William Smith (lexicographer)
Sir William Smith was an English lexicographer. Smith was born in Enfield in 1813 of Nonconformist parents and he attended the Madras House school of John Allen in Hackney. Originally destined for a career, he instead was articled to a solicitor. In his spare time he taught classics, and when he entered University College London he carried off both the Greek and Latin prizes. He was entered at Grays Inn in 1830, but gave up his studies for a post at University College School. Smith next turned his attention to lexicography and his first attempt was A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities, which appeared in 1842, the greater part being written by him. Then followed the Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology in 1849, a parallel Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography appeared in 1857, with some leading scholars of the day associated with the task. In 1867, he became editor of the Quarterly Review, a post he held until his death. Meanwhile, he published the first of several school dictionaries in 1850, and in 1853 he began the Principia series, came the Students Manuals of History and Literature, of which the English literature volume went into 13 editions.
He himself wrote the Greek history volume and he was joined in the venture by the publisher John Murray when the original publishing partner met difficulties. Murray was the publisher of the 1214-page Latin–English Dictionary based upon the works of Forcellini and this was periodically reissued over the next thirty-five years. It goes beyond classical Latin to include many entries not found in dictionaries of the period, including Lewis. Perhaps the most important of the books Smith edited were those that dealt with ecclesiastical subjects, the Atlas, on which Sir George Grove collaborated, appeared in 1875. From 1853 to 1869 Smith was classical examiner to the University of London and he sat on the Committee to inquire into questions of copyright, and was for several years registrar of the Royal Literary Fund. He edited Gibbon, with Guizots and Milmans notes, in 1854–1855, Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology Smith was created a DCL by Oxford and Dublin, and the honour of a knighthood was conferred on him in 1892.
He died on 7 October 1893 in London and this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain, Hugh, ed. article name needed. Works by William Smith at Project Gutenberg Works by or about William Smith at Internet Archive Smith, a Short Biographical Dictionary of English Literature
Martigny is the capital of the French-speaking district of Martigny in the canton of Valais in Switzerland. It lies at an elevation of 471 meters, and its population is approximately 15000 inhabitants and it is a junction of roads joining Italy and Switzerland. One road links it over the Great St. Bernard Pass to Aosta, in winter, Martigny is appreciated for its numerous nearby Alp ski resorts such as Verbier. Martigny lies at an elevation of 471 meters, about 33 kilometers south-southeast of Montreux, the river La Drance flows from the southern Valais Alps through Martigny and joins the Rhône from the left just after Rhônes distinctive, almost rectangular change in direction. Martigny has an area, as of 2013, of 24.97 square kilometers, of this area,31. 5% is used for agricultural purposes, while 39. 8% is forested. Of the rest of the land,23. 3% is settled and 5. 3% is unproductive land, in 1964 the current municipality was created with the merger of Martigny-Ville and Martigny-Bourg. The Gaulish name of the settlement in the 1st century BC was either Octodurus or Octodurum, after capturing many local strongholds and receiving the submission of the people, sent troops into the country of the Nantuates, and with his remaining army determined to winter in Octodurus.
Galba gave one part of the town to the Gauls to winter in and he fortified himself with a ditch and rampart, and thought he was safe. Octodurus was on joined to the Roman Empire, as part of the Alpes Poeninae province, pliny says that the Octodurenses received the Latinitas. The town appears in the Antonine Itinerary and in the Tabula Peutingeriana, prov. the place is called Civitas Vallensium Octodurus. At a period it was called Forum Claudii Vallensium Octodurensium, an episcopal see was established here in the 4th century, making the Roman Catholic Diocese of Sion the oldest bishopric in what is now Switzerland. The first historically attested bishop of Octodurus was Theodore/Theodolus, who was present at the Council of Aquileia in 381, a restored Roman amphitheatre, citizen living quarters, and thermal baths can be seen in Martigny today. One authority speaks of the remains of a Roman aqueduct at Martigny, many coins, and other memorials of the Roman time, have been found about the place.
There are no records of the town during the medieval period. In the Middle Ages, the town took Martin of Tours as its patron saint, the church of Martigny, presumably at the site of the ancient cathedral, was consecrated to St. Mary in 1177, and to Notre-Dame-des-Champs in 1420. The town was granted a degree of autonomy, its citizens being allowed to elect their own local officials, the economy of Martigny was traditionally based on agriculture and viticulture. The town was flooded by the Dranse, most severely in 1595. From 1798 to 1802, Martigny was part of the Napoleonic Republic of Valais, in the Rhodanic Republic, the Valais passed to Switzerland in 1815
Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a federal republic in Europe. It consists of 26 cantons, and the city of Bern is the seat of the federal authorities. The country is situated in western-Central Europe, and is bordered by Italy to the south, France to the west, Germany to the north, and Austria and Liechtenstein to the east. Switzerland is a country geographically divided between the Alps, the Swiss Plateau and the Jura, spanning an area of 41,285 km2. The establishment of the Old Swiss Confederacy dates to the medieval period, resulting from a series of military successes against Austria. Swiss independence from the Holy Roman Empire was formally recognized in the Peace of Westphalia in 1648. The country has a history of armed neutrality going back to the Reformation, it has not been in a state of war internationally since 1815, nevertheless, it pursues an active foreign policy and is frequently involved in peace-building processes around the world. In addition to being the birthplace of the Red Cross, Switzerland is home to international organisations.
On the European level, it is a member of the European Free Trade Association. However, it participates in the Schengen Area and the European Single Market through bilateral treaties, spanning the intersection of Germanic and Romance Europe, Switzerland comprises four main linguistic and cultural regions, French and Romansh. Due to its diversity, Switzerland is known by a variety of native names, Suisse, Svizzera. On coins and stamps, Latin is used instead of the four living languages, Switzerland is one of the most developed countries in the world, with the highest nominal wealth per adult and the eighth-highest per capita gross domestic product according to the IMF. Zürich and Geneva have each been ranked among the top cities in the world in terms of quality of life, with the former ranked second globally, according to Mercer. The English name Switzerland is a compound containing Switzer, a term for the Swiss. The English adjective Swiss is a loan from French Suisse, in use since the 16th century.
The name Switzer is from the Alemannic Schwiizer, in origin an inhabitant of Schwyz and its associated territory, the Swiss began to adopt the name for themselves after the Swabian War of 1499, used alongside the term for Confederates, used since the 14th century. The data code for Switzerland, CH, is derived from Latin Confoederatio Helvetica. The toponym Schwyz itself was first attested in 972, as Old High German Suittes, ultimately related to swedan ‘to burn’
Sion is the capital of the Swiss canton of Valais and of the district of Sion. As of December 2015 it had a population of 33,879, on 17 January 1968 the former municipality of Bramois merged into the municipality of Sion. On 1 January 2013 the former municipality of Salins merged into the municipality of Sion and on 1 January 2017 Les Agettes did the same, Sion is well known for its old town. Landmarks include the Basilique de Valère and Château de Tourbillon, Sion has an airfield for civilian and military use which serves as a base for countless air rescue missions. Sion is one of the most important pre-historic sites in Europe, the alluvial fan of Sionne, the rocky slopes above the river and, to a lesser extent and Tourbillon hills have been settled nearly continuously since antiquity. The oldest trace of settlement comes from 6200 BC during the late Mesolithic. Around 5800 BC early Neolithic farmers from the Mediterranean settled in Sion, the settlements remained small until about 4500 BC, during the middle Neolithic, when the number of settlements increased sharply.
To support the increase and grazing spread throughout the valley. They began burying their dead in Chablandes-type stone burial cists with engraved anthropomorphic stelae, the individual graves changed at the beginning of the third Millennium BC in large, dry stone wall communal tombs. During the Beaker culture period in the half of the third Millennium, dolmens were built once again. Stelae continued to be carved, though these were rich with geometric patterns, at the beginning of the Early Bronze Age the last stelae were erected. The early settlements have been well documented, there are huts from the middle Neolithic period found near Le Petit Chasseur and under Ritz Avenue. Late Neolithic sites have found at Bramois and the early Early Bronze Age site is at Le Petit Chasseur. The Middle Bronze Age, however, is poorly documented, from the subsequent epochs, the great necropolis of Don Bosco and the necropolis of Sous-le-Scex from the La Tène culture. At the end of the first century BC, Sion was the capital of the Seduni and they were conquered by the Romans in the second decade BC.
By 8-7 BC, Emperor Augustus praised the tribe of Seduner with an inscription, the town-hall is said to contain several Roman inscriptions, one of which found at Sion commemorates the Roman presence, Civitas Sedunorum Patrono. Under the Romans it was known as Sedunum, the Roman settlement stretched mainly from what is now St. Theodul, between the Sionne and to the west side of the hill, Valeria. Under the church, a bath complex was discovered and partially excavated
The Tropaeum Alpium, was built by the Romans for the emperor Augustus to celebrate his decisive victory over the ancient tribes who populated the Alps. The monuments remains are in the commune of La Turbie, a few kilometers from the Principality of Monaco, the Trophy was built c.6 BC in honor of the emperor Augustus to celebrate his definitive victory over the 45 ancient tribes who populated the Alps. The Alpine populations were defeated during the campaign to subdue the Alps conducted by the Romans between 16 and 7 BC. The stone used to build the monument was originally extracted from the Roman quarry located about 500 metres away, visitors to that site can still see the traces of sections of carved columns in the stone. The monument as partially restored by archaeologists at the beginning of the 20th century, is 35 meters high, one of the stones of the tower, which Pliny the Elder transcribed, contained the names of the tribes. It reads, The monument originally served no purpose and contained no fortress.
Rather, it marked the boundary between Italy and Gallia Narbonensis, pushed back to the Var, between the 12th and 15th centuries, the Trophy did become a fortress, with locals building houses around its walls. In 1705, when war broke out between Savoy and France during the War of the Spanish Succession, Louis XIV ordered the destruction of all fortresses in the region, including this one. The partially destroyed Trophy became a quarry and its stones were used, among other things, the area surrounding the Trophy is rich with remnants of the Roman empire such as the famous Roman roads. The Trophy is situated on the Via Julia Augusta, named after the emperor Augustus, various fountains within the territory of the communes of Beausoleil and Roquebrune-Cap-Martin are said to be Roman. Trophy of the Alps Livius. org, La Turbie
The Gauls were Celtic peoples inhabiting Gaul in the Iron Age and the Roman period. Their Gaulish language forms the branch of the Continental Celtic languages. The Gauls emerged around the 5th century BC as the bearers of the La Tène culture north of the Alps, Gaul was never united under a single ruler or government, but the Gallic tribes were capable of uniting their forces in large-scale military operations. They reached the peak of their power in the early 3rd century BC, after this, Gaul became a province of the Roman Empire, and the Gauls were culturally assimilated into a Gallo-Roman culture, losing their tribal identities by the end of the 1st century AD. The Gauls of Gallia Celtica according to the testimony of Caesar called themselves Celtae in their own language, the name Gaul itself may be derived from Latin Galli, or it may be derived from the Germanic word Walha. Gaulish culture developed out of the Celtic cultures over the first millennia BC, the Urnfield culture represents the Celts as a distinct cultural branch of the Indo-European-speaking people.
The spread of iron working led to the Hallstatt culture in the 8th century BC, the Hallstatt culture evolved into the La Tène culture in around the 5th century BC. The Greek and Etruscan civilizations and colonies began to influence the Gauls especially in the Mediterranean area, Gauls under Brennus invaded Rome circa 390 BC. Following the climate deterioration in the late Nordic Bronze Age, Celtic Gaul was invaded in the 5th century BC by tribes called Gauls originating in the Rhine valley. Gallic invaders settled the Po Valley in the 4th century BC, defeated Roman forces in a battle under Brennus in 390 BC and raided Italy as far as Sicily. A large number of Gauls served in the armies of Carthage during the Punic Wars, in the Aegean world, an invasion of Eastern Gauls appeared in Thrace, north of Greece, in 281 BC. However, according to the Roman legend of the gold of Delphi. One king Cerethrius invaded the Thracians, while another Gallic king Bolgios invaded Macedonia and Illyria where he killed the Macedonian king Ptolemy Keraunos, in 278 BC Gaulish settlers in the Balkans were invited by Nicomedes I of Bithynia to help him in a dynastic struggle against his brother.
They numbered about 10,000 fighting men and about the number of women and children. They were eventually defeated by the Seleucid king Antiochus I, in a battle where the Seleucid war elephants shocked the Galatians. While the momentum of the invasion was broken, the Galatians were by no means exterminated and continued to demand tribute from the Hellenistic states of Anatolia to avoid war,4,000 Galatians were hired as mercenaries by the Ptolemaic Egyptian king Ptolemy II Philadelphus in the 270 BC. According to Pausanias, soon after arrival the Celts plotted “to seize Egypt, ”, Galatians participated at the victorious in 217 BC Battle of Raphia under Ptolemy IV Philopator, and continued to serve as mercenaries for the Ptolemaic Dynasty until its demise in 30 BC. They sided with the renegade Seleucid prince Antiochus Hierax, who reigned in Asia Minor, after the defeat, the Galatians continued to be a serious threat to the states of Asia Minor
Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography
The work was last reissued in 2005. 268–71 Review of Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography by William Smith, Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography. Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography, Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography. Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography, works related to Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography at Wikisource
Cantons of Switzerland
The 26 cantons of Switzerland are the member states of the Swiss Confederation. The nucleus of the Swiss Confederacy in the form of the first three confederate allies used to be referred to as the Waldstätte, with the Napoleonic period of the Helvetic Republic the term canton/cantone/Kanton was fully established. From 1833, there were 25 cantons, which became 26 after the secession of the canton of Jura from Bern in 1979. The term canton, now used as English term for administrative subdivisions of other countries, originates in French usage in the late 15th century, from a word for edge. After 1490, canton was increasingly used in French and Italian documents to refer to the members of the Swiss Confederacy, English use of canton in reference to the Swiss Confederacy dates to the early 17th century. It was increasingly replaced by Stand after 1550, the French term canton was not adopted into German usage prior to 1648, and after that only in occasional use. The prominent usage of Ort and Stand only gradually disappeared in German-speaking Switzerland with the Helvetic Republic, only with the Act of Mediation of 1803 did German Kanton become an official designation, retained in the Swiss Constitution of 1848.
The term Stand remains in usage and is reflected in the name of the upper chamber of the Swiss Parliament. Republic Some cantonal constitutions provide for a formal name of the state. Most of Romandys cantons and Ticino call themselves république/Repubblica officially, at least within their constitutions, for example, the canton of Geneva refers to itself formally as the République et canton de Genève. Though they were part of the Holy Roman Empire, they had become de facto independent when the Swiss defeated Emperor Maximillian in 1499 in Dornach. The old system was abandoned with the formation of the Helvetic Republic following the French invasion of Switzerland in 1798, the cantons of the Helvetic Republic had merely the status of an administrative subdivision with no sovereignty. The Helvetic Republic collapsed within five years, and cantonal sovereignty was restored with the Act of Mediation of 1803, the status of Switzerland as a federation of states was restored, at the time including 19 cantons.
Three additional western cantons, Neuchâtel and Geneva, acceded in 1815, the process of Restoration, completed by 1830, returned most of the former feudal rights to the cantonal patriciates, leading to rebellions among the rural population. The Liberal Radical Party embodied these democratic forces calling for a new federal constitution and this tension, paired with religious issues escalated into armed conflict in the 1840s, with the brief Sonderbund War. The victory of the party resulted in the formation of Switzerland as a federal state in 1848. The cantons retained far-reaching sovereignty, but were no longer allowed to maintain standing armies or international relations. Each canton has its own constitution, legislature and courts, most of the cantons legislatures are unicameral parliaments, their size varying between 58 and 200 seats
In its many centuries of existence, the Roman state evolved from a monarchy to a classical republic and to an increasingly autocratic empire. Through conquest and assimilation, it came to dominate the Mediterranean region and Western Europe, Asia Minor, North Africa and it is often grouped into classical antiquity together with ancient Greece, and their similar cultures and societies are known as the Greco-Roman world. Ancient Roman civilisation has contributed to modern government, politics, art, architecture, warfare, religion and society. Rome professionalised and expanded its military and created a system of government called res publica, the inspiration for modern republics such as the United States and France. By the end of the Republic, Rome had conquered the lands around the Mediterranean and beyond, its domain extended from the Atlantic to Arabia, the Roman Empire emerged with the end of the Republic and the dictatorship of Augustus Caesar. 721 years of Roman-Persian Wars started in 92 BC with their first war against Parthia and it would become the longest conflict in human history, and have major lasting effects and consequences for both empires.
Under Trajan, the Empire reached its territorial peak, Republican mores and traditions started to decline during the imperial period, with civil wars becoming a prelude common to the rise of a new emperor. Splinter states, such as the Palmyrene Empire, would divide the Empire during the crisis of the 3rd century. Plagued by internal instability and attacked by various migrating peoples, the part of the empire broke up into independent kingdoms in the 5th century. This splintering is a landmark historians use to divide the ancient period of history from the pre-medieval Dark Ages of Europe. King Numitor was deposed from his throne by his brother, while Numitors daughter, Rhea Silvia, because Rhea Silvia was raped and impregnated by Mars, the Roman god of war, the twins were considered half-divine. The new king, feared Romulus and Remus would take back the throne, a she-wolf saved and raised them, and when they were old enough, they returned the throne of Alba Longa to Numitor. Romulus became the source of the citys name, in order to attract people to the city, Rome became a sanctuary for the indigent and unwanted.
This caused a problem for Rome, which had a large workforce but was bereft of women, Romulus traveled to the neighboring towns and tribes and attempted to secure marriage rights, but as Rome was so full of undesirables they all refused. Legend says that the Latins invited the Sabines to a festival and stole their unmarried maidens, leading to the integration of the Latins, after a long time in rough seas, they landed at the banks of the Tiber River. Not long after they landed, the men wanted to take to the sea again, one woman, named Roma, suggested that the women burn the ships out at sea to prevent them from leaving. At first, the men were angry with Roma, but they realized that they were in the ideal place to settle. They named the settlement after the woman who torched their ships, the Roman poet Virgil recounted this legend in his classical epic poem the Aeneid
The term public domain has two senses of meaning. Anything published is out in the domain in the sense that it is available to the public. Once published and information in books is in the public domain, in the sense of intellectual property, works in the public domain are those whose exclusive intellectual property rights have expired, have been forfeited, or are inapplicable. Examples for works not covered by copyright which are therefore in the domain, are the formulae of Newtonian physics, cooking recipes. Examples for works actively dedicated into public domain by their authors are reference implementations of algorithms, NIHs ImageJ. The term is not normally applied to situations where the creator of a work retains residual rights, as rights are country-based and vary, a work may be subject to rights in one country and be in the public domain in another. Some rights depend on registrations on a basis, and the absence of registration in a particular country, if required. Although the term public domain did not come into use until the mid-18th century, the Romans had a large proprietary rights system where they defined many things that cannot be privately owned as res nullius, res communes, res publicae and res universitatis.
The term res nullius was defined as not yet appropriated. The term res communes was defined as things that could be enjoyed by mankind, such as air, sunlight. The term res publicae referred to things that were shared by all citizens, when the first early copyright law was first established in Britain with the Statute of Anne in 1710, public domain did not appear. However, similar concepts were developed by British and French jurists in the eighteenth century, instead of public domain they used terms such as publici juris or propriété publique to describe works that were not covered by copyright law. The phrase fall in the domain can be traced to mid-nineteenth century France to describe the end of copyright term. In this historical context Paul Torremans describes copyright as a coral reef of private right jutting up from the ocean of the public domain. Because copyright law is different from country to country, Pamela Samuelson has described the public domain as being different sizes at different times in different countries.
According to James Boyle this definition underlines common usage of the public domain and equates the public domain to public property. However, the usage of the public domain can be more granular. Such a definition regards work in copyright as private property subject to fair use rights, the materials that compose our cultural heritage must be free for all living to use no less than matter necessary for biological survival