A-side and B-side
The terms A-side and B-side refer to the two sides of 78, 45, 331⁄3 rpm phonograph records, or cassettes, whether singles, extended plays, or long-playing records. The A-side featured the recording that the artist, record producer, or the record company intended to receive the initial promotional effort and receive radio airplay to become a "hit" record; the B-side is a secondary recording that has a history of its own: some artists released B-sides that were considered as strong as the A-side and became hits in their own right. Others took the opposite approach: producer Phil Spector was in the habit of filling B-sides with on-the-spot instrumentals that no one would confuse with the A-side. With this practice, Spector was assured that airplay was focused on the side he wanted to be the hit side. Music recordings have moved away from records onto other formats such as CDs and digital downloads, which do not have "sides", but the terms are still used to describe the type of content, with B-side sometimes standing for "bonus" track.
The first sound recordings at the end of the 19th century were made on cylinder records, which had a single round surface capable of holding two minutes of sound. Early shellac disc records records only had recordings on one side of the disc, with a similar capacity. Double-sided recordings, with one selection on each side, were introduced in Europe by Columbia Records in 1908, by 1910 most record labels had adopted the format in both Europe and the United States. There were no record charts until the 1930s, radio stations did not play recorded music until the 1950s. In this time, A-sides and B-sides existed. In June 1948, Columbia Records introduced the modern 331⁄3 rpm long-playing microgroove vinyl record for commercial sales, its rival RCA Victor, responded the next year with the seven-inch 45 rpm vinylite record, which would replace the 78 for single record releases; the term "single" came into popular use with the advent of vinyl records in the early 1950s. At first, most record labels would randomly assign which song would be an A-side and which would be a B-side.
Under this random system, many artists had so-called "double-sided hits", where both songs on a record made one of the national sales charts, or would be featured on jukeboxes in public places. As time wore on, the convention for assigning songs to sides of the record changed. By the early sixties, the song on the A-side was the song that the record company wanted radio stations to play, as 45 rpm single records dominated the market in terms of cash sales, it was not until 1968, for example, that the total production of albums on a unit basis surpassed that of singles in the United Kingdom. In the late 1960s, stereo versions of pop and rock songs began to appear on 45s; the majority of the 45s were played on AM radio stations, which were not equipped for stereo broadcast at the time, so stereo was not a priority. However, the FM rock stations did not like to play monaural content, so the record companies adopted a protocol for DJ versions with the mono version of the song on one side, stereo version of the same song on the other.
By the early 1970s, double-sided hits had become rare. Album sales had increased, B-sides had become the side of the record where non-album, non-radio-friendly, instrumental versions or inferior recordings were placed. In order to further ensure that radio stations played the side that the record companies had chosen, it was common for the promotional copies of a single to have the "plug side" on both sides of the disc. With the decline of 45 rpm vinyl records, after the introduction of cassette and compact disc singles in the late 1980s, the A-side/B-side differentiation became much less meaningful. At first, cassette singles would have one song on each side of the cassette, matching the arrangement of vinyl records, but cassette maxi-singles, containing more than two songs, became more popular. Cassette singles were phased out beginning in the late 1990s, the A-side/B-side dichotomy became extinct, as the remaining dominant medium, the compact disc, lacked an equivalent physical distinction.
However, the term "B-side" is still used to refer to the "bonus" tracks or "coupling" tracks on a CD single. With the advent of downloading music via the Internet, sales of CD singles and other physical media have declined, the term "B-side" is now less used. Songs that were not part of an artist's collection of albums are made available through the same downloadable catalogs as tracks from their albums, are referred to as "unreleased", "bonus", "non-album", "rare", "outtakes" or "exclusive" tracks, the latter in the case of a song being available from a certain provider of music. B-side songs may be released on the same record as a single to provide extra "value for money". There are several types of material released in this way, including a different version, or, in a concept record, a song that does not fit into the story lin
Greatest Hits (Depeche Mode album)
Greatest Hits is a greatest hits album by English electronic music band Depeche Mode, released in 1987 by Amiga. It was released in East Germany on LP and cassette. Side 1: "Shake the Disease" – 4:45 "A Question of Lust" – 4:24 "It's Called a Heart" – 3:45 "Blasphemous Rumours" – 5:06 "Everything Counts" – 3:57 "People Are People" – 3:43Side 2: "Master and Servant" – 3:50 "Something to Do" – 3:44 "Stripped" – 4:13 "Here Is the House" – 4:16 "It Doesn't Matter" – 4:45 "It Doesn't Matter Two" – 2:49
Blackwing Studios was an English recording studio, most notable for early Depeche Mode and Yazoo recordings in the early 1980s. The Blackwing Studios complex was housed inside a deconsecrated church in South-East London. All Hallows church was destroyed during The Blitz in 1941. After the war Southwark Cathedral retained the north aisle and carried on using it as a temporary church; the destroyed south aisle was turned into gardens and maintained by local residents from 1968. Blackwing was started by Eric Radcliffe, who worked on most of the early Mute Records recordings alongside Daniel Miller. Daniel Miller had discovered Blackwing, he required a studio with a big control room. At the rear of the church building was a bell tower, used for storing master tapes. Daniel Miller carried on using Blackwing to record other new Mute Records artists; the first Depeche Mode album and Spell, was recorded at Blackwing using a TEAC eight track recorder. The album was engineered by John Fryer. Yazoo named one of their albums after the studio, Upstairs at Eric's due to the main Blackwing studio being above Splendid Studios located downstairs.
When Clarke came to Blackwing to record with Yazoo he found that the studio was booked. He had the choice of building another studio; this is. It was a private studio below the commercial Blackwing studios upstairs. After the split of the band Yazoo, Vince Clarke decided, his initial enterprise after Yazoo was the formation of his own record label called Reset Records. The enterprise was a joint effort with Eric Radcliffe, the idea being to sign and produce new acts from their independent Splendid Studios, underneath the Blackwing complex; the recordings were licensed to RCA Records for release. Blackwing Studios closed down in September 2001 and the building has been empty since, but the church building and gardens are still there. However, this may soon not be the case as Southwark Council have been submitting plans since 2005 to redevelop the site with a four-storey development of private flats; when Eric Radcliffe opened Blackwing he used an eight track TEAC for recording artists. A second recorder was acquired and locked together with the initial machine giving Blackwing 32 tracks of recording.
This system was used for many early recordings by Depeche Mode. The system was rationalised when two 24 track machines were purchased. Blackwing used an Amek 2500 mixing desk, modified to work with electronic instruments. All the equipment at Blackwing and Splendid Studios was designed to be patchable through patch bays. Vince Clarke installed a Fairlight CMI into Blackwing, which he had bought before the Yazoo tour, used it on tracks like Never Never by The Assembly. Due to the low bandwidth that the Fairlight produced he began using the Synclavier, which used FM synthesis; this led in 1984 to Clarke’s purchase of a Yamaha DX7. The Fairlight was used to sample sounds of Clarke smashing all sorts of wood and glass that were found when demolishing the lower part of the church to build Splendid Studios. Blackwing used a range of quality reverberation including an AMS RMX, Lexicon 224 and 224X and a Quantec Room Simulator. Recordings at Blackwing used natural reverb from a long corridor that still retained the stonework from the original war damaged church.
Above the studio there was a natural echo chamber. Eric Radcliffe left the echo chamber. One of the first tracks Depeche Mode recorded at Blackwing was "Dreaming of Me", after being decided it would be the first Depeche Mode single. At the time Vince Clarke was unemployed so he spent most of the daytime in the studio with Daniel Miller. Miller would give Clarke help and advice on how to get sounds, use studio technology and arrange songs. In the afternoon Martin Gore and Andrew Fletcher would arrive from their day jobs to record melody parts. After the recording of Speak & Spell Vince Clarke left the band, but carried on recording at Blackwing. In late 1981 the three remaining members of Depeche Mode returned to Blackwing and recorded the single "See You"; the track was the first Depeche Mode track to use a Roland MC-4 sequencer, which made the core sound to the track. It would be the first track recorded without Clarke. Sound On Sound John Fryer Mute Records Save All Hallows
Andy Fletcher (musician)
Andrew John Leonard Fletcher, popularly known as "Fletch", is an English keyboard player and one of the founding members of the electronic band Depeche Mode. In the late 1970s, Fletcher and schoolmate Vince Clarke formed the short-lived band No Romance in China, in which Fletcher played bass guitar. In 1980, Fletcher met Martin Gore at the Van Gogh Pub on Paycocke Road in Basildon. With Clarke, the trio, now all on synthesizer, formed. Clarke served as chief songwriter and provided lead vocals until singer Dave Gahan was recruited into the band that year, after which they adopted the name Depeche Mode at Gahan's suggestion. Clarke left the group shortly after the release of their debut album Speak & Spell, their 1982 follow-up album, A Broken Frame, was recorded as a trio, with Gore taking over primary songwriting duties. Musician & producer Alan Wilder joined the band in late 1982 and the group continued as a quartet until Wilder's departure in 1995. Since the core trio of Gahan and Fletcher have remained active, most with the release of their 2017 album Spirit and ensuing world tour.
Fletcher's role within Depeche Mode has been a topic of speculation. In early incarnations of the band, he played bass; as the band evolved after Vince Clarke's departure in 1981, Fletcher's role changed as each of the band members took to the areas that suited them and benefited the band collectively. In a key scene in D. A. Pennebaker's 1989 documentary film about the band, Fletcher clarifies these roles: "Martin's the songwriter, Alan's the good musician, Dave's the vocalist, I bum around." In his review of 2005's Playing the Angel, long after Wilder's departure from the band, Rolling Stone writer Gavin Edwards riffed upon Fletcher's statement with the opening line: "Depeche Mode's unique division of labor has been long established, with each of the three remaining members having a distinct role: Martin Gore writes the songs, Dave Gahan sings them and Andy Fletcher shows up for photo shoots and cashes the checks." Fletcher is the only member of the band. Fletcher continues to play a critical role within the band.
With the band having not always employed a full-time manager, Fletcher has handled many of the band's business and other non-musical interests over the years. In the EPK for Songs of Faith and Devotion, he discussed being genuinely interested in many of the business aspects of the music industry that other performing musicians shy away from, as such, he took over a lot of the business management aspects of the band. In recent years, this has included acting as the band's "spokesperson", with Fletcher being the one to announce Depeche Mode news, he is said to be the member, "the tiebreaker" and the one that "brings the band together". According to interviews, Fletcher built the compromise between Gahan and Gore that settled their serious dispute following 2001's Exciter album and tour over future songwriting duties within Depeche Mode. In the studio and during live shows, Fletcher does contribute a variety of supporting synthesizer parts, including bass parts, pads and drone sounds, various samples.
However, he is notably the only member of Depeche Mode. Although he can be seen singing in videos of Depeche's past live performances Fletcher's vocals were either mixed low or heard only through his own stage monitors. From the band's 2013/14 Delta Machine Tour to the present, vocal mics are no longer present on his keyboard station. On studio recordings, Fletcher's supporting vocals can be heard in some form or another on the majority of all Depeche Mode albums released since 1981. According to anecdotes from various members of Depeche Mode, an Andy Fletcher "solo album" entitled Toast Hawaii was recorded in Berlin during the Some Great Reward sessions in 1984. According to these anecdotes, all the songs on the "album" are cover songs on which Fletcher sings lead vocals; the "album" features Alan Wilder and/or Martin Gore on piano, with an album cover photo by Wilder. The story goes that Gore & Wilder presented the album to Mute Records' Daniel Miller and pleaded for him to release it. In reality, this "solo album" is certainly an in-joke, although it is not unlikely that during studio "downtime" from serious work, a diversion could have been making humorous recordings.
In 2002, Fletcher launched his own record label, a Mute Records imprint called Toast Hawaii and signed the band CLIEИT. He coordinated the recording of their eponymous 2003 debut and 2004's City and produced "extended remixes" for their subsequent singles "Price of Love," "Rock and Roll Machine," "Here and Now," "In It for the Money," "Radio" and "Pornography". CLIEИT left the label in 2006 and no further activity with the Toast Hawaii label has occurred or been announced to date. To support CLIEИT's live shows, Fletcher began touring as a DJ; when he is on hiatus from Depeche Mode, Fletcher plays occasional festivals and club gigs in Europe, South America and "places where Depeche Mode haven't visited or been able to visit" and is known to include various exclusive Depeche remixes in his sets. A notable DJ set of Fletcher's from 2011 in Warsaw has been bootlegged. In late 2015, Fletcher embarked on a small tour of European clubs. Fletcher is the eldest of four siblings born to John Fletcher.
The family moved to Basildon from Nottingham when Fletcher wa
Hounslow railway station
Hounslow railway station, on the Hounslow Loop Line, is in the London Borough of Hounslow, in west London, is in Travelcard Zone 5. The station and all trains serving; the London and South Western Railway opened the calling point on 1 February 1850 on completion of the bridges and embankments at Isleworth station. A temporary station had opened as "Hounslow" 400 metres northeast of the present Isleworth station on 22 August 1849 to allow a service to run until the loop was connected and the line complete. After this point the main commercial businesses of Hounslow and landmark buildings moved westward along Staines Road, Hounslow's fledgling high street and a major then-artery serving London and the south-west to reflect the new position of the railway station serving the nascent town; the Victoria County History series local historian Susan Reynolds, in 1962, noted "...it was not until the end that there were any houses to speak of to the south of the station." A resident station master was installed at the replacement Hounslow station in the early years and ceased to occupy the station house in the mid 20th century.
A total of £650,000 was spent for alterations over four months in the early 2010s including a larger booking hall and toilet, access for people with disabilities and low-energy, semi-automated lighting. The typical off-peak service from the station in trains per hour is: 4 direct to Waterloo via Brentford 2 circuitously to Waterloo via Twickenham and Richmond 2 to Weybridge, beyond the end of the loop which sees the line work as a corollary, to/from one of three of the destinations served by the main line. On Sundays two trains per hour run to and from Waterloo, one of which continues to Woking and the other to Whitton and following stops back to London Waterloo including Richmond. London Buses route 281 serves the station; the town centre of Hounslow is 400m north of the station. The station has a shop. Two early 21st century proposals short of central government pledge stage, or Network Rail proposals, exist for the Hounslow Loop Line, further details of which are mentioned at Syon Lane; the station was featured in the music video for the 1982 Depeche Mode song See You.
The line "Jeffrey, take the 9pm to Hounslow out of your mouth" is stated by character Stewie Griffin in the Family Guy episode "Dammit Janet!". Train times and station information for Hounslow railway station from National Rail
Synth-pop is a subgenre of new wave music that first became prominent in the late 1970s and features the synthesizer as the dominant musical instrument. It was prefigured in the 1960s and early 1970s by the use of synthesizers in progressive rock, art rock and the "Krautrock" of bands like Kraftwerk, it arose as a distinct genre in Japan and the United Kingdom in the post-punk era as part of the new wave movement of the late 1970s to the mid-1980s. Electronic musical synthesizers that could be used in a recording studio became available in the mid-1960s, while the mid-1970s saw the rise of electronic art musicians. After the breakthrough of Gary Numan in the UK Singles Chart in 1979, large numbers of artists began to enjoy success with a synthesizer-based sound in the early 1980s. In Japan, Yellow Magic Orchestra introduced the TR-808 rhythm machine to popular music, the band would be a major influence on early British synth-pop acts; the development of inexpensive polyphonic synthesizers, the definition of MIDI and the use of dance beats, led to a more commercial and accessible sound for synth-pop.
This, its adoption by the style-conscious acts from the New Romantic movement, together with the rise of MTV, led to success for large numbers of British synth-pop acts in the US. "Synth-pop" is sometimes used interchangeably with "electropop", but "electropop" may denote a variant of synth-pop that places more emphasis on a harder, more electronic sound. In the mid to late 1980s, duos such as Erasure and Pet Shop Boys adopted a style, successful on the US dance charts, but by the end of the decade, the'new wave' synth-pop of bands such as A-ha and Alphaville was giving way to house music and techno. Interest in new wave synth-pop began to revive in the indietronica and electroclash movements in the late 1990s, in the 2000s synth-pop enjoyed a widespread revival and commercial success; the genre has received criticism for alleged lack of musicianship. Synth-pop music has established a place for the synthesizer as a major element of pop and rock music, directly influencing subsequent genres and has indirectly influenced many other genres, as well as individual recordings.
Synth-pop was defined by its primary use of synthesizers, drum machines and sequencers, sometimes using them to replace all other instruments. Borthwick and Moy have described the genre as diverse but "...characterised by a broad set of values that eschewed rock playing styles and structures", which were replaced by "synthetic textures" and "robotic rigidity" defined by the limitations of the new technology, including monophonic synthesizers. Many synth-pop musicians had limited musical skills, relying on the technology to produce or reproduce the music; the result was minimalist, with grooves that were "typically woven together from simple repeated riffs with no harmonic'progression' to speak of". Early synth-pop has been described as "eerie and vaguely menacing", using droning electronics with little change in inflection. Common lyrical themes of synth-pop songs were isolation, urban anomie, feelings of being cold and hollow. In its second phase in the 1980s, the introduction of dance beats and more conventional rock instrumentation made the music warmer and catchier and contained within the conventions of three-minute pop.
Synthesizers were used to imitate the conventional and clichéd sound of orchestras and horns. Thin, treble-dominant, synthesized melodies and simple drum programmes gave way to thick, compressed production, a more conventional drum sound. Lyrics were more optimistic, dealing with more traditional subject matter for pop music such as romance and aspiration. According to music writer Simon Reynolds, the hallmark of 1980s synth-pop was its "emotional, at times operatic singers" such as Marc Almond, Alison Moyet and Annie Lennox; because synthesizers removed the need for large groups of musicians, these singers were part of a duo where their partner played all the instrumentation. Although synth-pop in part arose from punk rock, it abandoned punk's emphasis on authenticity and pursued a deliberate artificiality, drawing on the critically derided forms such as disco and glam rock, it owed little to the foundations of early popular music in jazz, folk music or the blues, instead of looking to America, in its early stages, it consciously focused on European and Eastern European influences, which were reflected in band names like Spandau Ballet and songs like Ultravox's "Vienna".
Synth-pop saw a shift to a style more influenced by other genres, such as soul music. Electronic musical synthesizers that could be used in a recording studio became available in the mid-1960s, around the same time as rock music began to emerge as a distinct musical genre; the Mellotron, an electro-mechanical, polyphonic sample-playback keyboard was overtaken by the Moog synthesizer, created by Robert Moog in 1964, which produced electronically generated sounds. The portable Minimoog, which allowed much easier use in live performance was adopted by progressive rock musicians such as Richard Wright of Pink Floyd and Rick Wakeman of Yes. Instrumental prog rock was significant in continental Europe, allowing bands like Kraftwerk, Tangerine Dream and Faust to circumvent the language barrier, their synthesizer-heavy "Kraut rock", along with the work of Brian Eno (for a time the keyboard player with Roxy M
A music genre is a conventional category that identifies some pieces of music as belonging to a shared tradition or set of conventions. It is to be distinguished from musical form and musical style, although in practice these terms are sometimes used interchangeably. Academics have argued that categorizing music by genre is inaccurate and outdated. Music can be divided into different genres in many different ways; the artistic nature of music means that these classifications are subjective and controversial, some genres may overlap. There are varying academic definitions of the term genre itself. In his book Form in Tonal Music, Douglass M. Green distinguishes between form, he lists madrigal, canzona and dance as examples of genres from the Renaissance period. To further clarify the meaning of genre, Green writes, "Beethoven's Op. 61 and Mendelssohn's Op. 64 are identical in genre – both are violin concertos – but different in form. However, Mozart's Rondo for Piano, K. 511, the Agnus Dei from his Mass, K. 317 are quite different in genre but happen to be similar in form."
Some, like Peter van der Merwe, treat the terms genre and style as the same, saying that genre should be defined as pieces of music that share a certain style or "basic musical language." Others, such as Allan F. Moore, state that genre and style are two separate terms, that secondary characteristics such as subject matter can differentiate between genres. A music genre or subgenre may be defined by the musical techniques, the style, the cultural context, the content and spirit of the themes. Geographical origin is sometimes used to identify a music genre, though a single geographical category will include a wide variety of subgenres. Timothy Laurie argues that since the early 1980s, "genre has graduated from being a subset of popular music studies to being an ubiquitous framework for constituting and evaluating musical research objects". Among the criteria used to classify musical genres are the trichotomy of art and traditional musics. Alternatively, music can be divided on three variables: arousal and depth.
Arousal reflects the energy level of the music. These three variables help explain why many people like similar songs from different traditionally segregated genres. Musicologists have sometimes classified music according to a trichotomic distinction such as Philip Tagg's "axiomatic triangle consisting of'folk','art' and'popular' musics", he explains that each of these three is distinguishable from the others according to certain criteria. The term art music refers to classical traditions, including both contemporary and historical classical music forms. Art music exists in many parts of the world, it emphasizes formal styles that invite technical and detailed deconstruction and criticism, demand focused attention from the listener. In Western practice, art music is considered a written musical tradition, preserved in some form of music notation rather than being transmitted orally, by rote, or in recordings, as popular and traditional music are. Most western art music has been written down using the standard forms of music notation that evolved in Europe, beginning well before the Renaissance and reaching its maturity in the Romantic period.
The identity of a "work" or "piece" of art music is defined by the notated version rather than by a particular performance, is associated with the composer rather than the performer. This is so in the case of western classical music. Art music may include certain forms of jazz, though some feel that jazz is a form of popular music. Sacred Christian music forms an important part of the classical music tradition and repertoire, but can be considered to have an identity of its own; the term popular music refers to any musical style accessible to the general public and disseminated by the mass media. Musicologist and popular music specialist Philip Tagg defined the notion in the light of sociocultural and economical aspects: Popular music, unlike art music, is conceived for mass distribution to large and socioculturally heterogeneous groups of listeners and distributed in non-written form, only possible in an industrial monetary economy where it becomes a commodity and in capitalist societies, subject to the laws of'free' enterprise... it should ideally sell as much as possible.
Popular music is found on most commercial and public service radio stations, in most commercial music retailers and department stores, in movie and television soundtracks. It is noted on the Billboard charts and, in addition to singer-songwriters and composers, it involves music producers more than other genres do; the distinction between classical and popular music has sometimes been blurred in marginal areas such as minimalist music and light classics. Background music for films/movies draws on both traditions. In this respect, music is like fiction, which draws a distinction between literary fiction and popular fiction, not always precise. Country music known as country and western, hillbilly music, is a genre of popular music that originated in the southern United States in the early 1920s; the polka is a Czech dance and genre of dance music familiar throughout Europe and the Americas. Rock music is a broad genre of popular music that originated as "rock and roll" in the United States in the early 1950s, developed into a range of different styles in the 1960s and particular