Newcastle upon Tyne
Newcastle upon Tyne known as Newcastle, is a city in Tyne and Wear, North East England, 103 miles south of Edinburgh and 277 miles north of London on the northern bank of the River Tyne, 8.5 mi from the North Sea. Newcastle is the most populous city in the North East, forms the core of the Tyneside conurbation, the eighth most populous urban area in the United Kingdom. Newcastle is a member of the UK Core Cities Group and is a member of the Eurocities network of European cities. Newcastle was part of the county of Northumberland until 1400, when it became a county of itself, a status it retained until becoming part of Tyne and Wear in 1974; the regional nickname and dialect for people from Newcastle and the surrounding area is Geordie. Newcastle houses Newcastle University, a member of the Russell Group, as well as Northumbria University; the city developed around the Roman settlement Pons Aelius and was named after the castle built in 1080 by Robert Curthose, William the Conqueror's eldest son.
The city grew as an important centre for the wool trade in the 14th century, became a major coal mining area. The port developed in the 16th century and, along with the shipyards lower down the River Tyne, was amongst the world's largest shipbuilding and ship-repairing centres. Newcastle's economy includes corporate headquarters, digital technology, retail and cultural centres, from which the city contributes £13 billion towards the United Kingdom's GVA. Among its icons are Newcastle United football club and the Tyne Bridge. Since 1981 the city has hosted the Great North Run, a half marathon which attracts over 57,000 runners each year; the first recorded settlement in what is now Newcastle was Pons Aelius, a Roman fort and bridge across the River Tyne. It was given the family name of the Roman Emperor Hadrian, who founded it in the 2nd century AD; this rare honour suggests Hadrian may have visited the site and instituted the bridge on his tour of Britain. The population of Pons Aelius is estimated at 2,000.
Fragments of Hadrian's Wall are visible in parts of Newcastle along the West Road. The course of the "Roman Wall" can be traced eastwards to the Segedunum Roman fort in Wallsend—the "wall's end"—and to the supply fort Arbeia in South Shields; the extent of Hadrian's Wall was 73 miles. After the Roman departure from Britain, completed in 410, Newcastle became part of the powerful Anglo-Saxon kingdom of Northumbria, was known throughout this period as Munucceaster. Conflicts with the Danes in 876 left its settlements in ruin. After the conflicts with the Danes, following the 1088 rebellion against the Normans, Monkchester was all but destroyed by Odo of Bayeux; because of its strategic position, Robert Curthose, son of William the Conqueror, erected a wooden castle there in the year 1080. The town was henceforth known as New Castle; the wooden structure was replaced by a stone castle in 1087. The castle was rebuilt again in 1172 during the reign of Henry II. Much of the keep which can be seen in the city today dates from this period.
Throughout the Middle Ages, Newcastle was England's northern fortress. Incorporated first by Henry II, the city had a new charter granted by Elizabeth in 1589. A 25-foot high stone wall was built around the town in the 13th century, to defend it from invaders during the Border war against Scotland; the Scots king William the Lion was imprisoned in Newcastle in 1174, Edward I brought the Stone of Scone and William Wallace south through the town. Newcastle was defended against the Scots three times during the 14th century, was created a county corporate with its own sheriff by Henry IV in 1400. From 1530, a royal act restricted all shipments of coal from Tyneside to Newcastle Quayside, giving a monopoly in the coal trade to a cartel of Newcastle burgesses known as the Hostmen; this monopoly, which lasted for a considerable time, helped Newcastle prosper and develop into a major town. The phrase taking coals to Newcastle was first recorded contextually in 1538; the phrase itself means a pointless pursuit.
In the 18th century, the American entrepreneur Timothy Dexter, regarded as an eccentric, defied this idiom. He was persuaded to sail a shipment of coal to Newcastle by merchants plotting to ruin him. In the Sandgate area, to the east of the city, beside the river, resided the close-knit community of keelmen and their families, they were so called because they worked on the keels, boats that were used to transfer coal from the river banks to the waiting colliers, for export to London and elsewhere. In the 1630s, about 7,000 out of 20,000 inhabitants of Newcastle died of plague, more than one-third of the population. Within the year 1636, it is estimated with evidence held by the Society of Antiquaries that 47% of the population of Newcastle died from the epidemic. During the English Civil War, the North declared for the King. In a bid to gain Newcastle and the Tyne, Cromwell's allies, the Scots, captured the town of Newburn. In 1644, the Scots captured the reinforced fortification on the Lawe in South Shields following a siege. and the city was besieged for many months.
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Newcastle Brown Ale
Newcastle Brown Ale is a brown ale produced in Newcastle upon Tyne, but now brewed by Heineken at the Zoeterwoude Brewery in the Netherlands. Launched in 1927 by Colonel Jim Porter after three years of development, the 1960 merger of Newcastle Breweries with Scottish Brewers afforded the beer national distribution and sales peaked in the United Kingdom during the early 1970s; the brand underwent a resurgence in the late 1980s and early 1990s with student unions selling the brand. By the late 1990s, the beer was the most distributed alcoholic product in the UK. By the 2000s, the majority of sales were in the United States, although it still sells 100 million bottles annually in the UK. Brewing moved in 2005 from Newcastle to Dunston and Wear, in 2010 to Tadcaster, in 2017 to the Heineken Brewery in Zoeterwoude, the Netherlands. Newcastle Brown Ale is perceived in the UK as a working-man's beer, with a long association with heavy industry, the traditional economic staple of the North East of England.
In export markets, it is predominantly drunk by the young. It was one of the first beers to be distributed in a clear glass bottle and it is most associated with this form of dispense in the UK. Newcastle Brown Ale was created by Lieutenant Colonel James Herbert Porter, a third-generation brewer at Newcastle Breweries, in 1927. Porter had served in the North Staffordshire Regiment in the First World War, earning his DSO with Bar before moving to Newcastle. Porter had refined the recipe for Newcastle Brown Ale alongside chemist Archie Jones over a period of three years; when Porter completed the beer, he believed it to be a failure, as he had been attempting to recreate Bass ale. The original beer had an original gravity of 1060º and was 6.25 ABV, it sold at a premium price of 9 shillings for a dozen pint bottles. Newcastle Brown Ale went into production at Tyne Brewery in 1927, with Newcastle Breweries having occupied the site since 1890, with brewing on the site dating back to 1868; the blue star logo was introduced to the Newcastle Brown Ale bottle in 1928, the year after the beer was launched.
The five points of the star represent the five founding breweries of Newcastle. After the merger of Scottish Brewers with Newcastle Breweries in 1960, Newcastle Brown Ale became a flagship brand of Scottish & Newcastle alongside McEwan's Export and Younger's Tartan Special. By 1997, Scottish and Newcastle claimed that it was the most distributed alcoholic product in both pubs and off licences in the country. Despite investing £16.6 million in a new bottling plant at the Tyne Brewery in 1999, Scottish and Newcastle announced its closure on 22 April 2004, in order to consolidate the brewing of beer and ale in the Federation Brewery site in Dunston, to pass to them with their £7.2m purchase of the Federation Brewery. The purchase and consolidation at Dunston created the new brewing company, Newcastle Federation Breweries; the last production run of Brown Ale in Newcastle came off the Tyne Brewery line in May 2005. Pre-production trial brews were conducted at Dunston to ensure no change occurred in its taste after the move.
The Tyne Brewery site was bought by a consortium of Newcastle University, Newcastle City Council, the regional development agency One NorthEast, as part of the wider Newcastle Science City project. Demolition of the former brewery began on 8 March 2007; the triggering of the controlled demolition of the former Barrack Road bottling plant opposite St James' Park was ceremonially performed by Sir Bobby Robson on 22 June 2008. Bottling of Newcastle Brown Ale moved to the John Smith's Brewery in Tadcaster, North Yorkshire, in 2007. Heineken bought Scottish and Newcastle in a joint deal with Carlsberg in 2008. On 13 October 2009, Scottish and Newcastle announced that it planned to close the Dunston brewery in 2010, moving production of Brown Ale to the John Smiths Brewery in Tadcaster; the company cited the general fall in the market for beer, over-capacity in its plants in general, the fact that the Dunston site was operating at just 60% capacity — despite the fact that sales of Newcastle Brown Ale had never been higher — as reasons for the closure.
The plan to close the brewery by the end of May 2010 was confirmed on 21 April 2010. In 2015, it was announced that caramel colouring, used since the beer was launched, would be removed from the beer for health reasons. Instead, roasted malt would be used to darken the beer. In 2017, Heineken announced that some production would move from the John Smith’s Brewery, Tadcaster, to the Zoeterwoude Brewery in the Netherlands; the company claimed this would allow for shorter order lead times and faster transportation to the U. S. and allow distributors to purchase by the pallet rather than the container. Newcastle Brown Ale is brewed with pale crystal malt, it has a lower hopping rate than traditional English bitters. The beer is one of the United Kingdom's leading bottled ales and is in the top 20 highest-selling ales overall, selling around 100,000 hL annually. At the time of brewing moving to Dunston in 2005, Newcastle Brown was being exported to 41 countries. At times, over half of the brewery's output is directed overseas to the U.
S. In 2010, more than 640,000 hL the beer were sold in the United States, more than double the 2001 total. In the United States the beer is available in keg. Newcastle Brown is distributed in cans in the U. S. but is rare. In Canada and France, the beer is available in cans; the beer is available in British-themed pubs as a draught beer in Australia and New Zealand, bre
Dionysius Lardner Boursiquot known as Dion Boucicault, was an Irish actor and playwright famed for his melodramas. By the part of the 19th century, Boucicault had become known on both sides of the Atlantic as one of the most successful actor-playwright-managers in the English-speaking theatre; the New York Times hailed him in his obituary as "the most conspicuous English dramatist of the 19th century." Dionysius Lardner Boursiquot was educated in Dublin where he lived on Gardiner Street. His mother was sister of the poet and mathematician George Darley; the Darleys were an important Dublin family influential in many fields and related to the Guinnesses by marriage. Anne was married to Samuel Smith Boursiquot, of Huguenot ancestry, but the identity of the boy's father is questionable, he was Dionysius Lardner, a lodger at his mother's house at a time when she was separated from her husband, who supported Dion financially until about 1840. In the late 1830s Dion worked as a clerk at the Guinness brewery, when his brief affair with the third Arthur Guinness was revealed, he was sacked by Arthur Guinness II.
Dion went to London and was enrolled at University College School at the age of 13 and studied for a year at the University of London. After a year in London, Boursiquot/Boucicault left to pursue acting in Cheltenham; the young actor used the stage name Lee Morton. He joined William Charles Macready and made his first appearance upon the stage with Benjamin Webster at Bristol, England. Soon afterwards he began to write plays in conjunction, his first play, A Legend of the Devil's Dyke, opened in Brighton in 1838. Three years he found immediate success as a dramatist with London Assurance. Produced at Covent Garden on 4 March 1841, its cast included such well-known actors as Charles Mathews, William Farren, Mrs Nesbitt and Madame Vestris, he followed this with a number of other plays, among the most successful of the early ones being The Bastile, an "after-piece", Old Heads and Young Hearts, The School for Scheming and The Knight Arva, all at Her Majesty's Theatre, as well as his successful The Corsican Brothers and Louis XI.
The last two plays were adaptations of French plays. In his play The Vampire, Boucicault made his début as a leading actor as the vampire'Sir Alan Raby'. Although the play itself had mixed reviews, Boucicault's characterisation was praised as "a dreadful and weird thing played with immortal genius". In 1854 he played the title character in Andy Blake. From 1854 to 1860, Boucicault resided in the United States. Boucicault and his actress wife, Agnes Robertson, toured America, he wrote many successful plays there, acting in most of them. These included the popular Jessie Brown. From around 1855 his business manager and partner in New York was William Stuart, an expatriate Irish MP and adventurer. Together they leased Wallack's Theatre in 1855-1856, put on a short season at the Washington Theatre in Washington D. C. In the summer of 1859, Boucicault and William Stuart became joint lessees of Burton's New Theatre on Broadway just below Amity Street. After extensive remodelling, he renamed his new showplace the Winter Garden Theatre.
There on 5 December 1859, he premiered his new sensation, the anti-slavery potboiler The Octoroon, in which he starred. This was the first play to treat the Black American population. Boucicault fell out with Stuart over money matters, he went back to England. On his return he produced at the Adelphi Theatre a dramatic adaptation of Gerald Griffin's novel, The Collegians, entitled The Colleen Bawn; this play, one of the most successful of the times, was performed in every city of the United Kingdom and the United States. Julius Benedict used it as the basis for his Opera The Lily of Killarney. Although it made its author a handsome fortune, he lost it in the management of various London theatres. After his return to England, Boucicault was asked by the noted American comedian Joseph Jefferson, who starred in the production of Octoroon, to rework Jefferson's adaptation of Washington Irving's Rip van Winkle, their play opened in London in 1865 and on Broadway in 1866. Boucicault's next marked success was at the Princess's Theatre, London in 1864 with Arrah-na-Pogue in which he played the part of a County Wicklow, Ireland carman.
This, his admirable creation of "Conn" in his play Conn the Shaughraun, won him the reputation of being the best "stage Irishman" of his time. His reputation was mentioned by W. S. Gilbert in the libretto of his 1881 operetta Patience in the line: "The pathos of Paddy, as rendered by Boucicault". Again in partnership with William Stuart he built the New Park Theatre in 1873–1874. However, Boucicault withdrew just before the theatre opened, Stuart teamed up instead with the actor and theatre manager Charles Fechter to run the house. In 1875 Boucicault returned to New York City, where he made his home and for a time his manager was Harry J. Sargent, he wrote the melodrama Contempt of Court in 1879, but he paid occasional visits to London and elsewhere. He made his last appearance in London in his play, The Jilt, in 1885; the Streets of London and After Dark were two of his late successes as a dramatist. Boucicault was an excellent actor in pathetic parts, his uncanny ability to play these low-status roles
The New York Times
The New York Times is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership. Founded in 1851, the paper has won more than any other newspaper; the Times is ranked 17th in the world by circulation and 2nd in the U. S; the paper is owned by The New York Times Company, publicly traded and is controlled by the Sulzberger family through a dual-class share structure. It has been owned by the family since 1896. G. Sulzberger, the paper's publisher, his father, Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr. the company's chairman, are the fourth and fifth generation of the family to helm the paper. Nicknamed "The Gray Lady", the Times has long been regarded within the industry as a national "newspaper of record"; the paper's motto, "All the News That's Fit to Print", appears in the upper left-hand corner of the front page. Since the mid-1970s, The New York Times has expanded its layout and organization, adding special weekly sections on various topics supplementing the regular news, editorials and features.
Since 2008, the Times has been organized into the following sections: News, Editorials/Opinions-Columns/Op-Ed, New York, Sports of The Times, Science, Home and other features. On Sunday, the Times is supplemented by the Sunday Review, The New York Times Book Review, The New York Times Magazine and T: The New York Times Style Magazine; the Times stayed with the broadsheet full-page set-up and an eight-column format for several years after most papers switched to six, was one of the last newspapers to adopt color photography on the front page. The New York Times was founded as the New-York Daily Times on September 18, 1851. Founded by journalist and politician Henry Jarvis Raymond and former banker George Jones, the Times was published by Raymond, Jones & Company. Early investors in the company included Edwin B. Morgan, Christopher Morgan, Edward B. Wesley. Sold for a penny, the inaugural edition attempted to address various speculations on its purpose and positions that preceded its release: We shall be Conservative, in all cases where we think Conservatism essential to the public good.
We do not believe that everything in Society is either right or wrong. In 1852, the newspaper started a western division, The Times of California, which arrived whenever a mail boat from New York docked in California. However, the effort failed. On September 14, 1857, the newspaper shortened its name to The New-York Times. On April 21, 1861, The New York Times began publishing a Sunday edition to offer daily coverage of the Civil War. One of the earliest public controversies it was involved with was the Mortara Affair, the subject of twenty editorials in the Times alone; the main office of The New York Times was attacked during the New York City Draft Riots. The riots, sparked by the beginning of drafting for the Union Army, began on July 13, 1863. On "Newspaper Row", across from City Hall, Henry Raymond stopped the rioters with Gatling guns, early machine guns, one of which he manned himself; the mob diverted, instead attacking the headquarters of abolitionist publisher Horace Greeley's New York Tribune until being forced to flee by the Brooklyn City Police, who had crossed the East River to help the Manhattan authorities.
In 1869, Henry Raymond died, George Jones took over as publisher. The newspaper's influence grew in 1870 and 1871, when it published a series of exposés on William Tweed, leader of the city's Democratic Party—popularly known as "Tammany Hall" —that led to the end of the Tweed Ring's domination of New York's City Hall. Tweed had offered The New York Times five million dollars to not publish the story. In the 1880s, The New York Times transitioned from supporting Republican Party candidates in its editorials to becoming more politically independent and analytical. In 1884, the paper supported Democrat Grover Cleveland in his first presidential campaign. While this move cost The New York Times a portion of its readership among its more progressive and Republican readers, the paper regained most of its lost ground within a few years. After George Jones died in 1891, Charles Ransom Miller and other New York Times editors raised $1 million dollars to buy the Times, printing it under the New York Times Publishing Company.
However, the newspaper was financially crippled by the Panic of 1893, by 1896, the newspaper had a circulation of less than 9,000, was losing $1,000 a day. That year, Adolph Ochs, the publisher of the Chattanooga Times, gained a controlling interest in the company for $75,000. Shortly after assuming control of the paper, Ochs coined the paper's slogan, "All The News That's Fit To Print"; the slogan has appeared in the paper since September 1896, has been printed in a box in the upper left hand corner of the front page since early 1897. The slogan was a jab at competing papers, such as Joseph Pulitzer's New York World and William Randolph Hearst's New York Journal, which were known for a lurid and inaccurate reporting of facts and opinions, described by the end of the century as "yellow journalism". Under Ochs' guidance, aided by Carr