradicate weed in some areas; this weedy nature leads some gardeners to give it the name of "devil grass". Bermuda grass is difficult to control in flower beds and most herbicides do not work. However, Ornamec 170 and Turflon ester have shown some effectiveness as well as Imazapyr. All of these items are difficult to find in retail stores as they are marketed to professional landscapers.
Bermuda grass has been cultivated on saline soils in California's Central Valley which are too salt-damaged to support agricultural crops. The hybrid variety Tifton 85, like some other grasses, produces cyanide under certain conditions, has been implicated in several livestock deaths. Tifgreen Tifway 419 or Tifton 419 LaPaloma Riviera SR9554 Laprima Veracruz Wrangler Yukon AgriDark OZTUFF This list is not all inclusive. Hundreds of cultivars have been created for environmental tolerance and stakeholder requirements. New cultivars are released yearly. FAO.org factsheet: Cynodon dactylon Online field guide to common saltmarsh plants of Queensland