Virtual reality is an interactive computer-generated experience taking place within a simulated environment. It incorporates auditory and visual feedback, but may allow other types of sensory feedback; this immersive environment can be similar to the real world or it can be fantastical. Current VR technology most uses virtual reality headsets or multi-projected environments, sometimes in combination with physical environments or props, to generate realistic images and other sensations that simulate a user's physical presence in a virtual or imaginary environment. A person using virtual reality equipment is able to "look around" the artificial world, move around in it, interact with virtual features or items; the effect is created by VR headsets consisting of a head-mounted display with a small screen in front of the eyes, but can be created through specially designed rooms with multiple large screens. Other forms of VR include augmented reality and mixed reality systems. VR systems that include transmission of vibrations and other sensations to the user through a controller or other devices are known as haptic systems.
This tactile information is known as force feedback in medical, video gaming, military training applications. "Virtual" has had the meaning of "being something in essence or effect, though not or in fact" since the mid-1400s. The term "virtual" has been used in the computer sense of "not physically existing but made to appear by software" since 1959. In 1938, French avant-garde playwright Antonin Artaud described the illusory nature of characters and objects in the theatre as "la réalité virtuelle" in a collection of essays, Le Théâtre et son double; the English translation of this book, published in 1958 as The Theater and its Double, is the earliest published use of the term "virtual reality". The term "artificial reality", coined by Myron Krueger, has been in use since the 1970s; the term "virtual reality" was first used in a science fiction context in The Judas Mandala, a 1982 novel by Damien Broderick. One method by which virtual reality can be realized is simulation-based virtual reality.
Driving simulators, for example, give the driver on board the impression of driving an actual vehicle by predicting vehicular motion caused by driver input and feeding back corresponding visual and audio cues to the driver. With avatar image-based virtual reality, people can join the virtual environment in the form of real video as well as an avatar. One can participate in the 3D distributed virtual environment as form of either a conventional avatar or a real video. A user can select own type of participation based on the system capability. In projector-based virtual reality, modeling of the real environment plays a vital role in various virtual reality applications, such as robot navigation, construction modeling, airplane simulation. Image-based virtual reality system has been gaining popularity in computer graphics and computer vision communities. In generating realistic models, it is essential to register acquired 3D data. Desktop-based virtual reality involves displaying a 3D virtual world on a regular desktop display without use of any specialized positional tracking equipment.
Many modern first-person video games can be used as an example, using various triggers, responsive characters, other such interactive devices to make the user feel as though they are in a virtual world. A common criticism of this form of immersion is that there is no sense of peripheral vision, limiting the user's ability to know what is happening around them. A head-mounted display more immerses the user in a virtual world. A virtual reality headset includes two small high resolution OLED or LCD monitors which provide separate images for each eye for stereoscopic graphics rendering a 3D virtual world, a binaural audio system and rotational real-time head tracking for six degrees of movement, optionally motion controls with haptic feedback for physically interacting within the virtual world in a intuitive way with little to no abstraction. Augmented reality is a type of virtual reality technology that blends what the user sees in their real surroundings with digital content generated by computer software.
The additional software-generated images with the virtual scene enhance how the real surroundings look in some way. AR systems layer virtual information over a camera live feed into a headset or smartglasses or through a mobile device giving the user the ability to view three-dimensional images. Mixed reality is the merging of the real world and virtual worlds to produce new environments and visualizations where physical and digital objects co-exist and interact in real time. A cyberspace is a networked virtual reality. Simulated reality is a hypothetical virtual reality as immersive as the actual reality, it is most to be produced using a brain–computer interface and quantum computing. The exact origins of virtual reality are disputed because of how difficult it has been to formulate a definition for the concept of an alternative existence; the development of perspective in Renaissance Europe created convincing depictions of spaces that did not exist, in what has been referred to as the "multiplying of artificial worlds".
Other elements of virtual reality appeared as early as the 1860s. Antonin Artaud took the view that illusion was not distinct from reality, advocating that spectators at a play should suspend disbelief and regard the drama on stage as reality; the first references to the more modern concept of virtual reality came from science fiction. Morton Heilig wrote in the 1950s of an "Experience Theatre" that could encompass all the sen
Snatcher (video game)
Snatcher is a cyberpunk graphic adventure game developed and published by Konami. It was written and designed by Hideo Kojima and first released in 1988 for the PC-8801 and MSX2 in Japan. Snatcher is set in a future East Asian metropolis where humanoid robots dubbed "Snatchers" have been discovered killing humans and replacing them in society; the player takes on the role of Gillian Seed, an amnesiac who joins a Snatcher hunting agency hoping it will help him remember his past. Gameplay takes place through a menu-based interface through which the player can choose to examine items, search rooms, speak to characters, explore a semi-open world, perform other actions. Kojima wanted Snatcher to have a cinematic feel, so the setting and story are influenced by science fiction films Blade Runner, other cyberpunk works such as Akira and The Terminator. Development on the PC versions took more than twice as long as the average game of the time after Kojima was asked to trim more than half his initial story.
The game was released to poor sales. It garnered a cult following, was remade as a role-playing game called SD Snatcher for the MSX2 in 1990; this was followed by a remake of the original adventure game using CD-ROM technology, released for the PC Engine Super CD-ROM² System in 1992. Looking to provide a more interactive experience to gamers in the West, Konami developed a Sega CD version of Snatcher for North America and Europe in 1994; the game received positive reviews for its cinematic presentation and mature themes uncommon in games at the time. It has been retrospectively acclaimed as both one of the best adventure and cyberpunk games of all time, identified as a foundation for the themes Kojima explored in the Metal Gear series; the game was a significant inspiration on Goichi Suda, who worked with Kojima to produce a radio drama prequel, Sdatcher. The English version of Snatcher has never been rereleased, despite desire from fans. Snatcher is a graphic adventure game with visual novel elements.
The player takes the role of protagonist Gillian Seed as he investigates and hunts "Snatchers", dangerous humanoid robots disguised as humans roaming Neo Kobe City. The game's visuals are static images with some animations. There is no point-and-click interface, with all actions made through a text menu with commands such as move and investigate; the game's puzzles and dialogue trees are simple. Sometimes character panels are shown below the main graphics window during conversations to convey their facial expressions; the game allows exploration of a semi-open world. There are a handful of action segments where the player shoots at enemies dispersed across a 3x3 grid; the Sega CD version supports the Justifier light gun packaged with Lethal Enforcers for these segments. Snatcher is set in the mid-21st century, fifty years after a biological weapon known as Lucifer-Alpha killed much of the world's population. In Neo Kobe City, a metropolis on an artificial island in eastern Asia, humanoid robots dubbed "Snatchers" have been discovered killing humans, donning their skin as a disguise, replacing them in society.
The Neo Kobe government closes the city from the outside world and establishes JUNKER, a task force to hunt Snatchers. The player takes on the role of Gillian Seed, an amnesiac who can only remember that his past is somehow related to Snatchers, he starts working at JUNKER in hopes. After Gillian Seed arrives at the JUNKER headquarters, he is introduced to Chief Cunningham and receives a robot navigator named "Metal Gear" from JUNKER's engineer Harry Benson. Metal Gear receives a distress call from Jean-Jack Gibson, the only other JUNKER agent, so Gillian travels there with Metal Gear, only to find a pair of Snatchers have killed him, they are forced to make a quick escape as the factory explodes. Gillian begins searching for the identity of the Snatchers that murdered Jean-Jack, after searching his house and speaking with his informant, Gillian identifies a pair of suspects; when hunting down the Snatchers, he is nearly killed but is saved by Random Hajile, a Snatcher bounty hunter. Random joins Gillian and Metal Gear as they travel to a hospital Jean-Jack identified as suspicious during his investigation.
They learn it has been abandoned for several years and harbors a secret basement where they find skeletons of Snatcher victims. Among them, they find Chief Cunningham; some Snatchers attack the group, but Random distracts them to allow Gillian and Metal Gear to escape. Back at JUNKER headquarters, Gillian kills the Chief and speaks to Harry before he dies, having been mortally wounded by the Chief. After this, Gillian receives a call from his estranged wife Jamie, telling him she is being held in the "Kremlin". Gillian and Metal Gear travel to an abandoned church resembling the Kremlin, where they find Jamie being held captive by a scientist named Elijah Modnar, who explains Gillian's past. He, his father and Jamie were involved in a secret experiment taken under by the Soviet Union over 50 years prior during the Cold War to create Snatchers, which were designed to kill and replace world leaders, giving the Soviets more power. Gillian was a CIA agent spying on the project, who married Jamie and had a child with her, Harry Benson.
Gillian and Jamie were placed in a cryogenic sleep when Elijah released Lucifer-Alpha into the atmosphere. The pair were saved by the army, lost their memories due to the extended period of time they had been frozen. Having become corrupt with power, Elijah reveals that he intends for the Snatchers to wipe out
A tracking system is used for the observing of persons or objects on the move and supplying a timely ordered sequence of location data for further processing. In virtual space technology, a tracking system is a system capable of rendering virtual space to a human observer while tracking the observer's coordinates. For instance, in dynamic virtual auditory space simulations, a real-time head tracker provides feedback to the central processor, allowing for selection of appropriate head-related transfer functions at the estimated current position of the observer relative to the environment. There are myriads of tracking systems; some are'lag time' indicators, that is, the data is collected after an item has passed a point for example a bar code or choke point or gate. Others are'real-time' or'near real-time' like Global Positioning Systems depending on how the data is refreshed. There are bar-code systems which require a person to scan automatic identification. For the most part, the tracking worlds are composed of discrete hardware and software systems for different applications.
That is, bar-code systems are separate from Electronic Product Code systems, GPS systems are separate from active real time locating systems or RTLS for example, a passive RFID system would be used in a warehouse to scan the boxes as they are loaded on a truck - the truck itself is tracked on a different system using GPS with its own features and software. The major technology “silos” in the supply chain are: Indoors assets are tracked repetitively reading e.g. a barcode, any passive and active RFID and feeding read data into Work in Progress models or Warehouse Management Systems or ERP software. The readers required per choke point are meshed hand-held ID applications; however tracking could be capable of providing monitoring data without binding to a fixed location by using a cooperative tracking capability, e.g. an RTLS. Outdoors mobile assets of high value are tracked by choke point, 802.11, Received Signal Strength Indication, Time Delay on Arrival, active RFID or GPS Yard Management.
Yard Management Systems couple location data collected by RFID and GPS systems to help supply chain managers to optimize utilization of yard assets such as trailers and dock doors. YMS systems can use either passive RFID tags. Fleet management is applied as a tracking application using GPS and composing tracks from subsequent vehicle's positions; each vehicle to be tracked is equipped with a GPS receiver and relays the obtained coordinates via cellular or satellite networks to a home station. Fleet management is required by: Large fleet operators, Forwarding operators Operators who have high equipment and/or cargo/product costs Operators who have a dynamic workload One such use of the RFID technology is in tracking IDs of students. Using GPS IDs would resolve the decreasing attendance in schools by monitoring the whereabouts of students when they did not attend class, it is used to efficiently check attendance. Perks of this tracking system is allowing students to check out library books buy food in the cafeterias.
The GPS IDs act as a security measure to monitor any unwanted visitors or an emergency locator if a student cannot be found. In the Spring Independent School District, students have been using for many years in check that students are staying in school during the day. Since they have instigated the system, attendance has increased thus schooling funding has increased as well. Debates over the Fourth Amendment have come up. Conservative students wish to keep their privacy and forbid to wear tracking devices hackers can break into these systems to find out students’ information. Since many schools, such as those in the Spring Independent School District, require students to wear the tracking IDs, students argue that it is an immediate violation of their privacy. Yet, the Fourth Amendment is not violated in these cases since students are not tracked in their homes; each school’s decision over GPS IDs varies as states develop laws against these IDs in schools and as students protest for their privacy rights.
Location-based services or LBS is a term, derived from the telematics and telecom world. The combination of A-GPS, newer GPS and cellular locating technology is what has enabled the latest “LBS” for handsets and PDAs. Line of sight is not required for a location fix; this is a significant advantage in certain applications since a GPS signal can still be lost indoors. As such, A-GPS enabled cell phones and PDAs can be located indoors and the handset may be tracked more precisely; this enables non-vehicle centric applications and can bridge the indoor location gap the domain of RFID and RTLS systems, with an off the shelf cellular device. A-GPS enabled handsets are still dependent on the LBS carrier system, so handset device choice and application requirements are still not apparent. Enterprise system integrators need the skills and knowledge to choose the pieces that will fit the application and geography. Regardless of the tracking technology, for the most part the end-users just want to locate themselves or wish to find points of interest.
The reality is that there is no "one size fits all" solution with locating technology for all conditions and applications. Application of tracking is a substantial basis for vehicle tracking in fleet management, asset management, individual navigation, social networking, or mobile resour
The Virtual Boy is a 32-bit table-top video game console developed and manufactured by Nintendo. Released in 1995 it was marketed as the first console capable of displaying stereoscopic 3D graphics; the player uses the console in a manner similar to a head-mounted display, placing their head against the eyepiece to see a red monochrome display. The games use a parallax effect to create the illusion of depth. Sales failed to meet targets, by early 1996, Nintendo ceased distribution and game development, only releasing 22 games for the system. Development of the Virtual Boy lasted four years, began under the project name of VR32. Nintendo entered a licensing agreement to use a 3D LED eyepiece technology developed by U. S.-based company Reflection Technology. It built a factory in China to be used for Virtual Boy manufacturing. Over the course of development, the console technology was down-scaled due to high costs and potential health concerns. Furthermore, an increasing amount of company resources were being reallocated to Nintendo 64 development.
Lead Nintendo game designer, Shigeru Miyamoto, had little involvement with the Virtual Boy software. The console was pushed to market in an unfinished state in 1995 to focus on Nintendo 64 development; the Virtual Boy was a commercial failure. Its failure has been cited as due to its high price, monochrome display, unimpressive 3D effect, lack of true portability, health concerns, low quality games, its negative reception was unaffected by continued price drops. 3D technology in video game consoles reemerged in years to more success, including in Nintendo's own 3DS handheld console. The Virtual Boy is Nintendo's second lowest-selling platform after the 64DD. Since 1985, a red LED eyepiece display technology called Scanned Linear Array was developed by Massachusetts-based Reflection Technology, Inc.. The company produced a 3D stereoscopic head-tracking prototype called the Private Eye, featuring a tank game. Seeking funding and partnerships by which to develop it into a commercial technology, RTI demonstrated Private Eye to the consumer electronics market, including Mattel and Hasbro.
Sega declined the technology, due to concerns about motion sickness. Nintendo enthusiastically received the Private Eye, as led by Gunpei Yokoi, the general manager of Nintendo's R&D1 and the inventor of the Game & Watch and Game Boy handheld consoles, he saw this as a unique technology. Additionally, the resulting game console was intended to enhance Nintendo's reputation as an innovator and to "encourage more creativity" in games. Codenaming the project "VR32", Nintendo entered into an exclusive agreement with Reflection Technology, Inc. to license the technology for its displays. While Nintendo's Research & Development 3 division was focused on developing the Nintendo 64, the other two engineering units were free to experiment with new product ideas. Spending four years in development and building a dedicated manufacturing plant in China, Nintendo worked to turn its VR32 vision into an affordable and health-conscious console design. Yokoi retained RTI's choice of red LED because it was the cheapest, because unlike a backlit LCD, its perfect blackness could achieve a more immersive sense of infinite depth.
RTI and Nintendo said a color LCD system would have been prohibitively expensive, retailing for more than US$500. A color LCD system was said to have caused "jumpy images in tests". With ongoing concerns about motion sickness, the risk of developing lazy eye conditions in young children, Japan's new Product Liability Act of 1995, Nintendo eliminated the head tracking functionality and converted its headmounted goggle design into a stationary, precision steel-shielded, tabletop form factor conformant to the recommendation of the Schepens Eye Research Institute. E experimented with a color LCD screen, but the users did not see depth, they just saw double. Color graphics give people the impression, but just because a game has a beautiful display does not mean that the game is fun to play.... Red uses; that is. A number of technology demonstrations were used to show the Virtual Boy's capabilities. Driving Demo is one of the more advanced demos; this demo was shown at E3 and CES in 1995. The startup screen of the Virtual Boy prototype was shown at Shoshinkai in 1994.
A "very confident" projection of "sales in Japan of 3 million hardware units and 14 million software units by March of 1996" was given to the press. The demo of what would have been a Star Fox game showed an Arwing doing various motions. Cinematic camera angles were a key element, as they are in Star Fox 2, it was shown at E3 and CES in 1995. As a result of increasing competition for internal resources alongside the flagship Nintendo 64, Virtual Boy software development proceeded without the company's full attention, with little involvement by lead game designer Shigeru Miyamoto. According to David Sheff's book Game Over, the reticent Yokoi never intended for the downscaled console to be released in its final form. However, Nintendo pushed the Virtual Boy to market so that it could focus development resources on the Nintendo 64; the New York Times previewed the Virtual Boy on November 13, 1994. The console was announced via press release the next day, November 14. Nintendo promised that Virtual Boy would "totally immerse players into their own private universe."
Initial press releases and interviews about the system focused on its technologic
The HTC Vive is a virtual reality headset developed by HTC and Valve Corporation. The headset uses "room scale" tracking technology, allowing the user to move in 3D space and use motion-tracked handheld controllers to interact with the environment; the HTC Vive was unveiled during HTC's Mobile World Congress keynote in March 2015. Development kits were sent out in August and September 2015, the first Consumer version of the device was released on June 7th, 2016. Prototypes of a Valve-produced virtual reality system were demonstrated during 2014. On 23 February 2015, Valve announced SteamVR and that it would demonstrate a "SteamVR hardware system" at the 2015 Game Developers Conference. HTC unveiled its device, during its Mobile World Congress keynote on 1 March 2015. Preorders started on 29 February 2016 at 10:00 a.m. EST. Valve and HTC have since announced that the headset will be free for selected developers. At Consumer Electronics Show 2016, HTC and Valve unveiled a near-final hardware revision of the device, known as HTC Vive Pre.
During his Immersed 2015 keynote, Phil Chen, Chief Content Officer for HTC and founder of the HTC Vive, explained that he "stumbled upon VR" and HTC met Valve, which turned out to be "serendipity". Chen explained that HTC and Valve don't have a clear dividing line between each of their responsibilities, HTC is much a partner in the research and development process. In June 2016, HTC announced the release of their'Business Edition' of the Vive for $1,200 USD which would include a Professional Use License, a 12-month Commercial Warranty, access to an exclusive support line, a 5-meter cable extension kit, it included the Deluxe Audio Strap. In November 2016, HTC announced a tether-less VR upgrade kit made by TPCAST. A public model was shown at CES 2017 and had a price of $249. At Google I/O in May 2017, Google announced a new, all in-built'Standalone VR' system that would be made by the Vive team and by Lenovo. Whilst in June 2017 Valve revealed details of a second variation of Vive controller which utilizes finger tracking called the Knuckles Vive controller.
Vive Headset: The Vive headset has a refresh rate of 90 Hz and a 110 degree field of view. The device uses two OLED panels, one per eye, each having a display resolution of 1080×1200. Safety features include a front-facing camera that allows the user to observe their surroundings without removing their headset; the software can use the camera to identify any moving or static objects in a room. Inside the headset's outer-shell divots are dozens of infrared sensors that detect the base stations' IR pulses to determine the head set's current location in a space. Other sensors include a G-Sensor and proximity sensor. Vive Controllers: The controllers have multiple input methods including a track pad, grip buttons, a dual-stage trigger and a use per charge of about 6 hours. Across the ring of the controller are 24 infrared sensors that detect the base stations to determine the location of the controller; the SteamVR Tracking system is used to track the controller location to a fraction of a millimeter, with update rates ranging from 250Hz to 1kHz.
Vive Base Stations: Also known as the Lighthouse tracking system are two black boxes that create a 360 degree virtual space up to 15x15 foot radius. The base stations emit timed infrared pulses at 60 pulses per second that are picked up by the headset and controllers with sub-millimeter precision. Wireless syncing lowers the amount of wires as well standard threading making the base stations practical to use in a home. Vive Tracker: A motion tracking accessory. Vive Trackers feature a connector that can be used to communicate with the accessory it is attached to. On launch, the Vive Tracker was sold as a standalone product, in bundles with accessories and games designed to integrate with it, such as the Hyper Blaster, a racquet designed for sports games. Other third-party accessories have been developed for use with Vive Trackers, such as bands designed to be attached to a user's arms or legs to enable body tracking. Vive Deluxe Audio Strap: In June 2017, HTC released the Deluxe Audio Strap for $99 USD.
It added integrated over-ear headphones as well as improved the HMD's comfort through better weight distribution. The Vive required computers running Microsoft Windows. In February 2017, support was added for Linux, followed by support for MacOS in June 2017. By March 2016, the time at which the pre-orders for the HTC Vive opened, 107 games were known to be coming to the virtual reality format. In February 2017 Valve CEO Gabe Newell announced via Reddit AMA'ask me anything' session Valve is developing three AAA VR IPs alongside the forthcoming "Knuckles" controllers. An open source program called. Valve released its OpenVR software development kit, an updated version of its Steamworks VR API with documentation and examples of how to build software that supports SteamVR hardware, it provides support for the HTC Vive Developer Edition, including the SteamVR controller and Lighthouse. SteamVR was launched with native support for Unity on its platform. On 30 April 2015, Epic Games announced support for Valve's SteamVR technology, allowing developers to create VR projects with Unreal Engine 4 for the HTC Vive.
Epic said that SteamVR is integrated into Unreal Engine 4 across Blueprint visual scripting and native code
Consumer Electronics Show
CES is an annual trade show organized by the Consumer Technology Association. Held in January at the Las Vegas Convention Center in Las Vegas, United States, the event hosts presentations of new products and technologies in the consumer electronics industry; the first CES was held in June 1967 in New York City. It was a spinoff from the Chicago Music Show, until had served as the main event for exhibiting consumer electronics; the event had over 100 exhibitors. From 1978 to 1994, CES was held twice each year: once in January in Las Vegas known for Winter Consumer Electronics Show and once in June in Chicago, known as Summer Consumer Electronics Show; the winter show was held in Las Vegas in 1995 as planned. However, since the summer Chicago shows were beginning to lose popularity, the organizers decided to experiment by having the show travel around to different cities starting in 1995 with a planned show in Philadelphia at the Pennsylvania Convention Center. However, the inaugural E3 gaming show was scheduled to be held on the West Coast in May and proved a source of increasing competition, causing the Philadelphia Summer CES show to be cancelled.
The 1996 Winter show was again held in Las Vegas in January, followed by a Summer show this time in Orlando, however only a fraction of the traditional exhibitors participated. Again, the 1997 Winter show in Las Vegas was successful; the next "Summer" show was scheduled to be held in conjunction with Spring COMDEX in Atlanta, however when only two dozen-or-so exhibitors signed on, the CES portion of the show was cancelled. In 1998, the show changed to a once-a-year format with Las Vegas as the location. In Las Vegas, the show is one of the largest, taking up to 18 days to run and break down; the first CES was held in New York City from June 24 to 28, 1967. The 200 exhibitors attracted 17,500 attendees to the Hilton and Americana hotels over those four days. On view: the latest pocket radios and TVs sporting integrated circuits. Philips unveiled the N1500 videocassette recorder; until that point, VCRs cost upward of $50,000 and were used by TV stations, but the Philips model with a built-in tuner was just $900.
Winter CES held January 7-9 at the Conrad Hilton Hotel. Per the show guide, it included video and calculator and watch areas, considered separate component conferences. Speakers included the FTC's Joan Bernstein on "The Warranty Law -- Its Status and Impact," and the FCC's Richard M. Smith on "Regulating Citizens' Band Radios." Summer CES held June 13-16 in Chicago, at McCormick Place. Winter CES held January in Las Vegas. Atari 400 and 800 computers introduced. Summer CES held June 3-6 at McCormick Place. Features included personal communications, retail advertising and store layout, video, auto sound/telephone sales, a large series of retail sales and sales management breakouts. Summer CES June 6 at Chicago saw the first appearance of Commodore 64 and General Consumer Electronics’ Vectrex. In a one-time experiment, the Summer CES 1993 was open to the general public. Major announcements during this edition were: Capcom unveils Mega Man X for the first Time in North America. Microsoft demonstrated a preview version of Windows XP Media Center Edition at CES 2002.
The Blu-ray Group held at the January 2004 CES the first US press conference to promote the Blu-ray Disc format. The 2005 CES was from January 6 to 9, 2005, in Las Vegas, Nevada, at the Las Vegas Convention Center; the event started off with a twist when the main keynote address by Microsoft chairman Bill Gates went wrong, as his demonstration of Windows Media Center resulted in a Blue Screen of Death, much to the amusement of the onlookers. Samsung showed off a 102-inch plasma television. Zimiti Ltd won the "Best of Innovators" award for Personal Electronics, it is the only British company to have won this award. The 2006 exhibition took place on January 5–8, 2006, at the Las Vegas Convention Center, the Sands Convention Center, the Alexis Park Hotel and the Las Vegas Hilton Hotel. HDTV was a central theme in the Bill Gates keynote as well as many of the other manufacturer's speeches; the standards competition between HD DVD and Blu-ray Disc was conspicuous, with some of the first HD movie releases and first HD players being announced at the show.
Philips showed a rollable display prototype whose screen can retain an image for several months without electricity. Hillcrest Labs won the "Best Of Innovations" award in the video accessories category for software and hardware that allows a television to be controlled with natural gestures. Attendance was over 150,000 individuals in 1.67 million net square feet of space, making it the largest electronics event in the United States. In a break from recent tradition, the 2007 CES exhibition did not begin on a Thursday, nor span a weekend, it ran from Monday to Thursday on January 8–11, 2007. The venues changed with the high-performance audio and home theater expo moving from the Alexis Park venue to The Venetian; the remaining venues were the same as previous years: the Las Vegas Convention Center was the center of events, with the adjacent Las Vegas Hilton, the Sands Expo and Convention Center hosting satellite exhibitions. The location for the main keynotes was the other major change for 2007.
Held at the Las Vegas Hilton's Main Theater, they staged for t
The Sega Genesis, known as the Mega Drive in regions outside of North America, is a 16-bit home video game console developed and sold by Sega. The Genesis was the successor to the Master System. Sega released it as the Mega Drive in Japan in 1988, followed by North America as the Genesis in 1989. In 1990, it was distributed as the Mega Drive by Virgin Mastertronic in Europe, Ozisoft in Australasia, Tec Toy in Brazil. In South Korea, it was distributed by Samsung as the Super Gam*Boy and the Super Aladdin Boy. Designed by an R&D team supervised by Hideki Sato and Masami Ishikawa, the Genesis was adapted from Sega's System 16 arcade board, centered on a Motorola 68000 processor as the CPU, a Zilog Z80 as a sound controller, a video system supporting hardware sprites and scrolling, it plays a library of more than 900 games created by Sega and a wide array of third-party publishers and delivered on ROM-based cartridges. Several add-ons were released, including a Power Base Converter to play Master System games.
It was released in several different versions, some created by third parties. Sega created two network services to support the Genesis: Sega Channel. In Japan, the Mega Drive fared poorly against its two main competitors, Nintendo's Super Famicom and NEC's PC Engine, but it achieved considerable success in North America and Europe. Contributing to its success were its library of arcade game ports, the popularity of Sega's Sonic the Hedgehog series, several popular sports franchises, aggressive youth marketing that positioned the system as the cool console for adolescents; the release of the Super Nintendo Entertainment System two years after the Genesis resulted in a fierce battle for market share in the United States and Europe, termed as a "console war" by journalists and historians. As this contest drew increasing attention to the video game industry among the general public, the Genesis and several of its highest-profile games attracted significant legal scrutiny on matters involving reverse engineering and video game violence.
Controversy surrounding violent games such as Night Trap and Mortal Kombat led Sega to create the Videogame Rating Council, a predecessor to the Entertainment Software Rating Board. 30.75 million first-party Genesis units were sold worldwide. In addition, Tec Toy sold an estimated three million licensed variants in Brazil, Majesco projected it would sell 1.5 million licensed variants of the system in the United States, much smaller numbers were sold by Samsung in South Korea. By the mid-2010s, licensed third-party Genesis rereleases were still being sold by AtGames in North America and Europe. Many games have been rereleased in compilations or on online services such as the Nintendo Virtual Console, Xbox Live Arcade, PlayStation Network, Steam; the Genesis was succeeded in 1994 by the Sega Saturn. In the early 1980s, Sega Enterprises, Inc. a subsidiary of Gulf & Western, was one of the top five arcade game manufacturers active in the United States, as company revenues surpassed $200 million between July 1981 and June 1982.
A downturn in the arcade business starting in 1982 hurt the company, leading Gulf & Western to sell its North American arcade manufacturing organization and the licensing rights for its arcade games to Bally Manufacturing. The company retained Sega's North American R&D operation, as well as its Japanese subsidiary, Sega Enterprises, Ltd. With its arcade business in decline, Sega Enterprises, Ltd. president Hayao Nakayama advocated that the company leverage its hardware expertise to move into the home console market in Japan, in its infancy at the time. Nakayama received permission to proceed with this project, leading to the release of Sega's first home video game system, the SG-1000, in July 1983; the SG-1000 was not successful. Sega estimated; the SG-1000 was replaced by the Sega Mark III within two years. In the meantime, Gulf & Western began to divest itself of its non-core businesses after the death of company founder Charles Bluhdorn, so Nakayama and former Sega CEO David Rosen arranged a management buyout of the Japanese subsidiary in 1984 with financial backing from CSK Corporation, a prominent Japanese software company.
Nakayama was installed as CEO of the new Sega Enterprises, Ltd. In 1986, Sega redesigned the Mark III for release in North America as the Sega Master System; this was followed by a European release the next year. Although the Master System was a success in Europe, in Brazil, it failed to ignite significant interest in the Japanese or North American markets, which, by the mid-to-late 1980s, were both dominated by Nintendo. With Sega continuing to have difficulty penetrating the home market, Sega's console R&D team, led by Masami Ishikawa and supervised by Hideki Sato, began work on a successor to the Master System immediately after that console launched. In 1987, Sega faced another threat to its console business when Japanese computer giant NEC released the PC Engine amid great publicity. To remain competitive against the two more established consumer electronics companies and his team decided they needed to incorporate a 16-bit microprocessor into their new system to make an impact in the marketplace and once again turned to Sega's strengths in the arcade industry to adapt the successful Sega System 16 arcade board into architecture for a home console.
The decision to use a Motorola 68000 as the system's main CPU was made late in development, while a Zilog Z80 was used as a secondary CPU to handle the sound due to f