Spain the Kingdom of Spain, is a country located in Europe. Its continental European territory is situated on the Iberian Peninsula, its territory includes two archipelagoes: the Canary Islands off the coast of Africa, the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea. The African enclaves of Ceuta, Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera make Spain the only European country to have a physical border with an African country. Several small islands in the Alboran Sea are part of Spanish territory; the country's mainland is bordered to the south and east by the Mediterranean Sea except for a small land boundary with Gibraltar. With an area of 505,990 km2, Spain is the largest country in Southern Europe, the second largest country in Western Europe and the European Union, the fourth largest country in the European continent. By population, Spain is the fifth in the European Union. Spain's capital and largest city is Madrid. Modern humans first arrived in the Iberian Peninsula around 35,000 years ago. Iberian cultures along with ancient Phoenician, Greek and Carthaginian settlements developed on the peninsula until it came under Roman rule around 200 BCE, after which the region was named Hispania, based on the earlier Phoenician name Spn or Spania.
At the end of the Western Roman Empire the Germanic tribal confederations migrated from Central Europe, invaded the Iberian peninsula and established independent realms in its western provinces, including the Suebi and Vandals. The Visigoths would forcibly integrate all remaining independent territories in the peninsula, including Byzantine provinces, into the Kingdom of Toledo, which more or less unified politically and all the former Roman provinces or successor kingdoms of what was documented as Hispania. In the early eighth century the Visigothic Kingdom fell to the Moors of the Umayyad Islamic Caliphate, who arrived to rule most of the peninsula in the year 726, leaving only a handful of small Christian realms in the north and lasting up to seven centuries in the Kingdom of Granada; this led to many wars during a long reconquering period across the Iberian Peninsula, which led to the creation of the Kingdom of Leon, Kingdom of Castile, Kingdom of Aragon and Kingdom of Navarre as the main Christian kingdoms to face the invasion.
Following the Moorish conquest, Europeans began a gradual process of retaking the region known as the Reconquista, which by the late 15th century culminated in the emergence of Spain as a unified country under the Catholic Monarchs. Until Aragon had been an independent kingdom, which had expanded toward the eastern Mediterranean, incorporating Sicily and Naples, had competed with Genoa and Venice. In the early modern period, Spain became the world's first global empire and the most powerful country in the world, leaving a large cultural and linguistic legacy that includes more than 570 million Hispanophones, making Spanish the world's second-most spoken native language, after Mandarin Chinese. During the Golden Age there were many advancements in the arts, with world-famous painters such as Diego Velázquez; the most famous Spanish literary work, Don Quixote, was published during the Golden Age. Spain hosts the world's third-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Spain is a secular parliamentary democracy and a parliamentary monarchy, with King Felipe VI as head of state.
It is a major developed country and a high income country, with the world's fourteenth largest economy by nominal GDP and sixteenth largest by purchasing power parity. It is a member of the United Nations, the European Union, the Eurozone, the Council of Europe, the Organization of Ibero-American States, the Union for the Mediterranean, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the Schengen Area, the World Trade Organization and many other international organisations. While not an official member, Spain has a "Permanent Invitation" to the G20 summits, participating in every summit, which makes Spain a de facto member of the group; the origins of the Roman name Hispania, from which the modern name España was derived, are uncertain due to inadequate evidence, although it is documented that the Phoenicians and Carthaginians referred to the region as Spania, therefore the most accepted etymology is a Semitic-Phoenician one.
Down the centuries there have been a number of accounts and hypotheses: The Renaissance scholar Antonio de Nebrija proposed that the word Hispania evolved from the Iberian word Hispalis, meaning "city of the western world". Jesús Luis Cunchillos argues that the root of the term span is the Phoenician word spy, meaning "to forge metals". Therefore, i-spn-ya would mean "the land where metals are forged", it may be a derivation of the Phoenician I-Shpania, meaning "island of rabbits", "land of rabbits" or "edge", a reference to Spain's location at the end of the Mediterranean. The word in question means "Hyrax" due to Phoenicians confusing the two animals. Hispania may derive from the poetic use of the term Hesperia, reflecting the Greek perception of Italy as a "western land" or "land of the setting sun" (Hesperia
New France was the area colonized by France in North America during a period beginning with the exploration of the Gulf of Saint Lawrence by Jacques Cartier in 1534 and ending with the cession of New France to Great Britain and Spain in 1763 under the Treaty of Paris. At its peak in 1712, the territory of New France sometimes known as the French North American Empire or Royal New France, consisted of five colonies, each with its own administration: Canada, the most developed colony and divided into the districts of Québec, Trois-Rivières and Montréal. In the sixteenth century, the lands were used to draw from the wealth of natural resources such as furs through trade with the various indigenous peoples. In the seventeenth century, successful settlements began in Acadia, in Quebec by the efforts of Champlain. By 1765, the population of the new Province of Quebec reached 70,000 settlers; the 1713 Treaty of Utrecht resulted in France relinquishing its claims to mainland Acadia, the Hudson Bay and Newfoundland to England.
France established the colony of Île Royale, now called Cape Breton Island, where they built the Fortress of Louisbourg. Acadia had a difficult history, with the British causing the Great Upheaval with the forced expulsion of the Acadians in the period from 1755 to 1764; this has been remembered on July 28 each year since 2003. Their descendants are dispersed in the Maritime Provinces of Canada, in Maine and Louisiana in the United States, with small populations in Chéticamp, Nova Scotia and the Magdalen Islands; some went to France. In 1763, France had ceded the rest of New France, except the islands of Saint Pierre and Miquelon, to Great Britain and Spain at the Treaty of Paris, which ended the Seven Years' War. Britain received Canada and the parts of French Louisiana which lay east of the Mississippi River – except for the Île d'Orléans, granted to Spain, along with the territory to the west – the larger portion of Louisiana. In 1800, Spain returned its portion of Louisiana to France under the secret Treaty of San Ildefonso.
However, French leader Napoleon Bonaparte in turn sold it to the United States in the Louisiana Purchase of 1803, permanently ending French colonial efforts on the North American mainland. New France became absorbed within the United States and Canada, with the only vestige remaining under French rule being the tiny islands of Saint Pierre and Miquelon. In the United States, the legacy of New France includes numerous placenames as well as small pockets of French-speaking communities. In Canada, institutional bilingualism and strong Francophone identities are arguably the most enduring legacy of New France. Around 1523, the Florentine navigator Giovanni da Verrazzano convinced King Francis I to commission an expedition to find a western route to Cathay. Late that year, Verrazzano set sail in Dieppe. After exploring the coast of the present-day Carolinas early the following year, he headed north along the coast anchoring in the Narrows of New York Bay; the first European to visit the site of present-day New York, Verrazzano named it Nouvelle-Angoulême in honour of the king, the former count of Angoulême.
Verrazzano's voyage convinced the king to seek to establish a colony in the newly discovered land. Verrazzano gave the names Francesca and Nova Gallia to that land between New Spain and English Newfoundland. In 1534, Jacques Cartier planted a cross in the Gaspé Peninsula and claimed the land in the name of King Francis I, it was the first province of New France. The first settlement of 400 people, Fort Charlesbourg-Royal, was attempted in 1541 but lasted only two years. French fishing fleets continued to sail to the Atlantic coast and into the St. Lawrence River, making alliances with Canadian First Nations that became important once France began to occupy the land. French merchants soon realized the St. Lawrence region was full of valuable fur-bearing animals the beaver, which were becoming rare in Europe; the French crown decided to colonize the territory to secure and expand its influence in America. Another early French attempt at settlement in North America took place in 1564 at Fort Caroline, now Jacksonville, Florida.
Intended as a haven for Huguenots, Caroline was founded under the leadership of René Goulaine de Laudonnière and Jean Ribault. It was sacked by the Spanish led by Pedro Menéndez de Avilés who established the settlement of St. Augustine on 20 September 1565. Acadia and Canada were inhabited by indigenous nomadic Algonquian peoples and sedentary Iroquoian peoples; these lands were full of valuable natural resources, which attracted all of Europe. By the 1580s, French trading companies had been set up, ships were contracted to bring back furs. Much of what transpired between the indigenous population and their European visitors around that time is not known, for lack of historical records. Other attempts at establishing permanent settlements were failures. In 1598, a French trading post was established on Sable Island, off the coast of Acadia, but was unsuccessful. In 1600, a trading post was established at Tadoussac. In 1604, a settlement w
Sedgwick is a city in Harvey and Sedgwick counties in the State of Kansas. As of the 2010 census, the city population was 1,695. For millennia, the land now known as Kansas was inhabited by Native Americans. In 1803, most of modern Kansas was secured by the United States as part of the Louisiana Purchase. In 1854, the Kansas Territory was organized in 1861 Kansas became the 34th U. S. state. In 1867, Sedgwick County was founded. In 1872, Harvey County was founded. Sedgwick was laid out on an 80-acre town site in 1870, it was named for a Major General in the Union Army during the American Civil War. Sedgwick was incorporated as a city in 1872. Sedgwick is located at 37°54′59″N 97°25′22″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 1.41 square miles, all of it land. The climate in this area is characterized by hot, humid summers and mild to cool winters. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Sedgwick has a humid subtropical climate, abbreviated "Cfa" on climate maps.
As of the census of 2010, there were 1,695 people, 611 households, 440 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,202.1 inhabitants per square mile. There were 643 housing units at an average density of 456.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 95.8% White, 0.2% African American, 0.5% Native American, 0.3% Asian, 1.5% from other races, 1.7% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 4.4% of the population. There were 611 households of which 40.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.1% were married couples living together, 10.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 5.4% had a male householder with no wife present, 28.0% were non-families. 24.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.68 and the average family size was 3.21. The median age in the city was 37 years. 29.6% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 48.0% male and 52.0% female.
As of the census of 2000, there were 1,537 people, 545 households, 424 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,408.8 people per square mile. There were 568 housing units at an average density of 520.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 95.71% White, 0.07% African American, 1.56% Native American, 0.26% Asian, 0.78% from other races, 1.63% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.12% of the population. There were 545 households out of which 40.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 65.5% were married couples living together, 8.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 22.2% were non-families. 20.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.71 and the average family size was 3.15. In the city, the population was spread out with 29.6% under the age of 18, 6.4% from 18 to 24, 30.7% from 25 to 44, 19.5% from 45 to 64, 13.8% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females, there were 93.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.9 males. As of 2000 the median income for a household in the city was $44,934, the median income for a family was $49,659. Males had a median income of $37,216 versus $24,732 for females; the per capita income for the city was $17,009. About 4.4% of families and 6.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 11.7% of those under age 18 and 5.9% of those age 65 or over. Sedgwick is part of Sedgwick USD 439 public school district. Lock Davidson, mayor of Melbourne, Florida from 1936 to 1942. Bryce Douvier, professional basketball player. Allen Kanavel, professor of surgery and he established the Department of Neurological Surgery at Northwestern University School of Medicine. Harold Manning, long-distance runner, he represented the United States in the steeplechase at the 1936 Summer Olympics. Brian Moorman, punter in the NFL for the Buffalo Bills. National Register of Historic Places listings in Harvey County, Kansas Arkansas Valley Interurban Railway CityCity of Sedgwick Sedgwick - Directory of Public OfficialsSchoolsUSD 439, local school district USD 439 School District Boundary Map, KDOTHistoricalHistoric Images of Sedgwick, Special Photo Collections at Wichita State University LibraryMapsSedgwick City Map, KDOT Harvey County Maps: Current, Historic, KDOT Sedgwick County Maps: Current, Historic, KDOT
History of Wichita, Kansas
The history of Wichita details the history of Wichita, Kansas from its initial settlement in the 1860s to the present day. The site at the confluence of the Arkansas and Little Arkansas Rivers has served as a trading center and meeting place for nomadic hunting people for at least 11,000 years. Human habitation in the Wichita area has been dated, in archeological digs, as far back as 3,000 B. C; the area was visited by Francisco Vásquez de Coronado in 1541, while he was in search of the fabulous "cities of gold". While there, he encountered a group of Native Americans whom he called Quiviras and who have been identified by archaeological and historical studies as the Wichita. By 1719, these people had moved south to Oklahoma; the first permanent settlement in Wichita was a collection of grass houses inhabited by the Wichita tribe in 1864. They had moved back to Wichita from Oklahoma during the American Civil War because of their pro-Union sentiments. Pioneer trader Jesse Chisholm, a half-white, half-Native American, illiterate but who spoke multiple Native American languages, established a trading post at the site in the 1860s, Chisholm traded cattle and goods with the Wichita tribe at points south along a trail from Wichita into present-day Oklahoma that became known as the Chisholm Trail, which soon became legendary in Western lore.
Chisholm was soon eclipsed in the area by three astute businessmen: commercial buffalo hunters and traders James R. Mead, William Greiffenstein, Buffalo Bill Mathewson. Hunters and Native Americans in the area all turned to the newborn tiny settlement as a principal trading center for the area, while Wichita's entrepreneurs began an aggressive sales campaign to lure more settlers to the area, with the "boosterism" typical of successful early prairie settlements; the city, on the east bank of the Arkansas River, was incorporated in 1870. Among the signatories on the town charter was a lone woman, the town laundry operator, Catherine "The Widow" McCarty, whose elder teenage son, after leaving Wichita, would become the infamous gunman, Billy the Kid. Wichita's position on the Chisholm Trail made it a destination for cattle drives headed north to access railroads to eastern markets; the Chisholm Trail ran along the east side of the community from 1867 to 1871. In late 1872 the Wichita and Southwestern Railroad completed a 27-mile branch line from Wichita to the Atchison and Santa Fe Railway at Newton.
As a result, Wichita became a railhead for cattle drives from Texas and other south-western points, from which it has derived its nickname "Cowtown." Wichita's neighboring town on the opposite bank of the Arkansas River, Delano, a village of saloons and brothels, had a particular reputation for lawlessness accommodating the rough, visiting cattlemen. The Wichita/Delano community gained a wild reputation, the east side of the river was kept more civil, thanks to numerous well-known lawmen who passed through, employed to help keep the rowdy cowboys in line. Among those was Wyatt Earp. Following the incorporation of the city in 1870, rapid immigration resulted in a land boom involving speculation into the late 1880s. Wichita annexed Delano in 1880. By 1890, Wichita had become the third-largest city in the state, with a population of nearly 24,000. After the boom the city suffered from 15 years of slow growth. Wichita reached national fame in 1900 when Woman's Christian Temperance Union member Carrie Nation decided to carry her crusade against alcohol to Wichita.
On December 27 of that year she entered the Carey House bar in downtown Wichita and smashed the place with a rock and a pool ball. Although she had visited all the bars in Wichita the night before, demanding that they close their doors, the John Noble painting Cleopatra at the Roman Bath in the Carey House had drawn her particular wrath. An island in the middle of the Arkansas River, named Ackerman Island, was home to an amusement park and a dance pavilion; the island was connected to the West Bank of the river through a Work Projects Administration project in the 1930s. In 1914-1915 oil and gas were first discovered in nearby Butler county; these discoveries form part of the vast Mid-Continent oil province. Several local producers established headquarters and retail outlets, in Wichita as it was the nearest large city. Archibald L. Derby participated in oil booms in Southeast Kansas, in 1916 he drilled a successful well in Butler county, he went on to found Derby Oil Company that owned a refinery in Wichita at 21st and Washington Street.
And had gas stations throughout the region. In 1955 Derby Oil was acquired by Colorado Oil & Gas, a subsidiary of Colorado Interstate Gas, which became part of Coastal Corporation in 1973. John Vickers was another Wichita oil mogul. Founder of Vickers Petroleum, in 1920, he built a refinery in Potwin Kansas about 20 miles northeast of Wichita. In 1934, at 8500 E Central, he built one of the largest mansions seen in Kansas up to that time. In 1961 the estate became the new site for the Kapaun Mt. Carmel High School. By 1917 there were 5 refineries operating in Wichita. Seven more were built in the 1920s, but only 3 were still operating at the end of that decade. The Coastal-Derby refinery was the last to close in 1993 with none remaining thru 2010, it was demolished in 2004. In 1925 Fred C. Koch, a chemical e
Marion is a city in, the county seat of, Marion County, United States. It was named in honor of Francis Marion, a Brigadier General of the American Revolutionary War, known as the "Swamp Fox". At the 2010 census, the city population was 1,927. For many millennia, the Great Plains of North America was inhabited by nomadic Native Americans. From the 16th century to 18th century, the Kingdom of France claimed ownership of large parts of North America. In 1762, after the French and Indian War, France secretly ceded New France to Spain, per the Treaty of Fontainebleau. In 1802, Spain returned most of the land to France. In 1803, most of the land for modern day Kansas was acquired by the United States from France as part of the 828,000 square mile Louisiana Purchase for 2.83 cents per acre. In 1806, Zebulon Pike led the Pike expedition westward from St Louis, Missouri, of which part of their journey followed the Cottonwood River through Marion County near the current cities of Florence, Durham. In 1854, the Kansas Territory was organized in 1861 Kansas became the 34th U.
S. state. In 1855, Marion County was established within the Kansas Territory, which included the land for modern day Marion; the city of Marion Centre became the county seat. A post office was established in Marion Centre on September 30, 1862 was renamed to Marion on October 15, 1881; the namesake of the city is Francis Marion. As early as 1875, city leaders of Marion held a meeting to consider a branch railroad from Florence. In 1878, Atchison and Santa Fe Railway and parties from Marion County and McPherson County chartered the Marion and McPherson Railway Company. In 1879, a branch line was built from Florence to McPherson, in 1880 it was extended to Lyons, in 1881 it was extended to Ellinwood; the line was leased and operated by the Atchison and Santa Fe Railway. The line from Florence to Marion, was abandoned in 1968. In 1992, the line from Marion to McPherson was sold to Central Kansas Railway. In 1993, after heavy flood damage, the line from Marion to McPherson was abandoned; the original branch line connected Florence, Canada, Lehigh, Galva, McPherson, Windom, Little River, Lyons, Ellinwood.
The Santa Fe depot building was converted into the Marion Library. Most locals still refer to this railroad as the "Santa Fe". In 1887, the Chicago and Nebraska Railway built a branch line north-south from Herington through Marion to Caldwell, it foreclosed in 1891 and was taken over by Chicago, Rock Island and Pacific Railway, which shut down in 1980 and reorganized as Oklahoma and Texas Railroad, merged in 1988 with Missouri Pacific Railroad, merged in 1997 with Union Pacific Railroad. Most locals still refer to this railroad as the "Rock Island". In 1888, Marion incorporated as a city. In 1889, the Marion Belt and Chingawasa Springs Railroad built a 4.5-mile railroad from Marion north-east to Chingawasa Springs. A hotel was built near the site of the spa at Chingawasa Springs, a depot and eatery as well. Both Santa Fe and Rock Island offered round trip fares from Chicago and western cities to Chingawasa Springs. An economic panic in 1893 closed down the health spa and hotel, quarry business along the tracks never developed sufficiently.
In 1893, the railroad ceased operations, tracks were removed in 1910. The National Old Trails Road known as the Ocean-to-Ocean Highway, was established in 1912, was routed through Lehigh, Hillsboro and Lost Springs. In 1937, the Marion County Lake was completed by the Civilian Conservation Corps south-east of Marion for the purpose of recreation. There were numerous floods during the early history of Marion. In June and July 1951, due to heavy rains and streams flooded numerous cities in Kansas, including Marion. Many reservoirs and levees were built in Kansas as part of a response to the Great Flood of 1951. From 1964 to 1968, the Marion Reservoir was constructed north-west of Marion. Downstream from the Marion Reservoir, levees were built in the low areas of Florence. In 2010, the Keystone-Cushing Pipeline was constructed west of Marion, north to south through Marion County, with much controversy over road damage, tax exemption, environmental concerns. Marion is located at 38°20′56″N 97°0′58″W, in the Flint Hills.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 2.99 square miles, of which 2.98 square miles is land and 0.01 square miles is water. The climate in this area is characterized by hot, humid summers and mild to cool winters. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Marion has a humid subtropical climate, abbreviated "Cfa" on climate maps. Chingawassa Days Festival Old Settler's Day Art in the Park and Craft Show Marion has five listings on the National Register of Historic Places. Elgin Hotel, 115 North 3rd Street. A Bed and Breakfast. First Presbyterian Church, 610 East Lawrence Street. Hill Grade School, 601 East Main Street. Marion County Courthouse, 200 South 3rd Street. Marion County Museum, 623 East Main Street; the First Baptist Church from 1882 to mid-1950s. Marion County Lake, 1-mile east of Marion on 190th Street 1.75 miles south on Upland Road. Marion Reservoir, exits closest to farther from Marion along US-56: Marion cove and Cottonwood Point cove and Dam, Hillsboro cove, French Creek cove.
At the 2010 census, there were 1,927 people, 846 households, 514 families residing in the city. The population density was 646.6 per square mile. There w
The Territory of Kansas was an organized incorporated territory of the United States that existed from May 30, 1854, until January 29, 1861, when the eastern portion of the territory was admitted to the Union as the state of Kansas. The territory extended from the Missouri border west to the summit of the Rocky Mountains and from the 37th parallel north to the 40th parallel north. Part of Missouri Territory, it was unorganized from 1821 to 1854. Much of the eastern region of what is now the State of Colorado was part of Kansas Territory; the Territory of Colorado was created to govern this western region of the former Kansas Territory on February 28, 1861. From June 4, 1812 until August 10, 1821 the area that would become Kansas Territory 33 years was part of the Missouri Territory; when Missouri was granted statehood in 1821 the area became unorganized territory and contained little to no permanent white settlement with the exception of Fort Leavenworth. The Fort was established in 1827 by Henry Leavenworth with the 3rd U.
S Infantry from St. Louis, Missouri; the fort was established as the westernmost outpost of the American military to protect trade along the Santa Fe Trail from Native Americans. The trade came from the East, by land using the Boone's Lick Road, or by water via the Missouri River; this area, called the Boonslick, was located due east in west-central Missouri and was settled by Upland Southerners from Virginia and Tennessee as early as 1812. Its slave-holding population would contrast with settlers from New England who would arrive in the 1850s; the land that would become Kansas Territory was considered to be infertile by 19th century American pioneers. It was called the Great American Desert, for it was dryer than land eastward. Technically, it was part of the vast grasslands that make up the North American Great Plains and supported giant herds of American bison. After the invention of the steel plow and more sophisticated irrigation methods the thick prairie soil would be broken for agriculture.
By the 1850s immigration pressure was increasing and organization into a Territory was desired. Kansas Territory was established on May 1854 by the Kansas -- Nebraska Act; this act established both Kansas Territory. The most momentous provision of the Act in effect repealed the Missouri Compromise of 1820 and allowed the settlers of Kansas Territory to determine by popular sovereignty whether Kansas would be a free state or a slave state; the Act contained thirty-seven sections. The provisions relating to Kansas Territory were embodied in the last eighteen sections; some of the more notable sections were: Section 19 Defines the boundaries of the Territory, gives it the name of Kansas, prescribes that "when admitted as a State or States, the said Territory, or any portion of the same, shall be received into the Union with or without slavery, as their constitution may prescribe at the time of their admission." It further provides for its future division into two or more Territories, the attaching of any portion thereof to any other State or Territory.
Section 28 Declares the Fugitive Slave Law of 1850 to be in full force in the Territory. Section 31 Locates the seat of government of the Territory, temporarily at Fort Leavenworth, authorizes the use for public purposes of the government buildings. Section 37 Declares all treaties and other engagements made by the United States Government, with the Indian tribes inhabiting the Territory, to remain inviolate, notwithstanding anything contained in the provisions of this act. Within a few days after the passage of the Kansas–Nebraska Act, hundreds of Missourians crossed into the adjacent territory, selected a section of land, united with fellow-adventurers in a meeting or meetings, intending to establish a pro-slavery preemption upon all this region; as early as June 10, 1854, the Missourians held a meeting at Salt Creek Valley, a trading post 3 miles west from Fort Leavenworth, at which a "Squatter's Claim Association" was organized. They said they were in favor of making Kansas a slave state if it should require half the citizens of Missouri, musket in hand, to emigrate there.
According to these emigrants, abolitionists would do well not to stop in Kansas Territory, but keep on up the Missouri River until they reach Nebraska Territory, anticipated to be a free state. Before the first arrival of Free-State emigrants from the northern and eastern States, nearly every desirable location along the Missouri River had been claimed by men from western Missouri, by virtue of the preemption laws. During the long debate that preceded the passage of the Kansas-Nebraska Act, it had become the settled opinion at the North that the only remaining means whereby the territory might yet be rescued from the grasp of the slave power, was in its immediate occupancy and settlement by anti-slavery emigrants from the free states in sufficient numbers to establish free institutions within its borders; the desire to facilitate the colonization of the Territory took practical shape while the bill was still under debate in the United States Congress. The largest organization created for this purpose was the New England Emigrant Aid Company, organized by Eli Thayer.
Emigration from the free states, flowed into the territory beginning in 1854. These emigrants were known as Free-Staters; because Missourians had claimed much of the land closest to the border, the Free-Staters were forced to establish settlements further into Kansas Territory. Among these were Lawrence and Manhattan. To pr