The Aresaces were a Celtic people related to, originally part of, the Treveri. They inhabited the left bank of the Rhine in the Mainz-Bingen area, once the easternmost part of Treveran territory; the Aresaces are not mentioned by ancient writers, such as geographers or Julius Caesar, but are known from three inscriptions dating to the 1st and 2nd centuries CE. Two of these come from Rhenish Hesse, while the third is from Augusta Treverorum, the capital of the Treveri. A grave monument from Mainz-Weisenau that identifies the two deceased children as Treveri has been explained as evidence that the Aresaces continued to regard themselves as a subdivision of the Treveri. Another Celtic tribe in Rhenish Hesse, known from an inscription as well as ancient literature, was the Cairacates. According to current scholarship, the Aresaces would have been organized as a pagus or sub-unit of the Treveri, settled in Rhenish Hesse in the area south and east of Mainz, their neighbours to the south were the Celtic Mediomatrici, while on the opposite bank of Rhine dwelled the Germanic Vangiones, Triboci and the Mattiaci in the area around present-day Wiesbaden.
This area was only sparsely settled during the late La Tène period, with larger settlements to be found in the second half of the 1st century BCE. One possible cultural and administrative centre of the Aresaces might have been the oppidum on the Donnersberg, which would have marked the southeasternmost centre of Treveran influence. Urbanization was only to increase noticeably at the time of, or shortly before, the Roman presence in the region. At the time of the Romans' arrival in greater Mainz in 13–12 BCE, there were two or more lesser civilian settlements there that can be attributed to the Aresaces. One such at Mainz-Weisenau emerged either shortly before or at the same time as the Roman army camp at Mainz, while a village-like settlement at Mainz-Bretzenheim straddled the banks of the Zaybach. There is further evidence for settlement at Mainz-Finthen near the Aubach. A Celtic and Roman temple district between Klein-Winternheim and Ober-Olm near Mainz was dedicated to Mars Loucetius and Nemetona.
Under Domitian, if not before, the Romans administratively separated the area of Treveran territory on the left bank of the Rhine from the civitas Treverorum and the province of Gallia Belgica, attaching the Rhenish Hesse region to the newly organized province of Germania Superior. The Aresaces were to have been organized as a separate civitas from the Treveri at this stage, if not earlier, as were their neighbours the Cairacates. Meanwhile, the city of Mainz—known in Latin as Mogontiacum—flourished as a legionary headquarters for a number of Roman legions and the capital of the province of Germania Superior; the territory of the Aresaces was thought to have belonged to the Vangiones, who would thus have occupied quite a large tract on the left bank of the Rhine. However, this interpretation is now considered superseded in light of archaeological discoveries; the Vangiones' settlement on the left bank of the Rhine, in the area of present-day Worms, is now considered to have taken place only under the aegis of the Roman administration during the Augustan period.
Maximilian Ihm. "Aresaces". Paulys Realencyclopädie der classischen Altertumswissenschaft. Supplementband I. Stuttgart. P. 125. Alfred Franke. "Aresaces". Paulys Realencyclopädie der classischen Altertumswissenschaft. Supplementband VI. Stuttgart. Pp. 12f
The Eburones, were a Gallic-Germanic tribe who lived in the northeast of Gaul, in what is now the southern Netherlands, eastern Belgium, the German Rhineland, in the period before this region was conquered by Rome. Though living in Gaul, they were described as being both Belgae, Germani; the Eburones played a major role in Julius Caesar's account of his "Gallic Wars", as the most important tribe within the Germani cisrhenani group of tribes, i. e. Germani living west of the Rhine amongst the Belgae. Caesar claimed that the name of the Eburones was wiped out after their failed revolt against his forces during the Gallic Wars. Whether any significant part of the population lived on in the area as Tungri, the tribal name found here is uncertain but considered likely. Caesar is the primary source for the location of the Eburones; the exact borders are difficult to be certain about, but the region that they and their fellow Germani inhabited corresponds to some extent with the Roman district of Germania Inferior, enclosed by the northern bend of the river Rhine, including a stretch of the Meuse river stretching from the Ardennes until the river deltas of the Rhine and Meuse.
In the early medieval church this evolved into the original church province of Cologne, which included the Diocese of Liège that had evolved from the Civitas Tungrorum. This large area included large parts of what are now the southern Netherlands, eastern Belgium, the German Rhineland. At one point Caesar reported that the greatest part of the Eburones settled between the Mosa and the Rhine, and "on this basis German scholars place them in the northern Eifel". On the other hand, Caesar places Atuatuca, the fort of the Eburones, about the middle of the territory of the Eburones. More Caesar's description of a narrow defile to its west, suitable for ambush, is a type of landscape less common as one goes north in this region, towards the low-lying Campine. In the same passage, Caesar describes the Segni and Condrusi as being south of the Eburones, between them and the Treviri, who lived near the Moselle; this is difficult to reconcile with a territory near the Eifel because the Condrusi are the origin of the name of the Condroz region in the Ardennes, south of the Meuse, west of the Eifel.
"No cultural groupings can be isolated to suit the Eburones in the north Eifel" according to Edith Mary Wightman. In contrast, she writes that Belgian archaeologists identify them with the cultural group in northern Limburg and Kempen which showed such strong continuity in Urnfield times; this would account for the propinquity of Eburones and Menapii mentioned by Caesar. Furthermore, to the north and northwest, the Eburones bordered on the Menapii, who lived near the mouth of the Rhine river, though "protected by one continued extent of morasses and woods", had ties of hospitality with them, and at one point Caesar indicates that when the Eburones went into hiding, they not only dispersed into the Ardennes and morasses, but "those who were nearest the ocean concealed themselves in the islands which the tides form". This is seen to indicate that at least part of the Eburones lived west of the Maas, closer to the river deltas. Nico Roymans has argued, based on concentrations of coin finds, that there were Eburones as far north as the eastern part of the Dutch river-area, an area inhabited by Batavians, a Roman-era Germanic group who may have included remnants of the older Eburonic population.
When the Tencteri and Usipetes, who were Germanic tribes, crossed the Rhine from Germania in 55 BCE, Caesar reported that they first fell on the Menapii crossed the Maas towards a tribe called the Ambivariti and advanced into the territories of the Eburones and Condrusi, who were both "under the protection of" the Treveri to the south. Apart from being under the protection of the Treveri, the Eburones had close dealings with the Nervii, a large Belgic tribe to the west of them, who much had their Roman provincial capital in Bavay. Neighbouring both the Nervii and the Eburones between them, were the Aduatuci. Caesar reported that Ambiorix had been forced to pay tribute to them before the Romans came, that his own son and nephew had been kept by them as hostages in slavery and chains, it was with these two tribes, that the Eburones could form a military alliance against Caesar's forces. The location of the Aduatuci is not clear, but their name appears to be related to the names of both the capital of the Eburones "Aduatuca" and the capital of the Tungri "Aduatuca Tungrorum" which may have been the same place.
Caesar reports that during his conflict with them, the Eburones had some sort of alliance, organized via their allies the Treveri, with the Germanic tribes over the Rhine. Linguist Maurits Gysseling proposed that placenames such as Avendoren, Averdoingt and Avernas may be derived from the Eburones. Caesar's forces clashed with an alliance of Belgic tribes in 57 BCE in the Battle of the Sabis. Before that battle, information from th
The Tungri were a tribe, or group of tribes, who lived in the Belgic part of Gaul, during the times of the Roman empire. Within the Roman empire, their territory was the Civitas Tungrorum, they were described by Tacitus as being the same people who were first called "Germani", meaning that all other tribes who were referred to this way, including those in Germania east of the Rhine river were named after them. More Tacitus was thereby equating the Tungri with the "Germani Cisrhenani" described generations earlier by Julius Caesar, their name is the source of several place names in Belgium and the Netherlands, including Tongeren, several places called Tongerloo, Tongelre. In a comment in his Germania, Tacitus remarks that Germani was the original tribal name of the Tungri with whom the Gauls were in contact; the name Germany, on the other hand, they say, is modern and newly introduced, from the fact that the tribes which first crossed the Rhine and drove out the Gauls, are now called Tungrians, were called Germans.
Thus what was the name of a tribe, not of a race prevailed, till all called themselves by this self-invented name of Germans, which the conquerors had first employed to inspire terror. Some generations earlier, Julius Caesar, on the other hand, does not mention the Tungri, but does say that the Condrusi, the Eburones, the Caeroesi and the Paemani, living in the same approximate area as the Tungri, were "called by the common name of Germans" and had settled in Gaul before the Cimbric wars, having come from Germany east of the Rhine; the Romans allies named them as having one collective contribution of men to the Belgic revolt against him, within which the Eburones were the most important. The Eburones, who lived as far east as Cologne, were led by Ambiorix and Cativolcus. Neighbouring these tribes where the Aduatuci, whose origin Caesar describes more as having descended from the Cimbri and Teutones, against whom the Germani had been the only Gaulish tribe to defend themselves, their descendants, if there were any lived amongst the Tungri.
During the campaign of Caesar, the Tencteri and Usipetes crossed the Rhine for a cattle raid of the territories the Menapii and Condrusi, giving Caesar an excuse for new military intervention in the area. He pursued them back over the Rhine. Caesar himself encouraged the Sicambri to cross the Rhine into the territory of the Eburones, seeking to plunder the lands of the people whose fortress he had just taken; these tribes who crossed the Rhine and became part of Roman Germania Inferior were themselves heavily influenced by Gaulish culture, some using Gaulish personal names or Gaulish tribal names. As the area became part of the Roman empire some of these tribes from over the Rhine, including Sicambri and Ubii, were forced by Tiberius to settle among in the northeast of Gaul, Romanised provinces with tribal names developed from the mergers of incoming groups, with people who had lived there before Caesar; this is a origin of both the Tungri the other tribal groups of Germania Inferior. The Roman civitas of the Tungri is smaller than the area which Caesar ascribed to the earlier Germani Cisrhenani, with the areas near the Rhine governed as a military frontier, populated at least with soldiers and immigrants from the other side of the Rhine.
The exact history of each these populations is not known, although the areas nearer to the Rhine appear to have had larger scale immigration while the Tungri are suspected of being less changed in their make-up by this process. Smaller tribal groups such as the Condrusi and the Texuandri continued to exist as recognized groups for the administrative purpose of mustering troops. To the north of the Tungri, in the Rhine-Maas delta were the Batavians, a new formation made up of in-coming Chatti, with a possible contribution of Eburones. To the northeast of the Tungri, near the Rhine were the Cugerni, who are thought to be Sicambri, around the area of Cologne and Bonn the Ubii were settled. Pliny the Elder is the first writer to mention the Tungri in Gallia Belgica, in his Natural History, he notes that their territory...has a spring of great renown, which sparkles as it bursts forth with bubbles innumerable, has a certain ferruginous taste, only to be perceived after it has been drunk. This water is purgative, is curative of tertian fevers, disperses urinary calculi: upon the application of fire it assumes a turbid appearance, turns red It has been suggested that this refers to the well-known waters of Spa in the province of Liège, or else to waters found at Tongeren, which are suitably iron-bearing, today referred to as the "Plinius bron".
Both Pliny and Ptolemy's Geography are unclear concerning the exact position of the Tungri but are understood as placing them east of the Scheldt, to the north of the Arduenna Silva, along the middle and lower valley of the Mosa. The Eburones had a fort called Atuatuca. Caesar reported. Under Roman occupation, a new city Aduatuca Tungrorum, modern Tongeren in the Limburg province of Belgium, because the capital city of the region. Under the Romans, the Tungri civitas was first a part of Gallia Belgica, split out to join the territories of the Ubii to the southeast, the Cugerni, who are equated with being descended from the Sicambri, to the northeast, an
Belgium the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe. It is bordered by the Netherlands to the north, Germany to the east, Luxembourg to the southeast, France to the southwest, the North Sea to the northwest, it has a population of more than 11.4 million. The capital and largest city is Brussels; the sovereign state is a federal constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary system. Its institutional organisation is structured on both regional and linguistic grounds, it is divided into three autonomous regions: Flanders in the north, Wallonia in the south, the Brussels-Capital Region. Brussels is the smallest and most densely populated region, as well as the richest region in terms of GDP per capita. Belgium is home to two main linguistic groups or Communities: the Dutch-speaking Flemish Community, which constitutes about 59 percent of the population, the French-speaking Community, which comprises about 40 percent of all Belgians. A small German-speaking Community, numbering around one percent, exists in the East Cantons.
The Brussels-Capital Region is bilingual, although French is the dominant language. Belgium's linguistic diversity and related political conflicts are reflected in its political history and complex system of governance, made up of six different governments. Belgium was part of an area known as the Low Countries, a somewhat larger region than the current Benelux group of states that included parts of northern France and western Germany, its name is derived after the Roman province of Gallia Belgica. From the end of the Middle Ages until the 17th century, the area of Belgium was a prosperous and cosmopolitan centre of commerce and culture. Between the 16th and early 19th centuries, Belgium served as the battleground between many European powers, earning the moniker the "Battlefield of Europe", a reputation strengthened by both world wars; the country emerged in 1830 following the Belgian Revolution. Belgium participated in the Industrial Revolution and, during the course of the 20th century, possessed a number of colonies in Africa.
The second half of the 20th century was marked by rising tensions between the Dutch-speaking and the French-speaking citizens fueled by differences in language and culture and the unequal economic development of Flanders and Wallonia. This continuing antagonism has led to several far-reaching reforms, resulting in a transition from a unitary to a federal arrangement during the period from 1970 to 1993. Despite the reforms, tensions between the groups have remained, if not increased. Unemployment in Wallonia is more than double that of Flanders. Belgium is one of the six founding countries of the European Union and hosts the official seats of the European Commission, the Council of the European Union, the European Council, as well as a seat of the European Parliament in the country's capital, Brussels. Belgium is a founding member of the Eurozone, NATO, OECD, WTO, a part of the trilateral Benelux Union and the Schengen Area. Brussels hosts several of the EU's official seats as well as the headquarters of many major international organizations such as NATO.
Belgium is a developed country, with an advanced high-income economy. It has high standards of living, quality of life, education, is categorized as "very high" in the Human Development Index, it ranks as one of the safest or most peaceful countries in the world. The name "Belgium" is derived from Gallia Belgica, a Roman province in the northernmost part of Gaul that before Roman invasion in 100 BC, was inhabited by the Belgae, a mix of Celtic and Germanic peoples. A gradual immigration by Germanic Frankish tribes during the 5th century brought the area under the rule of the Merovingian kings. A gradual shift of power during the 8th century led the kingdom of the Franks to evolve into the Carolingian Empire; the Treaty of Verdun in 843 divided the region into Middle and West Francia and therefore into a set of more or less independent fiefdoms which, during the Middle Ages, were vassals either of the King of France or of the Holy Roman Emperor. Many of these fiefdoms were united in the Burgundian Netherlands of the 15th centuries.
Emperor Charles V extended the personal union of the Seventeen Provinces in the 1540s, making it far more than a personal union by the Pragmatic Sanction of 1549 and increased his influence over the Prince-Bishopric of Liège. The Eighty Years' War divided the Low Countries into the northern United Provinces and the Southern Netherlands; the latter were ruled successively by the Spanish and the Austrian Habsburgs and comprised most of modern Belgium. This was the theatre of most Franco-Spanish and Franco-Austrian wars during the 17th and 18th centuries. Following the campaigns of 1794 in the French Revolutionary Wars, the Low Countries—including territories that were never nominally under Habsburg rule, such as the Prince-Bishopric of Liège—were annexed by the French First Republic, ending Austrian rule in the region; the reunification of the Low Countries as the United Kingdom of the Netherlands occurred at the dissolution of the First French Empire in 1815, after the defeat of Napo
Revolt of the Batavi
The Revolt of the Batavi took place in the Roman province of Germania Inferior between AD 69 and 70. It was an uprising against the Roman Empire started by the Batavi, a small but militarily powerful Germanic tribe that inhabited Batavia, on the delta of the river Rhine, they were soon joined by the Celtic tribes from some Germanic tribes. Under the leadership of their hereditary prince Gaius Julius Civilis, an auxiliary officer in the Imperial Roman army, the Batavi and their allies managed to inflict a series of humiliating defeats on the Roman army, including the destruction of two legions. After these initial successes, a massive Roman army led by the Roman general Quintus Petillius Cerialis defeated the rebels. Following peace talks, the Batavi submitted again to Roman rule, but were forced to accept humiliating terms and a legion stationed permanently on their territory, at Noviomagus; the Batavi were a sub-tribe of the Germanic Chatti tribal group who had migrated to the region between the Old Rhine and Waal rivers in what became the Roman province of Germania Inferior.
Their land, though fertile alluvial deposits, was uncultivable, consisting of Rhine delta swamps. Thus the Batavi population it could support was tiny: not more than 35,000 at this time, they were a warlike people, skilled horsemen and swimmers. They were therefore excellent soldier-material. In return for the unusual privilege of exemption from tributum, they supplied a disproportionate number of recruits to the Julio-Claudian auxilia: one ala and 8 cohortes, they provided most of the emperor Augustus' elite regiment of Germanic bodyguards, which continued in existence until AD 68. The Batavi auxilia amounted to about 5,000 men, implying that for the entire Julio-Claudian period, over 50% of all Batavi males reaching military age may have enlisted in the auxilia, thus the Batavi, although just about 0.05% of the total population of the empire in AD 23, supplied about 4% of the total auxilia i.e. 80 times their proportionate share. They were regarded by the Romans as the best and bravest of their auxiliary, indeed of all their forces.
In Roman service, they had perfected a unique technique for swimming across rivers wearing full armour and weapons. Gaius Julius Civilis was the prefect of a Batavi cohort. A veteran of 25 years' distinguished service in the Roman army, he and the 8 Batavi cohorts had played an important role in the Roman invasion of Britain in AD 43 and the subsequent subjugation of that country. By 69, Civilis, the Batavi regiments and the Batavi people had become utterly disaffected from Rome. After the Batavi regiments were withdrawn from Britain in 66, Civilis and his brother were arrested by the governor of Germania Inferior on false accusations of treason; the governor ordered the brother's execution, sent Civilis to Rome in chains for judgement by the Roman emperor Nero.. While Civilis was in prison awaiting trial, Nero was overthrown in AD 68 by an army led into Italy by the governor of Hispania Tarraconensis, the veteran general Servius Sulpicius Galba. Nero committed suicide, ending the rule of the Julio-Claudian dynasty, founded a century earlier by Augustus.
Galba was proclaimed emperor. He allowed him to return home. Back in Germania Inferior, however, it seems that Civilis was arrested again, this time on the order of the new governor Aulus Vitellius, acting at the urging of the legions under his command, which demanded Civilis' execution. Meanwhile, Galba disbanded the German Bodyguards Regiment, which he distrusted due to the loyalty they had given to Nero in the latter's final days; this alienated several hundred crack Batavi troops, indeed the whole Batavi nation, who considered it a grave insult. At the same time, relations collapsed between the 8 Batavi cohorts and their parent-legion XIV Gemina, to which they had been attached since the invasion of Britain 25 years earlier; the seething hatred between the Roman legionaries and their German auxiliaries erupted in serious fighting on at least two occasions. At this juncture, the Roman empire was convulsed by its first major civil war for a century, the Year of the Four Emperors; the cause was the fall of the Julio-Claudian dynasty.
The descendants of Augustus had enjoyed the automatic and fervent loyalty of ordinary legionaries in the frontier armies. But Galba possessed no such legitimacy in their eyes. Supreme power was now open to. First, in AD 69, Galba's deputy, carried out a coup d'état in Rome against his leader, killed by the Praetorian Guard. Vitellius launched his own bid for power, prepared to lead the Rhine legions into Italy against Otho. Now in urgent need of the Batavi's military support, Vitellius released Civilis. In return, the Batavi regiments helped Vitellius defeat Otho's forces at the Battle of Bedriacum; the Batavi troops were ordered to return home. But at this point arrived news of the mutiny of general Titus Flavius Vespasianus, commander of forces in Syria, whose own massive army of 5 legions was soon joined by the legions on the Danube. Vitellius' governor in German
Provinces of Belgium
The country of Belgium is divided into three regions. Two of these regions, the Flemish Region or Flanders, Walloon Region, or Wallonia, are each subdivided into five provinces; the third region, the Brussels-Capital Region, is not divided into provinces, as it was only a small part of a province itself. Most of the provinces take their name from earlier duchies and counties of similar location, while their territory is based on the departments installed during French annexation. At the time of the creation of Belgium in 1830, only nine provinces existed, including the province of Brabant, which held the city of Brussels. In 1995, Brabant was split into three areas: Flemish Brabant, which became a part of the region of Flanders; these divisions reflected political tensions between the French-speaking Walloons and the Dutch-speaking Flemish. The division into provinces is fixed by Article 5 of the Belgian Constitution; the provinces are subdivided into 43 administrative arrondissements, further into 581 municipalities.
The medieval Low Countries, including present-day Belgium, the Netherlands and Luxembourg, as well as parts of modern Germany and France, comprised a number of rival and independent feudal states of varying sizes. These each had their own identities and governments, though in the early modern period all the Belgian states became part of larger entities. Prominent early states in the area of modern Belgium included the Duchy of Brabant, the County of Flanders, the Prince-Bishopric of Liège and the Duchy of Luxembourg; when these territories were annexed by France in 1795, they were reorganised into départments. At the end of French rule and the creation of the United Kingdom of the Netherlands in 1815, the departmental territories were retained but were renamed into provinces and the historical names returned. At the time of the independence of Belgium from the Netherlands in 1830, Belgium's territory consisted of the existing nine southern provinces; the first article of the Belgian Constitution said: "Belgium is divided into provinces.
These provinces are Antwerp, West Flanders, East Flanders, Hainaut, Liège, Luxembourg, except for the relations of Luxembourg with the German Confederation." As such, each of the modern provinces of Belgium takes its name from one of the medieval predecessors, whereas the borders correspond to those of the French departments, which in most cases differ from the historical entities. In 1839, as part of the Treaty of London, half of the province of Limburg became part of the Netherlands, which has its own province of Limburg. In 1920, following the First World War, Belgium annexed the Eupen-Malmedy territory, which became part of the province of Liège. During the second half of the 20th century, Belgium transitioned from a unitary state to a federal state with three Communities and three Regions; as part of the state reforms, the province of Brabant was split in 1995 three ways: into two provinces and into the Brussels-Capital Region. The two new Brabant provinces became part of the Walloon Region respectively.
The remaining eight provinces became part of these regions as well, so the Flemish Region and the Walloon Region each contain five provinces. The following table presents a simplified overview of the evolution of the French departments into the present-day Belgian provinces; the provincial government consists of three main branches: the Provincial Council, the elected body, the Deputation or Provincial College, the executive body, the Governor, appointed by the regional government. The Provincial Councils are the representative bodies of the population of the provinces; this is the equivalent of the States-Provincial in the Netherlands. The numbers of seats in the Provincial Councils are proportional to the population of the province, they are directly elected each six years, at the same time of the municipal elections. Before 1994, the provincial elections instead coincided with the national elections; until the provincial councils appointed Provincial Senators to the Belgian Senate. The last elections were held on 14 October 2018.
The executive branch was called the Permanent Deputation. In the Flemish Region it is now called the Deputation and it consists of the Governor and six Deputies elected by the Provincial Council from among its members. Following the next 2018 election, there will be i.e. five Deputies. In the Walloon Region it is called the Provincial College which consists of the Governor and four to five Deputies elected by the Provincial Council from among its members. In Flemish Brabant, there is a Deputy Governor; the Deputy Governor is appo