Sedgwick Avenue (IRT Ninth Avenue Line)
Sedgwick Avenue was an elevated, ground level and underground station on the Bronx extension of the IRT Ninth Avenue Line which ended service to the station in 1940. This station was built to connect to the New York & Putnam Railroad passenger trains that terminated there instead of the former 155th Street terminal and New York Central Railroad Hudson Division trains that stopped at the new platforms at this location; this station remained in use by the Polo Grounds Shuttle until 1958. The Putnam Division of the New York Central ended service in 1958; this station was built extending from the tunnel entrance to Jerome Avenue on the side of a cliff on a steel structure spanning the tracks of Metro-North's Hudson Line that connected to the existing Putnam Bridge, built for the New York City and Northern Railroad. The station street entrance and mezzanine was above the tracks on Sedgwick Avenue; the west end of the platforms on the steel structure were constructed of wood. The east end of the concrete platforms extended into the tunnel for about a car length.
A connecting passageway and stairways from the west end of the northbound platform led to the platforms on the New York Central Hudson Division tracks to permit transfers to that division's trains. The station site, in 2010, has ruins of the platforms and the track-bed into the tunnel entrance on Sedgwick Avenue; the tunnel from Sedgwick Avenue to Anderson–Jerome Avenues was built to NYC Elevated Railway standards. Those standards specified the clearance between the tracks and the sides of the tunnel only allowed for the "El" type open third rail instead of the covered third rail in use on the IRT Subway; the standard distance from the center of the track to the center of the El type open third rail-head is a few inches shorter than the distance to the subway type covered third rail-head. This incompatibility prevented the line from being used in the future by standard IRT Subway equipment, brought about the line's demise instead of being linked to the IRT Jerome Avenue Line at 167th Street in The Bronx and the IRT Lenox Avenue Line at Harlem–148th Street in Manhattan, proposed by the New York City Board of Transportation in 1940.
A footbridge to West 161st Street remains. "Ninth Avenue Express". Station Reporter. Archived from the original on 2014-12-05. Retrieved 2009-01-25. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown Sedgwick Avenue station photos and tour guide, by Joseph Brennan, 2002
Bx1 and Bx2 buses
The Bx1 and Bx2 are two bus routes that run on the Grand Concourse in the Bronx, New York City, United States. The routes, which are operated by the MTA Regional Bus Operations follow Sedgwick Avenue and Mosholu Parkway for a short distance at their northern end; as the numbers suggest, these were the first two bus franchises in the Bronx. Except at their extreme northern and southern ends, the Bx1 and Bx2 share the same alignment; the only differences are: In Mott Haven, the Bx2 turns east at Hostos Community College and runs along 149th Street to serve some of the shopping district between there and Third Avenue turning south onto Courtlandt Avenue, which ends at Third Avenue and 146th Street, allowing the Bx2 to continue to operate down Third Avenue toward 136th Street, while the Bx1 continues down Grand Concourse. In Kingsbridge Heights, only the Bx1 continues down into Riverdale along 231st Street, though some early morning Bx2 cut-ins and early Sunday AM service serves this segment; the Bx1 and Bx2 bus routes share the majority of their alignment from the Grand Concourse and 149th Street north along the Concourse and Mosholu Parkway and west along Sedgwick Avenue to Heath Avenue on the west side of the Jerome Park Reservoir.
At their ends, a divergence occurs. Until August 2008, when permanent traffic changes were enacted in Mott Haven at 149th Street, Melrose/Willis Avenues, Third Avenue, the Bx2 turned east off of the Grand Concourse at 165th Street and ran down Melrose Avenue to 149th Street. Along the way, connections to the New York City Subway can be made at: Third Avenue–138th Street 138th Street–Grand Concourse Third Avenue–149th Street 149th Street–Grand Concourse 161st Street–Yankee Stadium Bedford Park Boulevard Mosholu Parkway 231st Street As of September 2010, the Bx1 operates as a limited-stop service during the daytime on weekdays and Saturdays, while the Bx2 serves as the local. Before September 2010, both routes had a limited-stop variant. Concourse Bus Line, Inc. was incorporated in early July 1921 by Major Emit Leindorf, deputy police commissioner in charge of motor transport under Mayor Hylan. The company soon began operating on the Grand Concourse as part of Hylan's "emergency bus lines"; the Third Avenue Railway obtained an injunction against the operation on early March 1923, leading the city to assign two franchises to the company in mid-April, from Grand Concourse and Mosholu Parkway south to Fifth Avenue and Melrose Avenue and 150th Street.
Along with a route to the Rockaways, the Concourse service was one of only two of Hylan's lines unaffected by a July 1923 injunction, since they had franchises, but were discontinued anyway by September 1924 due to the failure of the five-cent fare to pay the costs. The franchises were reassigned to the Fifth Avenue Coach Company, which began operating the routes on October 11, 1924, for ten cents. On September 14, 1927, the routes were again reassigned to the Surface Transportation Corporation, the bus subsidiary of the Third Avenue Railway, as two of its initial twelve routes. In April 1928, the original terminus was at Moshulu Parkway; the bankrupt Surface Transportation Corporation's routes were taken over by Fifth Avenue Coach Lines in 1956, the New York City Transit Authority subsidiary Manhattan and Bronx Surface Transit Operating Authority acquired all of the Fifth Avenue Coach routes in 1962. Southbound Bx2 service ran via Third Avenue between East 161st Street and The Hub-East 150th Street until July 1974.
Some Bx2 trips ran via Paul Avenue and Bedford Park Boulevard in both directions until July 1974, when the Bx1 took over this role. The original northwestern terminus of the Bx1 was at 231st Street; the Bx1 was extended to Riverdale at West 246th Street in February 1984, was cut back to its current terminus in 1990 after the Bx7 started running all times except nights. Some Bx1 trips ran via Paul Avenue and Bedford Park Boulevard in both directions until March 1993. Limited-Stop service was introduced to the Bx1 on February 23, 1993 as a weekday rush hour-only service, it would have been implemented in January. This service improvement was put into place as part of the Fare Deal Ridership Growth Program; the change resulted in an increase in ridership. In July 1994, the Board approved a plan to expand the hours of limited-stop service to operate continuously between 6:30 a.m. and 7 p.m. and to introduce Bx2 limited-stop service, to go into effect in September 1994. In March 1995, all Sunday Bx1 service began running via the Grand Concourse north of Bedford Park Boulevard.
Between 10 a.m. and 6 p.m. alternate buses had run along West 205th Street. This branch was underutilized, serving fewer than ten passengers, the split in service underserved the Grand Concourse. Limited-stop service was extended to run weekdays and Saturdays in September 1996. On September 8, 2002, the Bx1 and Bx2 were extended to a new terminal at Lincoln Avenue and 138th Street; the Bx1 had terminated at the 138th Street–Grand Concourse subway station, while the Bx2 had terminated at East 150th Street-Melrose Avenue near the Third Avenue–149th Street subway station. Bx2 service ran along East 165th Street and Melrose Avenue until August 2008, when all buses started running at East 149th Street and Third Avenue. On September 12, 2010, the Bx2 limited-stop service was eliminated, with all Bx2 buses running as locals. In addition, all Bx1
Yonkers, New York
Yonkers is a city in Westchester County, New York. It is the fourth most populous city in the U. S. state of New York, behind New York City and Rochester. The population of Yonkers was 195,976 as enumerated in the 2010 United States Census and is estimated to have increased by 2.5% to 200,807 in 2016. It is an inner suburb of New York City, directly to the north of the Bronx and two miles north of the northernmost point in Manhattan. Yonkers' downtown is centered on a plaza known as Getty Square, where the municipal government is located; the downtown area houses significant local businesses and non-profits, serves as a major retail hub for Yonkers and the northwest Bronx. The city is home including Untermyer Park. Major shopping areas are located in Getty Square, on South Broadway, at the Cross County Shopping Center and Westchester's Ridge Hill, along Central Park Avenue, informally called "Central Ave" by area residents, a name it takes a few miles north in White Plains. Yonkers is known as the "City of Seven Hills" which includes Park Hill, Nodine Hill, Ridge Hill, Cross Hill, Locust Hill, Glen Hill, Church Hill.
The land on which the city is built was once part of a 24,000-acre land grant called Colen Donck that ran from the current Manhattan-Bronx border at Marble Hill northwards for 12 miles, from the Hudson River eastwards to the Bronx River. In July 1645, this area was granted to the patroon of Colendonck. Van der Donck was known locally as the Jonkheer or Jonker, a word from which the name "Yonkers" is directly derived. Van der Donck built a saw mill near. Van der Donck was killed in the Peach War, his wife, Mary Doughty, was taken ransomed later. Near the site of van der Donck's mill is Philipse Manor Hall, a Colonial-era manor house which today serves as a museum and archive, offering many glimpses into life before the American Revolution; the original structure was built around 1682 by Frederick Philipse and his wife Margaret Hardenbroeck. Frederick was a wealthy Dutchman who by the time of his death had amassed an enormous estate, which encompassed the entire modern City of Yonkers, as well as several other Hudson River towns.
Philipse's great-grandson, Frederick Philipse III, was a prominent Loyalist during the American Revolution, because of his political leanings, was forced to flee to England. All the lands that belonged to the Philipse family were sold. For its first two hundred years, Yonkers was a small farming town with an active industrial waterfront. Yonkers's growth rested on developing industry. In 1853, Elisha Otis invented the first safety elevator and the Otis Elevator Company, opened the first elevator factory in the world on the banks of the Hudson near what is now Vark Street, it relocated to larger quarters in the 1880s. Around the same time, the Alexander Smith and Sons Carpet Company expanded to 45 buildings, 800 looms, over 4,000 workers and was known as one of the premier carpet producing centers in the world; the community was incorporated as a village in the northern part of the Town of Yonkers in 1854 and as a city in 1872. In 1874 the southern part of Yonkers, including Kingsbridge and Riverdale, was annexed by New York City as The Bronx.
In 1898, Yonkers voted on a referendum to determine. While the results were positive elsewhere, the returns were so negative in Yonkers and neighboring Mount Vernon that those two areas were not included in the consolidated city, remained independent. Still, some residents call the city "the Sixth Borough" referring to its location on the New York City border, its urban character, the failed merger vote. During the American Civil War, two hundred fifty-four Yonkers resident joined the Navy, they enlisted in four different regiments. These included the 6th New York Heavy Artillery, the 5th New York Volunteer Infantry, the 17th New York Volunteers, the 15th NY National Guard. During the New York City Draft Riots, Yonkers formed the Home Guards; this force of constables was formed to protect Yonkers for rioting, feared to spread from New York City, which for Yonkers residents it never did. In total, seventeen Yonkers residents were killed during the Civil War; the New York City and Northern Railway Company connected Yonkers to Manhattan and points north from 1888.
A three-mile spur to Getty Square existed until 1943. Aside from being a manufacturing center, Yonkers played a key role in the development of entertainment in the United States. In 1888, Scottish-born John Reid founded the first golf course in the United States, St. Andrew's Golf Club, in Yonkers. Bakelite, the first synthetic plastic, was invented in Yonkers circa 1906 by Leo Baekeland, manufactured there until the late 1920s. Today, two of the former Alexander Smith and Sons Carpet Company loft buildings located at 540 and 578 Nepperhan Avenue have been repurposed to house the YoHo Artist Community, a collective group of talented artists that works out of private studi
The Harlem River is an 8-mile tidal strait flowing between the Hudson River and the East River and separating the island of Manhattan from the Bronx on the New York mainland. The northern stretch called the Spuyten Duyvil Creek, has been altered for navigation purposes, it curved round the north of Marble Hill, but in 1895 the Harlem River Ship Canal was dug between Manhattan and Marble Hill, in 1914 the original course was filled in. The Harlem River forms a part of the Hudson estuary system, serving as a narrow strait that divides the island of Manhattan from the Bronx. 18,000 years ago the Laurentide ice sheet receded northward across the continent leaving behind a large escarpment creating the modern day Hudson River. About 6,000 years ago the Hudson River emptied into the ancient Atlantic Ocean, depositing sediments over the bedrock; the "river" is an estuary, as the Harlem River has neither a mouth nor a source, but instead connects two larger bodies of water, the Hudson River, via the Spuyten Duyvil Creek, to the East River –, itself not a river, but a salt water tidal strait – at Randall’s Island, near 125th Street.
The Harlem River is therefore affected by the actions of neighboring waterways. The ebb and flow of the tides causes the Harlem River’s currents to fluctuate throughout the day; the effects of the tides have influenced the spread of silts and other particles in the water. The tides were important in defining the usage of the Harlem River as they caused the currents to be difficult to navigate in the northern portion of the waterway, allowing only smaller ships and experienced sailors. Stretching 7 miles, the Harlem River meandered through its length, but its course today is much straighter than it was in its natural state due to changes in its route and shoreline character. Sherman Creek is a small inlet off Dyckman Street in Inwood. Named for a family that settled there in 1807, it was once the site of a number of racing shell clubs' boathouses along "sculler's row"; the last, belonging to Fordham University, was lost to suspected arson in 1978. As a name for the several blocks around it, Sherman Creek is something of a historical relic, although many regard it as a part of Washington Heights.
The Manhattan Institute held a forum, "Saving Sherman Creek," in January 2006 at the Harvard Club of New York. There has been an initiative among politicians over the last few years to re-zone this area for residential and commercial use, to create public access to the waterfront. Con Ed and the City of New York own some of the property in this area. In August 2017, a $100,000 project to restore the park's marsh and provide public waterfront space was announced. Pyramidal concrete structures known as "oyster castles" will be built that break the waves and allow oysters to grow on them; the resulting oyster reef protects the marsh by absorbing waves, both natural ones and those created by the wakes of boats. The financing of the project, which will be undertaken by the New York Restoration Project, founded by Bette Midler, will be provided by the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, was secured by State Senator Marisol Alcantara; the Sherman Creek restoration is a pilot project, hoped will be put into effect to restore marshes along Inwood Hill Park and on Muscota Marsh.
Spuyten Duyvil Creek is a tidal estuary that flows south-eastward. It went up, around a Manhattan neighborhood known as Marble Hill before joining the Harlem River at its northernmost extreme; the channel was difficult to navigate, resulting in the construction of the Harlem River Ship Canal in 1895. This turned the watercourse west where 222nd Street would be in the Bronx, which had the effect of isolating Marble Hill. Two decades the original creekbed was filled in, physically attaching Marble Hill to the Bronx, though it remains part of the borough of Manhattan. Another channel was dug in 1937 to the west of the 1895 realignment straightening the Spuyten Duyvil towards the Hudson, it pared off a protruding tip of the Bronx, absorbed into Manhattan's Inwood Hill Park, home today to its Nature Center. The landmass of Marble Hill once provided a fine location for Native American encampments, where fertile soil, shelter by hills to the west, the abundance of fishing and “oystering” options nearby were found.
By the end of the 17th century most land along the “Harlaem River” had come under the ownership of the Dutch families whose names are now seen on street signs, area maps, parks, including Jonas Dyckman, Jacob Nagle, etc. The British Colonial authorities, however wrested control of the island from the Dutch, regulation of waterfront construction became the responsibility of the city, it was in this era that the first crossing on the Harlem was built, at the Old Albany Road in 1693, beginning a long history of bridge construction and physical alterations to the river. This came to be called King’s Bridge, where a toll was assessed for access to the island and lands south. While this crossing was intended to replace the ferry service provided in the same area from 1669 onward, the local population bridled over the toll, popular sentiment culminated in the construction of
Google LLC is an American multinational technology company that specializes in Internet-related services and products, which include online advertising technologies, search engine, cloud computing and hardware. It is considered one of the Big Four technology companies, alongside Amazon and Facebook. Google was founded in 1998 by Larry Page and Sergey Brin while they were Ph. D. students at Stanford University in California. Together they own about 14 percent of its shares and control 56 percent of the stockholder voting power through supervoting stock, they incorporated Google as a held company on September 4, 1998. An initial public offering took place on August 19, 2004, Google moved to its headquarters in Mountain View, nicknamed the Googleplex. In August 2015, Google announced plans to reorganize its various interests as a conglomerate called Alphabet Inc. Google is Alphabet's leading subsidiary and will continue to be the umbrella company for Alphabet's Internet interests. Sundar Pichai was appointed CEO of Google.
The company's rapid growth since incorporation has triggered a chain of products and partnerships beyond Google's core search engine. It offers services designed for work and productivity, email and time management, cloud storage, instant messaging and video chat, language translation and navigation, video sharing, note-taking, photo organizing and editing; the company leads the development of the Android mobile operating system, the Google Chrome web browser, Chrome OS, a lightweight operating system based on the Chrome browser. Google has moved into hardware. Google has experimented with becoming an Internet carrier. Google.com is the most visited website in the world. Several other Google services figure in the top 100 most visited websites, including YouTube and Blogger. Google is the most valuable brand in the world as of 2017, but has received significant criticism involving issues such as privacy concerns, tax avoidance, antitrust and search neutrality. Google's mission statement is "to organize the world's information and make it universally accessible and useful".
The companies unofficial slogan "Don't be evil" was removed from the company's code of conduct around May 2018. Google began in January 1996 as a research project by Larry Page and Sergey Brin when they were both PhD students at Stanford University in Stanford, California. While conventional search engines ranked results by counting how many times the search terms appeared on the page, the two theorized about a better system that analyzed the relationships among websites, they called this new technology PageRank. Page and Brin nicknamed their new search engine "BackRub", because the system checked backlinks to estimate the importance of a site, they changed the name to Google. The domain name for Google was registered on September 15, 1997, the company was incorporated on September 4, 1998, it was based in the garage of a friend in California. Craig Silverstein, a fellow PhD student at Stanford, was hired as the first employee. Google was funded by an August 1998 contribution of $100,000 from Andy Bechtolsheim, co-founder of Sun Microsystems.
Google received money from three other angel investors in 1998: Amazon.com founder Jeff Bezos, Stanford University computer science professor David Cheriton, entrepreneur Ram Shriram. Between these initial investors and family Google raised around 1 million dollars, what allowed them to open up their original shop in Menlo Park, California After some additional, small investments through the end of 1998 to early 1999, a new $25 million round of funding was announced on June 7, 1999, with major investors including the venture capital firms Kleiner Perkins and Sequoia Capital. In March 1999, the company moved its offices to Palo Alto, home to several prominent Silicon Valley technology start-ups; the next year, Google began selling advertisements associated with search keywords against Page and Brin's initial opposition toward an advertising-funded search engine. To maintain an uncluttered page design, advertisements were text-based. In June 2000, it was announced that Google would become the default search engine provider for Yahoo!, one of the most popular websites at the time, replacing Inktomi.
In 2003, after outgrowing two other locations, the company leased an office complex from Silicon Graphics, at 1600 Amphitheatre Parkway in Mountain View, California. The complex became known as the Googleplex, a play on the word googolplex, the number one followed by a googol zeroes. Three years Google bought the property from SGI for $319 million. By that time, the name "Google
New York City
The City of New York called either New York City or New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2017 population of 8,622,698 distributed over a land area of about 302.6 square miles, New York is the most densely populated major city in the United States. Located at the southern tip of the state of New York, the city is the center of the New York metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass and one of the world's most populous megacities, with an estimated 20,320,876 people in its 2017 Metropolitan Statistical Area and 23,876,155 residents in its Combined Statistical Area. A global power city, New York City has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, exerts a significant impact upon commerce, research, education, tourism, art and sports; the city's fast pace has inspired the term New York minute. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy.
Situated on one of the world's largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, each of, a separate county of the State of New York. The five boroughs – Brooklyn, Manhattan, The Bronx, Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898; the city and its metropolitan area constitute the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. As many as 800 languages are spoken in New York, making it the most linguistically diverse city in the world. New York City is home to more than 3.2 million residents born outside the United States, the largest foreign-born population of any city in the world. In 2017, the New York metropolitan area produced a gross metropolitan product of US$1.73 trillion. If greater New York City were a sovereign state, it would have the 12th highest GDP in the world. New York is home to the highest number of billionaires of any city in the world. New York City traces its origins to a trading post founded by colonists from the Dutch Republic in 1624 on Lower Manhattan.
The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, the Duke of York. New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790, it has been the country's largest city since 1790. The Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the U. S. by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is an international symbol of the U. S. and its ideals of liberty and peace. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability, as a symbol of freedom and cultural diversity. Many districts and landmarks in New York City are well known, with the city having three of the world's ten most visited tourist attractions in 2013 and receiving a record 62.8 million tourists in 2017. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world. Times Square, iconic as the world's "heart" and its "Crossroads", is the brightly illuminated hub of the Broadway Theater District, one of the world's busiest pedestrian intersections, a major center of the world's entertainment industry.
The names of many of the city's landmarks and parks are known around the world. Manhattan's real estate market is among the most expensive in the world. New York is home to the largest ethnic Chinese population outside of Asia, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is the largest single-operator rapid transit system worldwide, with 472 rail stations. Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top universities in the world. Anchored by Wall Street in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, New York has been called both the most economically powerful city and the leading financial center of the world, the city is home to the world's two largest stock exchanges by total market capitalization, the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ. In 1664, the city was named in honor of the Duke of York.
James's older brother, King Charles II, had appointed the Duke proprietor of the former territory of New Netherland, including the city of New Amsterdam, which England had seized from the Dutch. During the Wisconsinan glaciation, 75,000 to 11,000 years ago, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet in depth; the erosive forward movement of the ice contributed to the separation of what is now Long Island and Staten Island. That action left bedrock at a shallow depth, providing a solid foundation for most of Manhattan's skyscrapers. In the precolonial era, the area of present-day New York City was inhabited by Algonquian Native Americans, including the Lenape, whose homeland, known as Lenapehoking, included Staten Island; the first documented visit into New York Harbor by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown. He named it Nouvelle Angoulême. A Spanish expedition led by captain Estêvão Gomes, a Portuguese sailing for Emperor Charles V, arrived in New York Harbor in January 1525 and charted the mouth of the Hudson River, which he named Río de San Antonio.
The Padrón Rea