Inkjet printing is a type of computer printing that recreates a digital image by propelling droplets of ink onto paper, plastic, or other substrates. Inkjet printers are the most used type of printer, range from small inexpensive consumer models to expensive professional machines; the concept of inkjet printing originated in the 20th century, the technology was first extensively developed in the early 1950s. Starting in the late 1970s, inkjet printers that could reproduce digital images generated by computers were developed by Epson, Hewlett-Packard and Canon. In the worldwide consumer market, four manufacturers account for the majority of inkjet printer sales: Canon, HP, Epson and Brother; the emerging ink jet material deposition market uses inkjet technologies printheads using piezoelectric crystals, to deposit materials directly on substrates. The technology has been extended and the'ink' can now comprise solder paste in PCB assembly, or living cells, for creating biosensors and for tissue engineering.
Images produced on inkjet printers are sometime sold under other names since the term is associated with words like "digital", "computers", "everyday printing", which can have negative connotations in some contexts. These trade names or coined terms are used in the fine arts reproduction field, they include Digigraph, Iris prints, Cromalin. There are two main technologies in use in contemporary inkjet printers: continuous and drop-on-demand; the continuous inkjet method is used commercially for coding of products and packages. In 1867, Lord Kelvin patented the syphon recorder, which recorded telegraph signals as a continuous trace on paper using an ink jet nozzle deflected by a magnetic coil; the first commercial devices were introduced in 1951 by Siemens. In CIJ technology, a high-pressure pump directs liquid ink from a reservoir through a gunbody and a microscopic nozzle, creating a continuous stream of ink droplets via the Plateau-Rayleigh instability. A piezoelectric crystal creates an acoustic wave as it vibrates within the gunbody and causes the stream of liquid to break into droplets at regular intervals: 64,000 to 165,000 droplets per second may be achieved.
The ink droplets are subjected to an electrostatic field created by a charging electrode as they form. This results in a variable electrostatic charge on each droplet. Charged droplets are separated by one or more uncharged "guard droplets" to minimize electrostatic repulsion between neighbouring droplets; the charged droplets pass through another electrostatic field and are directed by electrostatic deflection plates to print on the receptor material, or allowed to continue on undeflected to a collection gutter for re-use. The more charged droplets are deflected to a greater degree. Only a small fraction of the droplets is used to the majority being recycled. CIJ is one of the oldest ink jet technologies in use and is mature; the major advantages are the high velocity of the ink droplets, which allows for a long distance between print head and substrate, the high drop ejection frequency, allowing for high speed printing. Another advantage is freedom from nozzle clogging as the jet is always in use, therefore allowing volatile solvents such as ketones and alcohols to be employed, giving the ink the ability to "bite" into the substrate and dry quickly.
The ink system requires active solvent regulation to counter solvent evaporation during the time of flight, from the venting process whereby air, drawn into the gutter along with the unused drops is vented from the reservoir. Viscosity is monitored and a solvent is added to counteract solvent loss. Drop-on-demand is divided into thermal DOD and piezoelectric DOD. Most consumer inkjet printers, including those from Canon, Hewlett-Packard, Lexmark, use the thermal inkjet process; the idea of using thermal excitation to move tiny drops of ink was developed independently by two groups at the same time: John Vaught and a team at Hewlett-Packard's Corvallis Division, Canon engineer Ichiro Endo. In 1977, Endo's team was trying to use the piezoelectric effect to move ink out of the nozzle but noticed that ink shot out of a syringe when it was accidentally heated with a soldering iron. Vaught's work started in late 1978 with a project to develop low-cost printing; the team at HP found. Two years the HP and Canon teams found out about each other's work.
In the thermal inkjet process, the print cartridges consist of a series of tiny chambers, each containing a heater, all of which are constructed by photolithography. To eject a droplet from each chamber, a pulse of current is passed through the heating element causing a rapid vaporization of the ink in the chamber and forming a bubble, which causes a large pressure increase, propelling a droplet of ink onto the paper; the ink's surface tension, as well as the condensation and resultant contraction of the vapor bubble, pulls a further charge of ink into the chamber through a narrow channel attached to an ink reservoir. The inks involved are water-based and use either pigments or dyes as the colorant; the inks must have a volatile component to form the vapor bubble. As no special materials are required, the print head is cheaper to produce than in other inkjet technologies. Most commercial and industrial inkjet printers and
Orient Watch, is a Japanese watch brand owned by Seiko Epson. Established as an independent company in 1950, it became a functional subsidiary of Seiko Epson in 2009 before being integrated into the company in 2017. Orient markets mechanical watches, but it produces quartz, light-powered and radio-controlled models. Outside of the main business, the company produces some moving parts and electronic components that are assembled into Seiko Epson's electronic devices; the company manufactures all of its movements in-house in Japan. The origin of Orient Watch Company dates back to 1901 when Shogoro Yoshida opened a wholesale shop called "Yoshida Watch Shop" in Ueno, Tokyo, Japan. Yoshida Watch Shop was successful. In 1912, Yoshida began producing gold wristwatch cases. In 1920, Toyo Tokei Manufacturing was established producing table clocks and gauges, it was not until 1934 that Toyo Tokei Manufacturing started the production of wristwatches. in 1936, the Hino Factory was built in Hino, Japan. For several years, Toyo Tokei Manufacturing boomed at the Hino Factory.
However, affected by the poor Japanese economy after World War II, the company shut down in 1949. After Toyo Tokei Manufacturing was shut down, Yoshida’s wristwatch manufacturing company was reborn in 1950, founded under the name Tama Keiki Company. Tama Keiki Co. Ltd. continued manufacturing watches at the Hino Factory. Just one year in 1951, Tama Keiki Co. Ltd. changed its name to Orient Watch Company, in the same year the first Orient Star went on sale. Orient Watch was able to expand their visibility overseas after a memorandum trade agreement with China in 1955; the Royal Orient subsequently went on sale in 1960. Other important watches in the company's history include the "Dynamic" in 1956, "Grand Prix 100" in 1964, "Fineness" in 1967, the "Tenbeat" in 1970. In 2003, the Orient Technical Center was established and the assembly of luxury watches began in Ugo, Akita, Japan. In 2004, the high-precision Caliber 88700 movement went on sale via the Royal Orient watch line. In 2005, Orient Star Retro-Future collection was launched.
In 2010, Orient Watch Co. Ltd. celebrated its 60th anniversary with a limited edition model. Until April 2007, it was a wholly owned sub-subsidiary of the corporation known as the Orient Watch Company, Limited, it was founded in Hino, Japan. From 2001, it was a subsidiary of the corporation and became a wholly owned subsidiary in 2009 until the company was dissolved and its assets absorbed by its parent company. Official website
Piezoelectricity is the electric charge that accumulates in certain solid materials in response to applied mechanical stress. The word piezoelectricity means electricity resulting from latent heat, it is derived from the Greek word πιέζειν. French physicists Jacques and Pierre Curie discovered piezoelectricity in 1880; the piezoelectric effect results from the linear electromechanical interaction between the mechanical and electrical states in crystalline materials with no inversion symmetry. The piezoelectric effect is a reversible process: materials exhibiting the piezoelectric effect exhibit the reverse piezoelectric effect, the internal generation of a mechanical strain resulting from an applied electrical field. For example, lead zirconate titanate crystals will generate measurable piezoelectricity when their static structure is deformed by about 0.1% of the original dimension. Conversely, those same crystals will change about 0.1% of their static dimension when an external electric field is applied to the material.
The inverse piezoelectric effect is used in the production of ultrasonic sound waves. Piezoelectricity is exploited in a number of useful applications, such as the production and detection of sound, piezoelectric inkjet printing, generation of high voltages, electronic frequency generation, microbalances, to drive an ultrasonic nozzle, ultrafine focusing of optical assemblies, it forms the basis for a number of scientific instrumental techniques with atomic resolution, the scanning probe microscopies, such as STM, AFM, MTA, SNOM. It finds everyday uses such as acting as the ignition source for cigarette lighters, push-start propane barbecues, used as the time reference source in quartz watches, in amplification pickups for some guitars; the pyroelectric effect, by which a material generates an electric potential in response to a temperature change, was studied by Carl Linnaeus and Franz Aepinus in the mid-18th century. Drawing on this knowledge, both René Just Haüy and Antoine César Becquerel posited a relationship between mechanical stress and electric charge.
The first demonstration of the direct piezoelectric effect was in 1880 by the brothers Pierre Curie and Jacques Curie. They combined their knowledge of pyroelectricity with their understanding of the underlying crystal structures that gave rise to pyroelectricity to predict crystal behavior, demonstrated the effect using crystals of tourmaline, topaz, cane sugar, Rochelle salt. Quartz and Rochelle salt exhibited the most piezoelectricity; the Curies, did not predict the converse piezoelectric effect. The converse effect was mathematically deduced from fundamental thermodynamic principles by Gabriel Lippmann in 1881; the Curies confirmed the existence of the converse effect, went on to obtain quantitative proof of the complete reversibility of electro-elasto-mechanical deformations in piezoelectric crystals. For the next few decades, piezoelectricity remained something of a laboratory curiosity. More work was done to define the crystal structures that exhibited piezoelectricity; this culminated in 1910 with the publication of Woldemar Voigt's Lehrbuch der Kristallphysik, which described the 20 natural crystal classes capable of piezoelectricity, rigorously defined the piezoelectric constants using tensor analysis.
The first practical application for piezoelectric devices was sonar, first developed during World War I. In France in 1917, Paul Langevin and his coworkers developed an ultrasonic submarine detector; the detector consisted of a transducer, made of thin quartz crystals glued between two steel plates, a hydrophone to detect the returned echo. By emitting a high-frequency pulse from the transducer, measuring the amount of time it takes to hear an echo from the sound waves bouncing off an object, one can calculate the distance to that object; the use of piezoelectricity in sonar, the success of that project, created intense development interest in piezoelectric devices. Over the next few decades, new piezoelectric materials and new applications for those materials were explored and developed. Piezoelectric devices found homes in many fields. Ceramic phonograph cartridges simplified player design, were cheap and accurate, made record players cheaper to maintain and easier to build; the development of the ultrasonic transducer allowed for easy measurement of viscosity and elasticity in fluids and solids, resulting in huge advances in materials research.
Ultrasonic time-domain reflectometers could find flaws inside cast metal and stone objects, improving structural safety. During World War II, independent research groups in the United States and Japan discovered a new class of synthetic materials, called ferroelectrics, which exhibited piezoelectric constants many times higher than natural materials; this led to intense research to develop barium titanate and lead zirconate titanate materials with specific properties for particular applications. One significant example of the use of piezoelectric crystals was developed by Bell Telephone Laboratories. Following World War I, Frederick R. Lack, working in radio telephony in the engineering department, developed the “AT cut” crystal, a crystal that operated through a wide range of temperatures. Lack's crystal didn't nee
The Commodore PET is a line of home/personal computers produced starting in 1977 by Commodore International. A top-seller in the Canadian and United States educational markets, it was the first personal computer sold to the public and formed the basis for their entire 8-bit product line, including the Commodore 64; the first model, named the PET 2001, was presented to the public at the Winter Consumer Electronics Show in 1977. In the 1970s, Commodore was one of many electronics companies selling calculators designed around Dallas-based Texas Instruments chips. However, in 1975 TI increased the price of these components to the point where the chip set cost more than an entire TI calculator, the industry that had built up around it was frozen out of the market. Commodore responded to this by searching, they found MOS Technology, in the process of bringing its 6502 microprocessor design to market, with which came Chuck Peddle's KIM-1 design, a small computer kit based on the 6502. At Commodore, Peddle convinced Jack Tramiel.
In September 1976 Peddle got a demonstration of Jobs and Wozniak's Apple II prototype, when Jobs was offering to sell it to Commodore, but Commodore considered Jobs's offer too expensive. The Commodore PET was announced in 1976 and Jack Tramiel gave Chuck Peddle six months to have the computer ready for the January 1977 Consumer Electronics Show, with his team including John Feagans, Bill Seiler, two Japanese engineers named Fujiyama and Aoji, Jack's son Leonard Tramiel who helped design the PETSCII graphic characters and acted as quality control; the result was Commodore's first mass-market personal computer, the PET, the first model of, the PET 2001. Its 6502 processor controlled the screen, cassette tape recorders and any peripherals connected to one of the computer's several expansion ports; the PET 2001 included either 4 KB or 8 KB of 8-bit RAM, was a single-board computer with discrete logic driving a small built-in monochrome monitor with 40×25 character graphics, enclosed in a sheet metal case that reflected Commodore's background as a manufacturer of office equipment.
The machine included a built-in Datasette for data storage located on the front of the case, which left little room for the keyboard. The data transfer rate to cassette tape was 1500 baud, but the data was recorded to tape twice for safety, giving an effective rate of 750 baud; the computer's main board carried four expansion ports: extra memory, a second cassette tape recorder interface, a parallel port which could be used for sound output or connection to "user" projects or non-Commodore devices and a parallel IEEE-488 port which allowed for daisy-chaining peripherals such as disk drives and printers. The PET 2001 was shown and sold to the public at the Winter CES 1977 in January 1977 and the first 100 units were shipped in October going to magazines and software developers, while the machine was not available to consumers until December. However, the PET was back-ordered for months and to ease deliveries, early in 1978 Commodore decided to cancel the 4 KB version. Dan Fylstra of Byte Magazine received one of the initial PETs in October 1977, S/N 16, reported on the computer in the March 1978 issue.
Fylstra praised its full-featured BASIC, lowercase letters, reliable cassette system, while disapproving of the keyboard. His machine had three faulty RAM chips and after some difficulty contacting Commodore, was mailed a set of replacement chips and installation instructions by John Feagans. Commodore was the first company to license Microsoft's 6502 BASIC, but the agreement nearly drove Microsoft into receivership as Commodore stipulated that they would only pay for it when the PET began shipping; this was delayed by over six months, during which Microsoft lost money and had their cash reserves further depleted by a lawsuit over ownership of Altair BASIC. At the end of the year, Microsoft was saved by Apple's decision to license Microsoft BASIC for the Apple II line; the BASIC included on the original PET 2001 was known as Commodore BASIC 1.0. BASIC 1.0 still had numerous bugs and IEE support was broken, so that when Commodore came out with disk drives, they could not be used from BASIC, only supported 256 array elements.
The PEEK function would not work on memory locations above 49152 so as to prevent the user from viewing the copyrighted code in the system ROMs. Aside from the 8k BASIC ROM, the PET included a 4k character ROM and an 8k kernal ROM; the first half of the kernal contained screen editor functions with the second half containing a number of function calls for tasks such as inputting and outputting data to and from different I/O devices, reading the keyboard, positioning the cursor. In addition, the kernal ROM scanned the keyboard; the kernel, an idea of John Feagans, was a spiritual ancestor to the ROM BIOS on PC compatibles and the first personal computer OS ROM to be a distinct entity from BASIC. The character ROM was 4k in size, containing four different 128 character tables, the uppercase/graphics character set and upper/lowercase character set, plus reverse video versions of both; this included a numb
The Epson QX-10 is a microcomputer running CP/M or TPM-III, introduced in 1983. It was based on a Zilog Z80 microprocessor, running at 4 MHz, provided up to 256 KB of RAM organized in four switchable banks, included a separate graphics processor chip manufactured by NEC to provide advanced graphics capabilities. In the USA, two versions were launched; the European and Japanese versions were like the CP/M configurations. TPM-III was used for Valdocs and some copy protected programs like Logo Professor; the machine had internal extension slots, which could be used for extra serial ports, network cards or third party extensions like an Intel 8088 processor, adding MS-DOS compatibility. Rising Star Industries was the primary American software vendor for the HASCI QX series, their product line included the TPM-II and III operating system, Valdocs, a robust Basic language implementation, a graphics API library used by a variety of products which supported line drawing and fill functions and was extended to support the QX-16 color boards, Z80 assembler, low level Zapple machine code monitor which could be invoked from dip switch setting on the rear of the machine.
The "Abacus" boots MS-DOS 2.11 from 64 KB ROM and has 3½" floppy drives. The sound chip and the joystick ports are more like a gamer's machine, its successor, the dual-processor QX-16, added a 16-bit Intel processor with Color Graphics Adapter enabling it to boot MS-DOS 2.11. The case of the QX-16 was enlarged to provide enough physical space for an internal hard-drive in contrast to the QX-10's dual-floppy configuration. VALuable DOCumentS by Rising Star Industries is a pseudo-GUI WYSIWYG integrated software/OS for document creation and management, written as a set of interactive application and system modules which ran only on Epson's QX-10 and QX-16 computers. A version designed to run on the IBM PC was in development when Rising Star closed in 1986. Valdocs shipped to beta testers c. late 1982. Beta and initial production releases of Valdocs' application modules were written in the Forth programming language while its system-oriented modules were written in Z-80 Assembly Language. Releases of Valdocs' applications were written in the C programming language with some modules written in compiled RSI Basic.
The initial release of Valdocs included WYSIWYG word processor and spreadsheet applications, a cardfile database, an E-Mail/communications module, a desktop manager with an address book, mailing list manager, spell checker, ValDraw & ValPaint and more. The E-Mail program worked in the background allowing mail to be sent by modem to another computer. Valdocs was one of the first environments that allowed users to embed items like spreadsheets and figures in word processing documents. Chris Rutkowski and Roger Amidon worked on the preliminary QX-10 design. Graphic and other software for the QX-10 and QX-16 were developed by program designers such as Dan Oja and Nelson Donley. Switching between programs was done by pressing an associated hotkey on the QX-10's keyboard or by selecting a program from a menu the hotkey invoked; the keyboard was referred to as HASCI after the user interface with the same name pioneered by Rising Star Industries. Valdocs on the QX-10 was slow and buggy. InfoWorld's 1983 review of the QX-10 described the software as "great idea, questionable implementation".
It reported. Sometimes it dawdles but other times, it crawls. Entering text becomes a disconcerting pastime when the screen display lags as many as 60 characters behind your typing, you lose characters"; the magazine added. We lost data each time, came close to losing a whole disk, ended up retyping it into our trusty IBM PC to meet deadline", it advised users to backup their files, but stated that since the process was so slow the computer encouraged them to avoid doing so until it was too late. While praising the QX-10 itself and Valdocs' ease of use, Jerry Pournelle wrote in BYTE in August 1983 that "the first problem is obvious from the other side of the room; the Valdocs system is slow. It seems to take forever to do disk operations... Getting from the beginning to the end of a six-page document takes 15 seconds. Deleting the first three pages of the same document takes 20 seconds", he believed that the software "has pushed the Zilog Z80 chip past its limits... I don't think Valdocs will run properly until something like the 8086 or 68000 is used".
In January 1984 Pournelle reported that version 1.18 "is fast, it's not fast enough for me, my wife, or my assistant. In particular, it is not designed to be used as a substitute for an office machine, it takes too darned long to get a business letter out using Valdocs. Just getting the envelope addressed can take a full minute or longer." He reiterated that "the hardware is fine", but wondered if "the industry need yet another Z80 computer for more than $2500" without usable software. Pournelle concluded, "I cannot in good conscience recommend to anyone who has actual production work to perform. It's just too darned slow." The president of one QX-10 user gro
An image scanner—often abbreviated to just scanner, although the term is ambiguous out of context —is a device that optically scans images, printed text, handwriting or an object and converts it to a digital image. Used in offices are variations of the desktop flatbed scanner where the document is placed on a glass window for scanning. Hand-held scanners, where the device is moved by hand, have evolved from text scanning "wands" to 3D scanners used for industrial design, reverse engineering and measurement, orthotics and other applications. Mechanically driven scanners that move the document are used for large-format documents, where a flatbed design would be impractical. Modern scanners use a charge-coupled device or a contact image sensor as the image sensor, whereas drum scanners, developed earlier and still used for the highest possible image quality, use a photomultiplier tube as the image sensor. A rotary scanner, used for high-speed document scanning, is a type of drum scanner that uses a CCD array instead of a photomultiplier.
Non-contact planetary scanners photograph delicate books and documents. All these scanners produce two-dimensional images of subjects that are flat, but sometimes solid. Digital cameras can be used for the same purposes as dedicated scanners; when compared to a true scanner, a camera image is subject to a degree of distortion, shadows, low contrast, blur due to camera shake. Resolution is sufficient for less demanding applications. Digital cameras offer advantages of speed and non-contact digitizing of thick documents without damaging the book spine; as of 2010 scanning technologies were combining 3D scanners with digital cameras to create full-color, photo-realistic 3D models of objects. In the biomedical research area, detection devices for DNA microarrays are called scanners as well; these scanners are high-resolution systems. The detection is done via a photomultiplier tube. Modern scanners are considered the successors of early fax input devices; the pantelegraph was an early form of facsimile machine transmitting over normal telegraph lines developed by Giovanni Caselli, used commercially in the 1860s, the first such device to enter practical service.
It used electromagnets to drive and synchronize movement of pendulums at the source and the distant location, to scan and reproduce images. It could transmit handwriting, signatures, or drawings within an area of up to 150 × 100 mm. Édouard Belin's Belinograph of 1913, scanned using a photocell and transmitted over ordinary phone lines, formed the basis for the AT&T Wirephoto service. In Europe, services similar to a wirephoto were called a Belino, it was used by news agencies from the 1920s to the mid-1990s, consisted of a rotating drum with a single photodetector at a standard speed of 60 or 120 rpm. They send a linear analog AM signal through standard telephone voice lines to receptors, which synchronously print the proportional intensity on special paper. Color photos were sent as three separated RGB filtered images consecutively, but only for special events due to transmission costs. Drum scanners capture image information with photomultiplier tubes, rather than the charge-coupled device arrays found in flatbed scanners and inexpensive film scanners.
"Reflective and transmissive originals are mounted on an acrylic cylinder, the scanner drum, which rotates at high speed while it passes the object being scanned in front of precision optics that deliver image information to the PMTs. Modern color drum scanners use three matched PMTs, which read red and green light, respectively. Light from the original artwork is split into separate red and green beams in the optical bench of the scanner with dichroic filters." Photomultipliers offer superior dynamic range and for this reason drum scanners can extract more detail from dark shadow areas of a transparency than flatbed scanners using CCD sensors. The smaller dynamic range of the CCD sensors, versus photomultiplier tubes, can lead to loss of shadow detail when scanning dense transparency film. While mechanics vary by manufacturer, most drum scanners pass light from halogen lamps though a focusing system to illuminate both reflective and transmissive originals; the drum scanner gets its name from the clear acrylic cylinder, the drum, on which the original artwork is mounted for scanning.
Depending on size, it is possible to mount originals up to 20 by 28 inches, but maximum size varies by manufacturer. "One of the unique features of drum scanners is the ability to control sample area and aperture size independently. The sample size is the area; the aperture is the actual opening. The ability to control aperture and sample size separately is useful for smoothing film grain when scanning black-and-white and color negative originals."While drum scanners are capable of scanning both reflective and transmissive artwork, a good-quality flatbed scanner can produce good scans from reflective artwork. As a result, drum scanners are used to scan prints now that high-quality, inexpensive flatbed scanners are available. Film, however, is; because film can be wet-mounted to the scanner drum, which enhances sharpness and masks dust and scratches, because