SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Segunda División B

Segunda División B is the third level of the Spanish football league system divided into 4 groups of 20 teams each. It is administered by the RFEF, it is below the top two levels of the league, the Primera División and the Segunda División, above the Tercera División. The Segunda División B includes the reserve teams of several La Segunda División teams; the term Segunda División B was first used in 1929. It was used to designate a third level of teams after the Primera División and a Segunda División A; this division featured 10 teams and at the end of the season Cultural y Deportiva Leonesa were crowned champions. However the 1929–30 season saw the first of many reorganisations of the Spanish football league system and the original Segunda División B was replaced by the Tercera División. At the start of the 1977–78 season the Segunda División B was revived, replacing the Tercera División as the third level; the division consisted of only two groups. The 1986–87 season was played as a single group of 22 teams.

It was changed the next year, with 80 teams in four groups from the 1987–88 season. The classification will be updated at the end of each season. League or status at the end of the 2018–19 season: Italic indicates reserve teams. Segunda División B features 80 teams divided into 4 groups of 20; the top four teams from each group, 16 teams in total, qualify for play-offs to determine which four teams will replace the four teams relegated from the Segunda División. However reserve teams are only eligible for promotion to the Segunda División if their senior team is in the Primera División; the top five teams from each group and best two teams regardless of group outside the previous twenty, excluding reserve teams qualify for the following seasons Copa del Rey. The bottom four teams in each league are relegated to the Tercera División; the four 16th-placed teams enter into a relegation playoff to determine the two teams to be relegated. One team is paired with one of the others in home and away series.

The two winners remain in the division. A reserve team can be relegated if their senior team is relegated from the Segunda División. Along with teams from the Tercera División, teams from the division compete in the Copa Federación. Since the 2008-09 season, the four group winners had the opportunity to be promoted directly and be named the overall Segunda División B champion; the four group winners are drawn into a two-legged series where the two winners are promoted to the Segunda División and enter into the final for the Segunda División B championship. The two losing semifinalists enter the playoff round for the last two promotion spots; the four group runners-up are drawn against one of the three fourth-placed teams outside their group while the four third-placed teams are drawn against one another in a two-legged series. The six winners advance with the two losing semifinalists to determine the four teams that will enter the last two-legged series for the last two promotion spots. In all the playoff series, the lower-ranked club plays at home first.

Whenever there is a tie in position, a draw will determine the club to play at home first. Each team of Segunda División B can have 22 players in their roster, with these two limitations: A maximum of 16 players over 23 years old. A minimum of 10 players under professional contract; the member clubs of the Segunda División B for the 2019–20 season are listed below. Starting in 2008–09 season, the four group winners get a spot in the Group Winners Promotion Playoff; the two semifinal winners get promoted to Segunda División and play the final to decide the season champions. Goals in playoffs are not counted. Updated at the end of the 2018–19 season. Most seasons 34 – Barakaldo 34 – Cultural Leonesa 34 – PontevedraMost points 1,830 – Barakaldo 1,764 – Cultural Leonesa 1,677 – Melilla Most games played 1,296 – Pontevedra 1,292 – Barakaldo 1,290 – Cultural Leonesa Most wins 527 – Barakaldo 516 – Cultural Leonesa 502 – Pontevedra Most draws 399 – Barakaldo 396 – Cultural Leonesa 382 – Melilla Most losses 433 – Real Sociedad B 432 – Pontevedra 428 – Osasuna B Most goals scored 1,613 – Cultural Leonesa 1,586 – Pontevedra 1,555 – Barakaldo Most goals received 1,413 – Pontevedra 1,361 – Real Sociedad B 1,356 – Sporting Gijón B Most group championships 5 – Levante, Barcelona B, Real Madrid CastillaMost promotion play-offs played 10 – JaénMost promotions to Segunda División 5 – Barcelona BHighest attendance57,236 – Real Madrid B vs Conquense, at Santiago Bernabéu Stadium on 26 June 2005 Record win Extremadura 12–0 Racing Portuense Barcelona B 12–0 Eldense Record away win Daimiel 0–8 Getafe Isla Cristina 0–8 Polideportivo Almería Spanish football league system Official website RFEF Soccerway - Segunda División B

Dov Eichenwald

Dov Eichenwald is CEO and publisher of Yedioth Books and editor in chief of the publishing house. Dov Eichenwald is the son of Abraham Zvi, a Holocaust survivor who survived Auschwitz, Sarah, born in Jerusalem, he grew up in Bnei Brak, attended Haroeh high school in Ramat Gan, served in the IDF as an investigating officer in the Army's military police. Following his release he began to study for a BA at Bar Ilan University but did not finish due to a serious injury he suffered while serving as a reserve commander during the 1982 Lebanon War. In the aftermath of the Tyre headquarters bombings Dov was trapped under rubble for nine hours and was rescued in serious condition. Since childhood, Dov helped his father operate the family business'Hemed Books', a small independent publishing house specializing in non-fiction literature, as an adult he joined the management. In 1994 a partnership was formed between'Hemed Books' and Yedioth Ahronoth thus founding'Miscal - Publishing' known today as Yedioth Books.

Eichenwald serves as CEO of the publishing house since. Dov is remarried to Dr. Tali Eichenwald-Dvir, vice dean of the Arison School of Business at IDC Herzliya, they live in Givat Shmuel. Dov is a loving grandfather of many grandchildren. Shiri Lev-Ari, Man About the House Haaretz June 29, 2005 דובי איכנולד, צור 1982. הייתי קבור בגיהנום, ynet 26 באוקטובר 2012 דובי איכנולד, בלב השקט המהדהד העמדנו את אלוהים למשפט, ynet 25 באפריל 2014 דובי איכנולד, מפגש עם הבן בממלכת הפחד והחרדה בדרום, ynet 3 באוגוסט 2014 דובי איכנולד, אחים להלם, ynet 31 בספטמבר 2013

Engolpion

An encolpion is a medallion with an icon in the center worn around the neck by Orthodox and Eastern Catholic bishops. The icon is surrounded by jewels and topped by an Eastern-style mitre, it also has a small jewelled pendant hanging down at the bottom. The engolpion is suspended from the neck by a long gold chain, sometimes made up of intricate links. A portion of the chain will be joined together with a small ring behind the neck so that it hangs down the back. Engolpia come in many different shapes, including oval, square, or a double-headed eagle. In antiquarian contexts, an "encolpion cross" is a pectoral cross of the Byzantine period; the custom of bearing on the person objects of this character was evidently derived from the pagan practice of wearing bullae, containing amulets, round the neck as a protection against incantations. According to St. Jerome, some of the faithful in his day attached a superstitious importance to these aids to piety. Engolpia were of various forms, round, four-cornered and of various materials ranging from gold to glass.

In 1571 two gold encolpia, square in form, were found in tombs of the ancient Vatican cemetery, engraved on one side with the monogram of Christ between the Alpha and Omega, on the other with a dove. Another, now lost, was found in the tomb of Maria, wife of the Emperor Honorius, bearing the names of the imperial couple with the legend VIVATIS and the monogram; the famous treasure of Monza contains the theca persica, enclosing a text from the Gospel of St. John, sent by Pope St. Gregory the Great to Queen Theodolinda for her son Adaloald. Another of the gifts of this pope to the Lombard queen was a cruciform encolpion containing a portion of the True Cross; the most interesting reliquary of this form is a gold pectoral cross discovered at Rome in 1863, in the basilica of S. Lorenzo, on the breast of a corpse. On one side it bears the inscription: EMMANOTHA NOBISCUM DEUS, on the other: CRUX EST VITA MIHI, MORS INIMICE TIBE. To the category of engolpia belong the ampullae, or vials or vessels of lead, clay or other materials in which were preserved such esteemed relics as oil from the lamps that burned before the Holy Sepulchre, the golden keys with filings from St. Peter's chains, one of, sent by St. Gregory the Great to the Frankish King Childebert.

Encolpion, a different anglicization of the same word, covers the early medieval tradition in both Eastern and Western Christianity. All bishops wear. All primates and some bishops below primatial rank have the dignity of wearing a second engolpion, which depicts Christ. An archimandrite may be awarded an engolpion which bears not an icon of Christ or the Theotokos, but of the Cross; the enkolpion may be worn at all times as part of the bishop's street choir dress. When the bishop vests for Divine Services, he will wear a pectoral cross; when a bishop is vested before the Divine Liturgy, if he has the dignity of wearing an enkolpion in addition to the Panagia, the Protodeacon chants the following prayer as the subdeacons place it on the bishop: "Thy heart is inditing of a good matter. Amen"; some enkolpia are hollow, so they may be used as a reliquary. The enkolpia may have originated from the eucharistic lockets once worn by monks in order to be able to communicate themselves when they travelled.

Since bishops are monks and travelled they would have have had such lockets and since they were bishops their eucharistic lockets would have been made and ornamented with much more precious materials than those of ordinary monks