King's Lynn, known until 1537 as Bishop's Lynn, is an English seaport and market town in Norfolk, about 98 miles north of London, 36 miles north-east of Peterborough, 44 miles north north-east of Cambridge and 44 miles west of Norwich. The population is 42,800, it is a cultural centre with two theatres, three museums, several other cultural and sporting venues, along with three secondary schools and one college. The etymology of King's Lynn is uncertain; the name Lynn is said to be derived from the body of water near the town: the Celtic word llyn, means a lake. As the Domesday Book mentions many saltings at Lena, an area of partitioned pools or small lakes may have existed there at that time; the salt may have contributed to Herbert de Losinga's interest in the modest parish. For a time it was named Len Episcopi while under the jurisdiction, both temporal and spiritual, of the Bishop of Norwich. In the Domesday Book, it is known as Lun, Lenn; the town is and has been for generations known by its inhabitants and local people as Lynn.
The city of Lynn, just north of Boston, was named in 1637 in honour of its first official minister of religion, Samuel Whiting, who arrived at the new settlement from Lynn, Norfolk. Lynn originated as a settlement on a constricted site to the south of where the River Great Ouse exits to the Wash. Development began in the early 10th century, but the place was not recorded until the early 11th century; until the early 13th century, the Great Ouse emptied via the Wellstream at Wisbech. After the redirection of the Great Ouse in the 13th century and its port became significant and prosperous. In 1101, Bishop Herbert de Losinga of Thetford began to construct the first mediaeval town between two rivers, the Purfleet to the north and Mill Fleet to the south, he authorised a market. In the same year, the bishop granted the people of Lynn the right to hold a market on Saturday. Trade built up along the waterways that stretched inland and the town expanded between the two rivers. Lynn had a Jewish community in the 12th century, exterminated during anti-Jewish massacres in 1189.
During the 14th century, Lynn ranked as England's most important port. It was considered as vital to England during the Middle Ages as Liverpool was during the Industrial Revolution. Sea trade with Europe was dominated by the Hanseatic League of ports; the Trinity Guildhall was rebuilt in 1421 after a fire. It is possible that the Guildhall of St George is the oldest in England. Walls entered by the South Gate and East Gate were erected to protect the town; the town retains two former Hanseatic League warehouses: Hanse House built in 1475 and Marriott's Warehouse, in use between the 15th and 17th centuries. They are the only remaining buildings from the Hanseatic League in England. In the first decade of the 16th century, Thoresby College was built by Thomas Thoresby to house priests of the Guild of The Holy Trinity in Lynn; the guild had been incorporated in 1453 on the petition of its alderman, four brethren and four sisters. The guildsmen were licensed to found a chantry of chaplains to celebrate at the altar of Holy Trinity in Wisbech, to grant to the chaplains lands in mortmain.
In 1524 Lynn acquired a corporation. In 1537 the king took control of the town from the bishop and in the 16th century the town's two annual fairs were reduced to one. In 1534 a grammar school was founded and four years Henry VIII closed the Benedictine priory and the three friaries. During the 16th century a piped water supply was created, although many could not afford to be connected: elm pipes carried water under the streets. King's Lynn suffered from outbreaks of plague, notably in 1516, 1587, 1597, 1636 and the last in 1665. Fire was another hazard and in 1572 thatched roofs were banned to reduce the risk. During the English Civil War, King's Lynn supported Parliament, but in August 1643, after a change in government, the town changed sides. Parliament sent an army, the town was besieged for three weeks before it surrendered. A heart carved on the wall of the Tuesday Market Place commemorates the burning of an alleged witch, Margaret Read, in 1590, it struck the wall. In 1683, the architect Henry Bell, once the town's mayor, designed the Custom House.
Bell designed the Duke's Head Inn, the North Runcton Church, Stanhoe Hall. His artistic inspiration was the result of travelling Europe as a young man. In the 16th and 17th centuries, the town's main export was grain. Lynn was no longer a major international port, although timber were imported. King's Lynn suffered from the discovery of the Americas, which benefited the ports on the west coast of England, its trade was affected by the growth of London. In the late 17th century, imports of wine from Spain and France boomed, there was still an important coastal trade, it was cheaper to transport goods by water than by road at that time. Large quantities of coal arrived from the north-east of England; the Fens began to be drained in the mid–17th century, the land turned to agriculture, allowing vast amounts of produce to be sent to the gr
Osceola, named Billy Powell at birth in Alabama, became an influential leader of the Seminole people in Florida. Of mixed parentage, including Creek, African American, English, he was considered born to his mother's people in the Creek matrilineal kinship system, he was reared by her in the Creek tradition. When he was a child, they migrated to Florida with other Red Stick refugees after their group's defeat in 1814 in the Creek Wars. There they became part of. In 1836, Osceola led a small group of warriors in the Seminole resistance during the Second Seminole War, when the United States tried to remove the tribe from their lands in Florida to Indian Territory west of the Mississippi River, he became an adviser to Micanopy, the principal chief of the Seminole from 1825 to 1849. Osceola led the Seminole resistance to removal until he was captured on October 21, 1837, by deception, under a flag of truce, when he went to a site near Fort Peyton for peace talks; the United States first imprisoned him at Fort Marion in St. Augustine transported him to Fort Moultrie in Charleston, South Carolina.
He died there a few months of causes reported as an internal infection or malaria. Because of his renown, Osceola attracted visitors in prison, including renowned artist George Catlin, who painted the most well-known portrait of the Seminole leader. Osceola was named Billy Powell at birth in 1804 in the Creek village of Talisi, now known as Tallassee, Alabama, in current Elmore County; the inhabitants of the town of Tallassee were an admixture of Native American, English and Scottish ethnicity, while some were African-American blacks. The Creek were among the Southeastern Native Americans. Powell was believed to have ancestors from all of these groups, his mother was Polly Coppinger, a mixed-race Creek woman, his father was most William Powell, a Scottish trader. He was known as Chechoter or Morning Dew. Polly was of Creek and European ancestry, as the daughter of Ann McQueen and Jose Coppinger; because the Creek had a matrilineal kinship system and Ann's children were all considered to be born into their mother's clan.
Ann McQueen was mixed-race Creek. Ann was the sister or aunt of Peter McQueen, a prominent Creek leader and warrior. Like his mother, Billy Powell was raised in the Creek tribe. Billy Powell's maternal grandfather, James McQueen, was a ship-jumping Scottish sailor who in 1716 became the first recorded white to trade with the Creek tribe in Alabama, he stayed in the area as a fur trader and married into the Creek tribe, becoming involved with this people. He was buried in 1811 at the Indian cemetery in Franklin, near a Methodist Missionary Church for the Creek. In 1814, after the Red Stick Creek were defeated by United States forces, Polly took Osceola and moved with other Creek refugees from Alabama to Florida, where they joined the Seminole. In adulthood, as part of the Seminole, Powell was given his name Osceola; this is an anglicized form of the Creek Asi-yahola. In 1821, the United States acquired Florida from Spain, more European-American settlers started moving in, encroaching on the Seminoles' territory.
After early military skirmishes and the signing of the 1823 Treaty of Moultrie Creek, by which the US seized the northern Seminole lands and his family moved with the Seminole deeper into the unpopulated wilds of central and southern Florida. As an adult, Osceola took two wives, as did some other high-ranking Seminole leaders. With them, he had at least five children. One of his wives was African American, Osceola fiercely opposed the enslavement of free people. Through the 1820s and the turn of the decade, American settlers kept up pressure on the US government to remove the Seminole from Florida to make way for their desired agricultural development. In 1832, a few Seminole chiefs signed the Treaty of Payne's Landing, by which they agreed to give up their Florida lands in exchange for lands west of the Mississippi River in Indian Territory. According to legend, Osceola stabbed the treaty with his knife, although there are no contemporary reports of this. Donald L. Fixico, an American Indian historian, says he made a research trip to the National Archives to see the original Treaty of Fort Gibson, that upon close inspection, he observed that it had "a small triangular hole shaped like the point of a knife blade".
Five of the most important Seminole chiefs, including Micanopy of the Alachua Seminole, did not agree to removal. In retaliation, the US Indian agent, Wiley Thompson, declared that those chiefs were deposed from their positions; as US relations with the Seminole deteriorated, Thompson forbade the sale of guns and ammunition to them. Osceola, a young warrior rising to prominence, resented this ban, he felt. Thompson gave him a rifle. Osceola had a habit of shouting complaints at him. On one occasion Osceola quarreled with Thompson, who had the warrior locked up at Fort King for two nights until he agreed to be more respectful. In order to secure his release, Osceola agreed to sign the Treaty of Payne's Landing and to bring his followers into the fort. After his humiliating imprisonment, Osceola secretly prepared ve
The Muscogee known as the Mvskoke and the Muscogee Creek Confederacy, are a related group of indigenous peoples of the Southeastern Woodlands. Mvskoke is their autonym, their original homelands are in what now comprises southern Tennessee, all of Alabama, western Georgia and part of northern Florida. Most of the original population of the Muscogee people were forcibly relocated from their native lands in the 1830s during the Trail of Tears to Indian Territory; some Muscogee fled European encroachment in 1797 and 1804 to establish two small tribal territories that continue to exist today in Louisiana and Texas. Another small branch of the Muscogee Creek Confederacy managed to remain in Alabama and is now known as the Poarch Band of Creek Indians. A large population of Muscogee people moved into Florida between 1767 and 1821 and these people intermarried with local tribes to become the Seminole people, thereby establishing a separate identity from the Creek Confederacy. Muscogee people in these waves of migration into Florida were fleeing conflict and encroachment by European settlers.
The great majority of Seminoles were later forcibly relocated to Oklahoma, where they reside today, although the Seminole Tribe of Florida and Miccosukee Tribe of Indians of Florida remain in Florida. The respective languages of all of these modern day branches and tribes, except one, are all related variants called Muscogee and Hitchiti-Mikasuki, all of which belong to the Eastern Muskogean branch of the Muscogean language family. All of these languages are, for the most part, mutually intelligible; the Yuchi people today are part of the Muscogee Nation but their Yuchi language is a linguistic isolate, unrelated to any other language. The ancestors of the Muscogee people were part of the Mississippian Ideological Interaction Sphere, who between AD 800 and AD 1600 built complex cities and surrounding networks of satellite towns centered around massive earthwork mounds, some of which had physical footprints larger than the Egyptian pyramids; some Mississippian city populations may have been larger than colonial European-American cities.
Muscogee Creeks are associated with multi-mound centers such as the Ocmulgee, Etowah Indian Mounds, Moundville sites. Mississippian societies were based on organized agriculture, transcontinental trade, copper metalwork, artisanship and religion. Early Spanish explorers encountered ancestors of the Muscogee when they visited Mississippian-culture chiefdoms in the Southeast in the mid-16th century; the Muscogee were the first Native Americans considered by the early United States government to be "civilized" under George Washington's civilization plan. In the 19th century, the Muscogee were known as one of the "Five Civilized Tribes", because they were said to have integrated numerous cultural and technological practices of their more recent European American neighbors. In fact, Muscogee confederated town networks were based on an 900-year-old history of complex and well-organized farming and town layouts. Influenced by Tenskwatawa's interpretations of the 1811 comet and the New Madrid earthquakes, the Upper Towns of the Muscogee, supported by the Shawnee leader Tecumseh resisted European-American encroachment.
Internal divisions with the Lower Towns led to the Red Stick War. Begun as a civil war within Muscogee factions, it enmeshed the Northern Creek Bands in the War of 1812 against the United States while the Southern Creeks remained US allies. General Andrew Jackson seized the opportunity to use the rebellion as an excuse to make war against all Muscogee people once the northern Creek rebellion had been put down with the aid of the Southern Creeks; the result was a weakening of the Muscogee Creek Confederacy and the forced cession of Muscogee lands to the US. During the 1830s Indian Removal, most of the Muscogee Confederacy were forcibly relocated to Indian Territory; the Muscogee Nation, Alabama-Quassarte Tribal Town, Kialegee Tribal Town, Thlopthlocco Tribal Town, all based in Oklahoma, are federally recognized tribes, as are the Poarch Band of Creek Indians of Alabama, the Coushatta Tribe of Louisiana, the Alabama-Coushatta Tribe of Texas. Seminole people today are part of the Seminole Nation of Oklahoma, Seminole Tribe of Florida, the Miccosukee Tribe of Indians of Florida.
At least 12,000 years ago, Native Americans or Paleo-Indians lived in what is today the Southern United States. Paleo-Indians in the Southeast were hunter-gatherers who pursued a wide range of animals, including the megafauna, which became extinct following the end of the Pleistocene age. During the time known as the Woodland period, from 1000 BC to 1000 AD, locals developed pottery and small-scale horticulture of the Eastern Agricultural Complex; the Mississippian culture arose as the cultivation of maize from Mesoamerica led to population growth. Increased population density gave rise to regional chiefdoms. Stratified societies developed, with hereditary religious and political elites, flourished in what is now the Midwestern and Southeastern United States from 800 to 1500 AD; the early historic Muscogee were descendants of the mound builders of the Mississippian culture along the Tennessee River in modern Tennessee and Alabama. They may have been related to the Tama of central Georgia. Oral traditions passed down by the ancestors of the Creeks have alleged that their nation migrated eastward from places West of the Mississippi River settling on the east bank of the Ocmulgee River.
It was here that they waged war with other bands of Native American Indians, as the Savannas, Wapoos, Yamafees, Icofans
Thomas Rolfe was the only child of Pocahontas and her English husband, John Rolfe. His maternal grandfather was the chief of the Powhatan tribe in Virginia. Thomas Rolfe was born in Virginia some believe on January 30, 1615. Governor Sir Thomas Dale was accompanied by Thomas Rolfe and his parents on their trip to England aboard the Treasurer in 1616, he was under 2 years old during this voyage and was not immune to the diseases and hardships of the voyage. In March 1617, the Rolfe family were preparing to re-embark on the George ship commanded by Samuel Argall when Rebecca was taken ill and died, at Gravesend in Kent. Thomas was not well enough to survive the long voyage back to Jamestown and Thomas was left in Plymouth, with Sir Lewis Stukley and transferred into the care of his uncle, Henry Rolfe, his father, sailed to Virginia without him after being persuaded by Admiral Argall and other members of the journey that he was too sick to continue the voyage. Thomas remained in his uncle's care until he reached 21 years of age, by which time his father had died.
As Henry raised Thomas, he felt he deserved compensation from his brother's estate and, petitioned the Virginia Council in October 1622, claiming entitlement to a portion of John Rolfe's land. It is assumed that Thomas returned to Virginia in 1635, there is no further mention of his whereabouts or doings until 1641. Once established in Virginia again, Thomas fostered both his reputation as a plantation owner and member of his mother's lineage; as Rolfe was a child of an Englishman and a Native American woman, some aspects of his life were controversial. He expressed interest in rekindling relations with his Native American relatives, despite societal ridicule and laws that forbade such contact. In 1641, Rolfe petitioned the governor for permission to visit his "aunt and his kinsman Opecanaugh". Thomas Rolfe married a woman named Jane Poythress, the daughter of Captain Francis Poythress, a prosperous landowner in Virginia, they had one daughter together, named Jane, after her mother. In 1698 his grandson, John Bolling, released to William Browne his rights in land, in a deed in which Bolling is identified as "...son and heir of Jane, late wife of Robert Bolling of Charles City County, Gent. which Jane was the only daughter of Thomas Rolf, dec'd..."
As confirmed by the 1698 deed quoted above, his daughter Jane married Robert Bolling. Robert Bolling and Jane Rolfe Bolling had one child. According to his father's will, both Thomas and Elizabeth, his half-sister, received named land. There is no extant proof; however Native Americans did not'hold' land in the English way. There is no mention of former Indian land in John Rolfe's will, John Rolfe names Thomas as the rightful heir of all his land and any royalties pertaining to such land. There were rumors in 1618 that when Thomas came of age, he would inherit a sizable portion of Powhatan territory. There is no extant documentation that when Thomas arrived in Virginia in 1640, the land was recorded as "Varina," his patrimonial property sixteen miles below Richmond. Thomas's step-grandfather, named Captain William Peirce, received a grant of 2000 acres of land on June 22, 1635, for the "transportation of 40 persons among whom was Thomas Rolfe", he listed Thomas as heir to his father's land. Prior to March 1640, Thomas took possession of this land, located on the lower side of the James River.
Thomas inherited a tract of some 150 acres on June 10, 1654, in Surry County, across from Jamestown. The year after the 1644 Indian attack on the colony, four forts were established to defend the frontier: Fort Henry, Fort Royal, Fort James, Fort Charles. Fort James was to be under the command of Thomas Rolfe as lieutenant as of October 5, 1646, he was given six men, was instructed to fight against the Native Americans—his own people. Thomas Rolfe shall have and enjoy for himselfe and his heires for fort James alias Chickahominy fort with fowre hundred acres of land adjoyning to the same, with all houses and edifices belonging to the said forte and all boats and ammunition at present belonging to the said fort. Rolfe doe keepe and maintaine sixe men vpon the place duringe the terme and time of three yeares, for which tyme he the said Leift. Rolfe for himselfe and the said sixe men are exempted from publique taxes. On October 6, 1646, Thomas was put in charge of building a fort at Moysonec, for which he received 400 acres of land.
This fort was located on the west side of Diascund Creek. Several years Rolfe patented 525 acres on August 8, 1653, "...lying upon the North side of Chickahominy river called and known by the name of James fort..." including the 400 acres he had re
Pocahontas was a Native American woman notable for her association with the colonial settlement at Jamestown, Virginia. She was the daughter of Powhatan, the paramount chief of a network of tributary tribes in the Tsenacommacah, encompassing the Tidewater region of Virginia, she saved the life of Colonist John Smith in 1607, being held captive by her tribe, by placing her head upon Smith's when her father raised his war club to execute him. Pocahontas was captured and held for ransom by the Colonists during hostilities in 1613. During her captivity, she took the name Rebecca; when the opportunity arose for her to return to her people, she chose to remain with the Colonists. She married tobacco planter John Rolfe in April 1614 at age 17, she bore their son Thomas Rolfe in January 1615. In 1616, the Rolfes travelled to London where Pocahontas was presented to English society as an example of the "civilized savage" in hopes of stimulating investment in the Jamestown settlement, she became something of a celebrity, was elegantly fêted, attended a masque at Whitehall Palace.
In 1617, the Rolfes set sail for Virginia, but Pocahontas died at Gravesend of unknown causes, aged 20 or 21. She was buried in St George's Church, Gravesend in England, but her grave's exact location is unknown, as the church has been rebuilt. Numerous places and products in the United States have been named after Pocahontas, her story has been romanticized over the years, she is a subject of art and film. Many famous people have claimed to be among her descendants through her son, including members of the First Families of Virginia, First Lady Edith Wilson, American Western actor Glenn Strange, Las Vegas performer Wayne Newton, astronomer Percival Lowell. Pocahontas's birth year is unknown, but some historians estimate it to have been around 1596. In A True Relation of Virginia, Smith described meeting Pocahontas in the spring of 1608 when she was "a child of ten years old". In a 1616 letter, he again described her as she was in 1608, but this time as "a child of twelve or thirteen years of age".
Pocahontas was the daughter of Chief Powhatan, paramount chief of Tsenacommacah, an alliance of about 30 Algonquian-speaking groups and petty chiefdoms in Tidewater, Virginia. Her mother's name and origin are unknown, but she was of lowly status. Henry Spelman of Jamestown had lived among the Powhatan as an interpreter, he noted that, when one of the paramount chief's many wives gave birth, she was returned to her place of origin and supported there by the paramount chief until she found another husband. According to Powhatan traditions, Pocahontas's mother died in childbirth; the Mattaponi Reservation people are descendants of the Powhatans, their oral tradition claims that Pocahontas's mother was the first wife of Powhatan, that Pocahontas was named after her. According to colonist William Strachey, "Pocahontas" was a childhood nickname meaning "little wanton". Strachey's 1610 account describes her as a child visiting the fort at Jamestown and playing with the young boys. According to anthropologist Helen C.
Rountree, Pocahontas revealed her secret name to the colonists "only after she had taken another religious—baptismal—name" of Rebecca. Pocahontas is viewed as a princess in popular culture. In 1841, William Watson Waldron of Trinity College, Dublin published Pocahontas, American Princess: and Other Poems, calling her "the beloved and only surviving daughter of the king", she was her father's "delight and darling", according to colonist Captain Ralph Hamor but she was not in line to inherit a position as a weroance, sub-chief, or mamanatowick. Instead, Powhatan's brothers and sisters and his sisters' children all stood in line to succeed him. In his A Map of Virginia, John Smith explained how matrilineal inheritance worked among the Powhatans: His kingdom descendeth not to his sonnes nor children: but first to his brethren, whereof he hath three namely Opitchapan and Catataugh. First to the eldest sister to the rest: and after them to the heires male and female of the eldest sister. Pocahontas is most famously linked to colonist Captain John Smith who arrived in Virginia with 100 other settlers in April 1607 where they built a fort on a marshy peninsula on the James River.
The colonists had numerous encounters over the next several months with the people of Tsenacommacah—some of them friendly, some hostile. A hunting party led by Powhatan's close relative Opechancanough captured Smith in December 1607 while he was exploring on the Chickahominy River and brought him to Powhatan's capital at Werowocomoco. In his 1608 account, Smith describes a great feast followed by a long talk with Powhatan, he does not mention Pocahontas in relation to his capture, claims that they first met some months later. Margaret Huber suggests that Powhatan was attempting to bring Smith and the other colonists under his own authority, he offered Smith rule of the town of Capahosic, close to his capital at Werowocomoco, as he hoped to keep Smith and his men "nearby and better under control". In 16
Van de Passe family
Crispijn van de Passe the Elder, or de Passe was a Dutch publisher and engraver and founder of a dynasty of engravers comparable to the Wierix family and the Sadelers, though at a more mundane commercial level. Most of their engravings were portraits, book title-pages, the like, with few grander narrative subjects; as with the other dynasties, their style is similar, hard to tell apart in the absence of a signature or date, or evidence of location. Many of the family could produce their own designs, have left drawings. Crispijn van de Passe I was born in Arnemuiden in Zeeland, trained and worked in Antwerp the centre of the printmaking world, with hugely productive workshops producing work for publishers with excellent distribution arrangements throughout Europe. By 1585 he was a member of the artists' Guild of Saint Luke, doing work for Christopher Plantin. Much of this was work engraving the paintings of Maerten de Vos, whose wife's niece Magdalena de Bock Crispijn married; the disruptions of the Dutch Revolt scattered these artists across Northern Europe.
He first moved to Aachen, until Protestants were expelled from there. He started his own engraving and publishing business in Cologne in 1589, but again was forced to leave in 1611, he set up in business in Utrecht, by about 1612, where he created engravings for the English and other markets, where he died in 1637. His works include a famous rendition of the English Gunpowder Plotters, although it is not known what basis he had for the likenesses; the family's prints are not rare and are well represented in most print rooms, the National Portrait Gallery in London. Four of Crispijn I's children were notable engravers for the family business, as was his grandson Crispijn III, his eldest son, Simon de Passe worked in England from about 1616 before moving to Copenhagen as royal engraver and designer of medals in 1624, where he remained until his death. He is best remembered for his early London print of Pocahontas. Crispijn II worked in Paris, at least from 1617 to 1627, in Utrecht, from until his death in Amsterdam.
Willem de Passe, the least productive of the siblings, took over from his brother in England after working in France, died in London of plague. He joined the Huguenot church in Threadneedle Street in 1624, his wife Elizabeth may have been the daughter of the English publisher Thomas Jenner. Magdalena van de Passe was, like her siblings, died in Utrecht, she specialized in landscapes until her marriage to the minor artist Frederick van Bevervoorden in 1634, after which she stopped engraving though her husband died in 1636. The business involved shipping drawings, engraved printing plates, printed copies around Europe between the various cities involved. After the three deaths in the period 1637–38 only Crispijn II in the Netherlands and Simon in Denmark remained, Crispijn II's years were unsuccessful. Crispijn III was a more minor figure who died in 1678. Hortus Floridus by Crispijn II. Heroologia Anglica, 1620. Sixty-five portraits of English notables, by various members of the family Hind Arthur M..
1923, reprinted Dover Publications, 1963 ISBN 0-486-20954-7 Getty Foundation, Union List of Artists' Names online Mayor, Hyatt A. Prints and People, Metropolitan Museum of Art/Princeton, 1971, ISBN 0-691-00326-2 Media related to Van de Passe family at Wikimedia Commons British Library online database has 1838 items by or after the family Spamula feature Another biography