A Torah scroll, in Hebrew Sefer Torah, is a handwritten copy of the Torah, meaning: of the Pentateuch, or the five books of Moses. It must meet strict standards of production; the Torah scroll is used in the ritual of Torah reading during Jewish prayers. At other times, it is stored in the holiest spot within a synagogue, the Torah ark, an ornate curtained-off cabinet or section of the synagogue built along the wall that most faces Jerusalem, the direction Jews face when praying; the text of the Torah is commonly printed and bound in book form for non-ritual functions. It is known as a Chumash, is accompanied by commentaries or translations; the charred remains of a scroll found in the Torah niche of the ancient Ein Gedi synagogue, have been dated to ca. 300 CE. The scroll was deciphered and the result shows that it contained one, two, or at the most three of the five books of Moses; the researchers have concluded that by the fourth century CE, there was no halakhic rule yet prescribing that scrolls used for liturgical purposes must contain the entire Pentateuch.
No other statements regarding when this rule came to be observed, can be made with any degree of certainty. Torah reading from a Sefer Torah or Torah scroll is traditionally reserved for Monday and Thursday mornings, as well as for Shabbat and Jewish holidays; the presence of a quorum of ten Jewish adults is required for the reading of the Torah to be held in public during the course of the worship services. As the Torah is sung, following the dense text is aided by a yad, a metal or wooden hand-shaped pointer that protects the scrolls by avoiding unnecessary contact of the skin with the parchment. All Jewish prayers start with a blessing, thanking God for Him revealing the Law to the Jews, before Torah reading and all days during the first blessings of the morning prayer. According to Jewish law, a Sefer Torah is a copy of the formal Hebrew text of the Torah hand-written on special types of parchment by using a quill or another permitted writing utensil, dipped in ink. Producing a Torah scroll fulfills one of the 613 commandments.
"The k'laf/parchment on which the Torah scroll is written, the hair or sinew with which the panels of parchment are sewn together, the quill pen with which the text is written all must come from ritually clean —that is, kosher— animals."Written in Hebrew, a Torah scroll contains 304,805 letters, all of which must be duplicated by a trained scribe, or sofer, an effort which may take as long as one and a half years. An error during transcription may render the Torah scroll pasul. According to the Talmud, all scrolls must be written on gevil parchment, treated with salt, flour and m'afatsim in order to be valid. Scrolls not processed in this way are considered invalid. There are only two types of kosher parchment allowed for a Torah scroll: klaf; the three types of specially processed animal skin or parchment that can be used are: gevil and duchsustos, the latter two being one half of a split animal hide. However, a Torah scroll written on duchsustos is not kosher; these are Hebrew words to describe different types of parchment, although the term duchsustos is Greek.
These are used for the production of a mezuzah, tefillin, and/or a Torah scroll. A kosher Torah scroll should be written on gevil. If klaf is used in place of gevil, the Torah scroll is still kosher, but this should not be done at the outset; the use of gevil and certain types of parchment has allowed some Torah scrolls of antiquity to survive intact for over 800 years. The calfskin or parchment on which the sacred Hebrew text is written is mounted into a wooden housing called עץ חיים etz khayim, "Tree of Life" in Hebrew; the ink used is subject to specific rules The ink used in writing scrolls had to adhere to a surface, rolled and unrolled, so special inks were developed. So, ink would flake off of scrolls. If the ink from too many letters is lost, a Torah scroll is no longer used. After the preparation of the parchment sheet, the scribe must mark out the parchment using the sargel ensuring the guidelines are straight. Only the top guide is done and the letters suspended from it. Most modern Torah scrolls are written with forty-two lines of text per column.
Strict rules about the position and appearance of the Hebrew alphabet are observed. See for example the Mishnah Berurah on the subject. Any of several Hebrew scripts may be used, most of which are ornate and exacting; the fidelity of the Hebrew text of the Tanakh, the Torah in particular, is considered paramount, down to the last letter: translations or transcriptions are frowned upon for formal service use, transcribing is done with painstaking care. Some errors are inevitable in the course of production. If the error involves a word other than the name of God, the mistaken letter may be obliterated from the scroll by scraping the letter off the scroll with a sharp object. If the name of God is written in error, the entire page must be cut from the scroll and a new page added, t
Lightning Bolt is the eponymous debut album by noise rock band Lightning Bolt. Five of the tracks on the album were recorded in the studio, with the exception of one track, the band discarded these and instead put low fidelity live versions of the songs on the record. A 50-minute "companion cassette" entitled Zone was available for three dollars via direct mail order when the record was released; this material appears in the form of two bonus tracks included on the CD release. The original vinyl issue was limited to 750 copies and had the artwork, represented on this page; the more common CD reissue contained different artwork. All tracks are written by Lightning Bolt. Brian Chippendale – drums and vocals Brian Gibson – bass guitar Rik Peltier – recording engineer Lightning Bolt official website Lightning Bolt at Load Records
James Ryan is an American entrepreneur in cyber security. He is the co-founder and managing partner of a security firm. Ryan's contributions to the cyber security industry are known through The Economist and The History Channel. Ryan was born in Anchorage, Alaska in 1974, he holds a Master of Science in Electrical Engineering from Virginia Tech. Ryan resides in Northern Virginia with his wife Kidist, three children; as a motivational trainer, Ryan was included in the book “Lifting the Curtain: the disgrace we call urban high school education”. Ryan is the founder and Managing Partner since 2002, of Litmus Logic, LLC, a boutique firm that provides expertise in security and privacy, cyber defense, trust strategies and Internet technologies, he serves as Chief Strategy Officer for the Cyber Security Summit, the Minnesota Innovation Lab, a State-level economic development organization. Ryan was one of the experts who contributed to The Economics of Digital Identity, a 2015 technical report published by The Economist Intelligence Unit.
From 1993 to 1997, he was a software engineer at TRW. Ryan who has knowledge in cyber security and trust framework, consults with governments and financial institutions and Cloud providers, The United States Department of Defense and civil agencies, he spoke at the United States Department of Defense Cyber Crime conference, Robotics Alley, the Cyber Security Summit and Security360. Topics of his speeches included success with cyber security, Public key infrastructure, Internet of Things, cyber security for robotics and artificial intelligence, National Strategy for Trusted Identities in Cyberspace. Ryan has collaborated with NASA and Electronic Data Systems in creating the Identity Credential and Access Management segment architecture, the Personal Identity Verification – Interoperable trust framework, a new approach to access control that uses Public Key Infrastructure, he was featured together with Oliver North in the History Channel program “America’s Book of Secrets: The Pentagon” in March 2012.
Ryan at Cyber Security Summit 2017 Founder of Litmus Logic